Chemical Energy and Exergy

1st Edition

An Introduction to Chemical Thermodynamics for Engineers

Authors: Norio Sato
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444516459
eBook ISBN: 9780080501000
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 31st March 2004
Page Count: 160
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This book is a beginners introduction to chemical thermodynamics for engineers. In the textbook efforts have been made to visualize as clearly as possible the main concepts of thermodynamic quantities such as enthalpy and entropy, thus making them more perceivable. Furthermore, intricate formulae in thermodynamics have been discussed as functionally unified sets of formulae to understand their meaning rather than to mathematically derive them in detail.

In this textbook, the affinity of irreversible processes, defined by the second law of thermodynamics, has been treated as the main subject, rather than the equilibrium of chemical reactions. The concept of affinity is applicable in general not only to the processes of chemical reactions but also to all kinds of irreversible processes.

This textbook also includes electrochemical thermodynamics in which, instead of the classical phenomenological approach, molecular science provides an advanced understanding of the reactions of charged particles such as ions and electrons at the electrodes. Recently, engineering thermodynamics has introduced a new thermodynamic potential called exergy, which essentially is related to the concept of the affinity of irreversible processes. This textbook discusses the relation between exergy and affinity and explains the exergy balance diagram and exergy vector diagram applicable to exergy analyses in chemical manufacturing processes. This textbook is written in the hope that the readers understand in a broad way the fundamental concepts of energy and exergy from chemical thermodynamics in practical applications. Finishing this book, the readers may easily step forward further into an advanced text of their specified line.

Key Features

  • Visualizes the main concepts of thermodynamics to show the meaning of the quantities and formulae.
  • Focuses mainly on the affinity of irreversible processes and the related concept of exergy.
  • Provides an advanced understanding of electrochemical thermodynamics.


Undergraduate and graduate students in thermodynamics (physics, chemistry and engineering) and chemists and engineers who wish to strengthen their foundation in chemical thermodynamics.

Table of Contents

Thermodynamic State Variables.
Thermodynamic systems.
Variables of the state.
Extensive and intensive variables. Partial molar quantities. The extent of a chemical reaction.

Conservation Of Energy.
Energy as a physical quantity of the state. Conservation of energy. Internal energy U with independent variables T, V, and.
Enthalpy H with independent variables T, p, and. Enthalpy and heat of reaction. Enthalpy of pure substances.

Entropy As A State Property. Introduction to entropy. Reversible and irreversible processes. The creation of entropy and uncompensated heat. The creation of entropy and thermodynamic potentials. Affinity of irreversible processes.
Entropy of pure substances. Entropy of heat transfer. Entropy of gas expansion. Entropy of mixing.

Affinity In Irreversible Processes. Affinity in chemical reactions.
Affinity and heat of reaction. The average heat of reaction. The average affinity of reaction.

Chemical Potential.
Thermodynamic potentials in open systems. The partial molar quantity of energy and the chemical potential. Chemical potentials and the affinity of reaction. Chemical potentials and thermodynamic energy functions. Chemical potentials in homogeneous mixtures: the Gibbs-Duhem equation. Chemical potentials of substances in ideal mixtures. Activity and activity coefficient. Chemical potentials of pure substances. Thermodynamic


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© Elsevier Science 2004
Elsevier Science
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About the Author

Norio Sato

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus at Hokkaido University, NS Electrochemical Laboratory, Japan.