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Introduction to Design. Introduction. Nature of design. The anatomy of a chemical manufacturing process. The organisation of a chemical engineering project. Project documentation. Codes and standards. Factors of safety (design factors). Systems of units. Degrees of freedom and design variables. The mathematical representation of the design problem. Optimisation. References. Nomenclature. Fundamentals of Material Balances. Introduction. The equivalence of mass and energy. Conservation of mass. Units used to express compositions. Stoichiometry. Choice of system boundary. Choice of basis for calculations. Number of independent components. Constraints on flows and compositions. General algebraic method. Tie components. Excess reagent. Conversion and yield. Recycle processes. Purge. By-pass. Unsteady-state calculations. General procedure for material balance problems. References (further reading). Nomenclature. Fundamentals of Energy Balances. Introduction. Conservation of energy. Forms of energy (per unit mass of material.) The energy balance. Calculation of specific enthalpy. Mean heat capacities. The effect of pressure on heat capacity. Enthalpy of mixtures. Enthalpy-concentration diagrams. Heats of reaction. Standard heats of formation. Heats of combustion. Compression and expansion of gases. A simple energy balance program. Unsteady state energy balances. Energy recovery. Process integration and pinch technology. References. Nomenclature. Flow-sheeting. Introduction. Flow-sheet presentation. Manual flow-sheet calculations. Computer-aided flow-sheeting. Full steady-state simulation programs. Simple material balance programs. References. Nomenclature. Piping and Instrumentation. Introduction. The P & I diagram. Valve selection. Pumps. Mechanical design of piping systems. Pipe size selection. Control and instrumentation. Typical control systems. Alarms and safety trips, and interlocks. Computers and microprocessors in process control. References. Nomenclature. Costing and Project Evaluation. Introduction. Accuracy and purpose of capital cost estimates. Fixed and working capital. Cost escalation (inflation). Rapid capital cost estimating methods. The factorial method of cost estimation. Estimation of purchased equipment costs. Summary of the factorial method. Operating costs. Economic evaluation of projects. Computer method for costing and project evaluation. References. Nomenclature. Materials of Construction. Introduction. Material properties. Mechanical properties. Corrosion resistance. Selection for corrosion resistance. Material costs. Contamination. Commonly used materials of construction. Plastics as materials of construction for chemical plant. Ceramic materials (silicate materials). Carbon. Protective coatings. Design for corrosion resistance. References. Nomenclature. Design Information and Data. Introduction. Sources of information on manufacturing processes. General sources of physical properties. Accuracy required of engineering data. Prediction of physical properties. Density. Viscosity. Thermal conductivity. Specific heat capacity. Enthalpy of vaporisation (latent heat). Vapour pressure. Diffusion coefficients (diffusivities). Surface tension. Critical constants. Enthalpy of reaction and enthalpy of formation. Phase equilibrium data. References. Nomenclature. Safety and Loss Prevention. Introduction. Intrinsic and extrinsic safety. The hazards. Dow fire and explosion index. Hazard and operability studies. Hazard analysis. Acceptable risk and safety priorities. Safety check lists. Major hazards. References. Equipment Selection, Specification and Design. Introduction. Separation processes. Solid-solid separations. Liquid-solid (solid-liquid) separators. Separation of dissolved solids. Liquid-liquid separation. Separation of dissolved liquids. Gas-solids separations (gas cleaning). Gas-liquid separators. Crushing and grinding (comminution) equipment. Mixing equipment. Transport and storage of materials. Reactors. References. Nomenclature. Separation Columns (Distillation and Absorption). Introduction. Continuous distillation: process description. Continuous distillation: basic principles. Design variables in distillation. Design methods for binary systems. Multicomponent distillation: general considerations. Multicomponent distillation: short-cut methods for stage and reflux requirements. Multicomponent systems: rigorous solution procedures (computer methods). Batch distillation. Plate efficiency. Approximate column sizing. Plate contractors. Plate hydraulic design. Packed columns. Column auxiliaries. References. Nomenclature. Heat-transfer