Thermodynamic State Variables.
Variables of the state.
Extensive and intensive variables.
Partial molar quantities.
The extent of a chemical reaction.
Conservation Of Energy.
Energy as a physical quantity of the state.
Conservation of energy.
Internal energy U with independent variables T, V, and.
Enthalpy H with independent variables T, p, and.
Enthalpy and heat of reaction.
Enthalpy of pure substances.
Entropy As A State Property.
Introduction to entropy.
Reversible and irreversible processes.
The creation of entropy and uncompensated heat.
The creation of entropy and thermodynamic potentials.
Affinity of irreversible processes.
Entropy of pure substances.
Entropy of heat transfer.
Entropy of gas expansion.
Entropy of mixing.
Affinity In Irreversible Processes.
Affinity in chemical reactions.
Affinity and heat of reaction.
The average heat of reaction.
The average affinity of reaction.
Thermodynamic potentials in open systems.
The partial molar quantity of energy and the chemical potential.
Chemical potentials and the affinity of reaction.
Chemical potentials and thermodynamic energy functions.
Chemical potentials in homogeneous mixtures: the Gibbs-Duhem equation.
Chemical potentials of substances in ideal mixtures.
Activity and activity coefficient.
Chemical potentials of pure substances.