Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology - 3rd Edition - ISBN: 9780122636523, 9780080500935

Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology

3rd Edition

General Aspects

Editors: Patrick Fox Paul McSweeney Timothy Cogan Timothy Guinee
eBook ISBN: 9780080500935
Hardcover ISBN: 9780122636523
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 4th August 2004
Page Count: 640
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Description

The market for cheese as a food ingredient has increased rapidly in recent years and now represents upto approximately 50% of cheese production in some countries. Volume one is entitled General Aspects which will focus on general aspects on the principles of cheese science. This title contains up-to-date reviews of the literature on the chemical, biochemical, microbiological and physico-chemical aspects of cheese in general.

Cheese: Chemistry, Physics, and Microbiology Two-Volume Set, 3E is available for purchase as a set, and as well, so are the volumes individually.

Key Features

Reflects major advances in cheese science during the last decade Produced in a new 2-color format *Illustrated with numerous figures and tables

Readership

Senior graduates, post graduate students, industry R&D personnel, research institutes, and industrial quality control personnel.

Table of Contents

Foreword

List of Contributors

Preface to the First Edition

Preface to the Second Edition

Preface to the Third Edition

Cheese: An Overview

Historical

Cheese Science and Technology

Outline of Cheese Manufacture

Cheese Production and Consumption

Rennets: General and Molecular Aspects

Introduction

Chymosin and Other Aspartic Proteinases

Mechanism of Milk Clotting

Recombinant Calf Chymosin

Rennet-induced Coagulation of Milk

Introduction

Milk Properties

Primary Enzymatic Phase

Measurement of Clotting Time and Curd-Cutting Time

Kinetic Models of Rennet Coagulation

Adhesive Sphere Models and Viscosity

Development of Rheological Properties during Rennet Coagulation

Theoretical Basis of Viscoelasticity

Modelling the Gel-Firming Kinetics

Fractal Models of Rennet-Induced Milk Gels and Rearrangements

Milk Processing and Gel Formation

Conclusions

The Syneresis of Rennet-coagulated Curd

Introduction

Gel Formation and Properties

Syneresis

Concluding Remarks

Behaviour of Curd during Processing

Formation, Structural Properties and Rheology of Acid-coagulated Milk Gels

Introduction

Coagulation Mechanisms

Physical Properties of Acid-Induced Gels

Effects of Compositional and Processing Parameters on the Textural Properties of Acid Milk Gels