Equipment. Introduction. Basic design procedure and theory. Overall heat-transfer coefficient. Fouling factors (dirt factors). Shell and tube exchangers: construction details. Mean temperature difference (temperature driving force). Shell and tube exchangers: general design considerations. Tube-side heat-transfer coefficient and pressure drop (single phase). Shell-side heat-transfer and pressure drop (single phase). Condensers. Reboilers and vaporisers. Plate heat exchangers. Direct-contact heat exchangers. Finned tubes. Double-pipe heat exchangers. Air-cooled exchangers. Fired heaters (furnaces and boilers). Heat transfer to vessels. References. Nomenclature. Mechanical Design of Process Equipment. Introduction. Pressure vessel codes and standards. Fundamental principles and equations. General design considerations: pressure vessels. The design of thin-walled vessels under internal pressure. Compensation for openings and branches. Design of vessels subject to external pressure. Design of vessels subject to combined loading. Vessel supports. Bolt flanged joints. Heat-exchanger tube-plates. Welded joint design. Fatigue assessment of vessels. Pressure tests. High-pressure vessels. Liquid storage tanks. Mechanical design of centrifuges. References. Nomenclature. General Site Considerations. Introduction. Plant location and site selection. Site layout. Plant layout. Utilities. Environmental considerations. References. Appendix A: Graphical Symbols for Piping Systems and Plant. Appendix B: A Simple Flow-sheeting Program MASSBAL. Appendix C: Corrosion Chart. Appendix D: Physical Property Data Bank. Appendix E: Conversion Factors for Some Common SI Units. Appendix F: Standard Flanges. Appendix G: Design Projects. Appendix H: Equipment Specification (Data) Sheets. Appendix I: Enrgybal: A Simple Energy Balance Program. Appendix J: Typical Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Tube-sheet Layouts. Author Index. Subject Index.
This 2nd Edition of Coulson & Richardson's classic Chemical Engineering text provides a complete update and revision of Volume 6: An Introduction to Design. It provides a revised and updated introduction to the methodology and procedures for process design and process equipment selection and design for the chemical process and allied industries. It includes material on flow sheeting, piping and instrumentation, mechanical design of equipment, costing and project evaluation, safety and loss prevention. The material on safety and loss prevention and environmental protection has been revised to cover current procedures and legislation. Process integration and the use of heat pumps has been included in the chapter on energy utilisation. Additional material has been added on heat transfer equipment; agitated vessels are now covered and the discussion of fired heaters and plate heat exchangers extended. The appendices have been extended to include a computer program for energy balances, illustrations of equipment specification sheets and heat exchanger tube layout diagrams.
This 2nd Edition will continue to provide undergraduate students of chemical engineering, chemical engineers in industry and chemists and mechanical engineers, who have to tackle problems arising in the process industries, with a valuable text on how a complete process is designed and how it must be fitted into the environment.
For students on undergraduate courses in chemical engineering as well as graduates of other disciplines who are working in the chemical and process industries.
- © Pergamon 1993
- 1st January 1993
- eBook ISBN:
@qu:This book will be valuable for, not only undergraduate students, but also to chemical engineers in industry and chemists and mechanical engineers who have to tackle problems arising in the process industry. @source:Chemisty Industry Digest
Ray Sinnott's varied career, mainly in design and development, began with several major companies including Dupont and John Brown. The main areas covered within these appointments were: Gas Production and Distribution, Nuclear Energy, Elastomers and Textile fibres.
After his career in industry he joined the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Wales Swansea in 1970, specialising in teaching process and plant design, and other engineering practice subjects.
The first edition of Chemical Engineering Design (Coulson and Richardson’s Vol 6) was published in 1983. Subsequent editions have been published at approximately 5 year intervals.
Ray Sinnott retired from full time teaching in 1995 but has maintained close contact with the engineering profession.
Previously of the University of Wales, Swansea, UK
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