Acknowledgements

Starter Cultures: General Aspects

Taxonomy and Strain Identification

Types of Cultures

Genome Sequence

Metabolism of Starter Cultures

Preparation of Starters

Acknowledgement

Starter Cultures: Genetics

Introduction

Genetics of Mesophilic Starters

Genetics of Thermophilic Starters

Genomics of Starter Bacteria

Conclusion

Starter Cultures: Bacteriophage

Bacteriophage

Bacteriophage Multiplication

Bacteriophage of Lactic Acid Bacteria

Control of Bacteriophage in the Dairy Plant

Classification of LAB Bacteriophage

LAB Bacteriophage Epidemiology

Genome Organisation and Evolution of LAB Bacteriophage

Life Cycle of LAB Bacteriophage

Natural Bacteriophage Resistance Systems in LAB

Engineered Phage Resistance Systems

Secondary and Adjunct Cultures

Introduction

Yeast

Moulds

Coryneform Bacteria and Staphylococci

Propionic Acid Bacteria

Heterofermentative Lactobacilli

Salt in Cheese: Physical, Chemical and Biological Aspects

Introduction

Control of Microbial Growth

Influence of NaCl on Enzyme Activity in Cheese

Influence of NaCl on the Water Activity (aw) of Cheese

Overall Influence of NaCl on Cheese Ripening and Quality

Effect of NaCl on Casein Hydration and the Physical Properties of Cheese

Reduced Sodium Cheese

Salt Absorption and Diffusion into Cheese

Effect of Salt on Cheese Composition

Conclusion

Application of Membrane Separation Technology to Cheese Production

Introduction

Membrane Design and Configuration

Membrane Applications in Cheesemaking

Concluding Remarks

The Microbiology of Cheese Ripening

Introduction

Techniques used to Study Micro-organisms in Cheese

Source of Micro-organisms in Cheese

Factors Influencing Growth of Micro-organisms in Cheese

Starter Bacteria

Non-starter Bacteria

Propionic Acid Bacteria

Micrococcus and Staphylococcus

Moulds

Yeast

Surface Smear Micro-organisms

Summary

Raw Milk Cheeses

Introduction

Microbiological Aspects

Biochemical Aspects

Sensory Aspects

Conclusion

Biochemistry of Cheese Ripening: Introduction and Overview

Introduction

Glycolysis of Residual Lactose and Catabolism of Lactate

Lipolysis and Metabolism of Fatty Acids

Proteolysis and Catabolism of Amino Acids

Ripening Agents in Cheese

Acceleration of Cheese Ripening

Acknowledgements

Metabolism of Residual Lactose and of Lactate and Citrate

Metabolism of Lactose in Cheese

Changes to Lactate During Ripening

Citrate Metabolism

Lipolysis and Catabolism of Fatty Acids in Cheese

Introduction

Lipolytic Agents in Cheese

Catabolism of Fatty Acids and Other Reactions

Contribution of Lipolysis and Catabolism of FFA to Cheese Flavour

Patterns of Lipolysis in Various Cheese Varieties

Measurement of Lipolysis

Proteolysis in Cheese during Ripening

Introduction

Enzymes from the Coagulant

Indigenous Proteinases in Milk

Proteolytic Enzymes of LAB

Enzymes from Secondary Starter Microorganisms

Patterns of Proteolysis in Cheese

Methods for Monitoring Proteolysis in Cheese

Catabolism of Amino Acids in Cheese during Ripening

Introduction

Transamination of Amino Acids

Production of Volatile Sulphur Compounds by Amino Acid Catabolism

Catabolism of Aromatic Amino Acids

Catabolism of Branched-Chain Amino Acids

Deaminases

Decarboxylases

Catabolism of Other Amino Acids

Sensory Character of Cheese and its Evaluation

Introduction

A Definition of Sensory Character

Sensory Characteristics and Cheese Preferences

Cheesemaking and the Variety of Sensory Character

The Human Senses and the Sensory Properties of Cheese

Sensory Methods Used to Evaluate Cheese

Influence of Cheesemaking Variables on Sensory Character

Towards a Universal Cheese-Sensory Language

Relating Sensory Characteristics to Consumer Preferences

Relating Sensory Perception to Chemical Components and Instrumental Measurements

Conclusions

Cheese Flavour: Instrumental Techniques

Introduction

Characterisation of Aroma (Volatiles)

Characterisation of Sapid (Non-Volatile) Flavour Compounds

Dynamic Methods for Flavour Characterisation

Global and Fast Assessment of Cheese Flavour

Concluding Remarks

Rheology and Texture of Cheese

Introduction – Overview of Cheese Rheology and Texture

Terminology of Rheology and Texture

Rheological Measurements in Cheese: Sensoric Methods

Rheological Measurements in Cheese: Empirical Instrumental Methods

Fundamental Measurements: Oscillatory Rheometry for Linear Viscoelastic Measurements in Cheese

Fundamental Measurements: Large Strain Deformation

Measurement of Time-Dependent Rheological Characteristics

Effect of Sample Temperature on Large Strain Deformation Characteristics in Cheese

Techniques for Measurement of Viscosity

Terminology Applied to Cheese Texture

Conclusions

Glossary

Growth and Survival of Microbial Pathogens in Cheese

Introduction

Factors that Influence the Safety of Cheese

Previous Reviews on the Safety of Raw Milk Cheeses

Challenge Studies

Growth and Survival of Bacterial Pathogens in Soft and Semi-Soft Cheeses

Stress Adaptation of Pathogens and Impact upon Cheese Safety

Improvement in Cheese Safety

Future Research and Conclusions

Toxins in Cheese

Biogenic Amines and Mycotoxins

Biogenic Amines

Mycotoxins

Nutritional Aspects of Cheese

Introduction

Protein

Carbohydrate

Fat and Cholesterol

Vitamins

Minerals

Cheese and Dental Caries

Factors that Affect the Quality of Cheese

Introduction

Production of Rennet-Coagulated Cheese

Milk Supply

Coagulant (rennet)

Starter

Post-Coagulation Operations

Salting

Use of UF in Cheese Production

Ripening

Indigenous Enzymes

Coagulant

Starter

Non-Starter Lactic Acid Bacteria

Lactobacillus Species as Adjunct Cultures

Cheese Composition

Ripening Temperature

Conclusions

Index

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

Y

Details

No. of pages:
640
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2004
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780080500935
Hardcover ISBN:
9780122636523

About the Editor

Patrick Fox

Dr. Patrick Fox is Emeritus Professor of Food Chemistry at University College, Cork, Ireland. Prof. Fox's research has focused on the biochemistry of cheese, the heat stability of milk, physico-chemical properties of milk proteins and food enzymology. He has authored or co-authored about 450 research and review papers, authored or edited 25 text-books on Dairy Chemistry and was one of the founding editors of the International Dairy Journal. In recognition of his work, Prof Fox has received the Research & Innovation Award of the (Irish) National Board for Science and Technology (1983), the Miles-Marschall Award of the American Dairy Science Association (1987), Medal of Honour, University of Helsinki (1991), the DSc degree of the National University of Ireland (1993), the Senior Medal for Agricultural & Food Chemistry of the Royal Society for Chemistry (2000), the ISI Highly Cited Award in Agricultural Science (2002) and the International Dairy Federation Award for 2002. Prof Fox has been invited to lecture in various countries around the world, and has served in various capacities with the International Dairy Federation, including President of Commission F (Science, Nutrition and Education) from 1980 to 1983.

Affiliations and Expertise

University College Cork, Ireland

Paul McSweeney

Paul McSweeney is Professor of Food Chemistry in the Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College, Cork, Ireland (UCC). He graduated with a BSc (Hons) in Food Science and Technology in 1990 and a PhD in Food Chemistry from UCC in 1993 and also has an MA in Ancient Classics and a Post-Graduate Certificate in Teaching and Learning in Higher Education (2012). He spent seven months (Jan-Aug, 2014) as interim head of the College of Science, Engineering and Food Science in UCC. He worked for a year in the University of Wisconsin (1991-2) as part of PhD and as a post-doctoral research scientist in UCC (1993-4). He was appointed to the academic staff of UCC in 1995. Prof McSweeney is an experienced lecturer and researcher and has successfully managed research projects funded through the Food Industry Research Measure and its predecessors administered by the Irish Department of Agriculture and Food, the EU Framework programs, the US-Ireland Co-operative Program in Agriculture/Food Science and Technology, Bioresearch Ireland and industry. He was awarded the Marschall Danisco International Dairy Science Award of the American Dairy Science Association in 2004 and in 2009 a higher doctorate (DSc) on published work by the National University of Ireland.

Affiliations and Expertise

University College Cork, Ireland

Timothy Cogan

Affiliations and Expertise

Dairy Products Research Centre, Ireland

Timothy Guinee

Affiliations and Expertise

Teagasc, Ireland