Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology, Volume 1

Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology, Volume 1

General Aspects

3rd Edition - August 4, 2004

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  • Editors: Patrick Fox, Paul McSweeney, Timothy Cogan, Timothy Guinee
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080500935

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The market for cheese as a food ingredient has increased rapidly in recent years and now represents upto approximately 50% of cheese production in some countries. Volume one is entitled General Aspects which will focus on general aspects on the principles of cheese science. This title contains up-to-date reviews of the literature on the chemical, biochemical, microbiological and physico-chemical aspects of cheese in general. Cheese: Chemistry, Physics, and Microbiology Two-Volume Set, 3E is available for purchase as a set, and as well, so are the volumes individually.

Key Features

*Reflects major advances in cheese science during the last decade
*Produced in a new 2-color format
*Illustrated with numerous figures and tables


Senior graduates, post graduate students, industry R&D personnel, research institutes, and industrial quality control personnel.

Table of Contents

  • Foreword

    List of Contributors

    Preface to the First Edition

    Preface to the Second Edition

    Preface to the Third Edition

    Cheese: An Overview


    Cheese Science and Technology

    Outline of Cheese Manufacture

    Cheese Production and Consumption

    Rennets: General and Molecular Aspects


    Chymosin and Other Aspartic Proteinases

    Mechanism of Milk Clotting

    Recombinant Calf Chymosin

    Rennet-induced Coagulation of Milk


    Milk Properties

    Primary Enzymatic Phase

    Measurement of Clotting Time and Curd-Cutting Time

    Kinetic Models of Rennet Coagulation

    Adhesive Sphere Models and Viscosity

    Development of Rheological Properties during Rennet Coagulation

    Theoretical Basis of Viscoelasticity

    Modelling the Gel-Firming Kinetics

    Fractal Models of Rennet-Induced Milk Gels and Rearrangements

    Milk Processing and Gel Formation


    The Syneresis of Rennet-coagulated Curd


    Gel Formation and Properties


    Concluding Remarks

    Behaviour of Curd during Processing

    Formation, Structural Properties and Rheology of Acid-coagulated Milk Gels


    Coagulation Mechanisms

    Physical Properties of Acid-Induced Gels

    Effects of Compositional and Processing Parameters on the Textural Properties of Acid Milk Gels


    Starter Cultures: General Aspects

    Taxonomy and Strain Identification

    Types of Cultures

    Genome Sequence

    Metabolism of Starter Cultures

    Preparation of Starters


    Starter Cultures: Genetics


    Genetics of Mesophilic Starters

    Genetics of Thermophilic Starters

    Genomics of Starter Bacteria


    Starter Cultures: Bacteriophage


    Bacteriophage Multiplication

    Bacteriophage of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Control of Bacteriophage in the Dairy Plant

    Classification of LAB Bacteriophage

    LAB Bacteriophage Epidemiology

    Genome Organisation and Evolution of LAB Bacteriophage

    Life Cycle of LAB Bacteriophage

    Natural Bacteriophage Resistance Systems in LAB

    Engineered Phage Resistance Systems

    Secondary and Adjunct Cultures




    Coryneform Bacteria and Staphylococci

    Propionic Acid Bacteria

    Heterofermentative Lactobacilli

    Salt in Cheese: Physical, Chemical and Biological Aspects


    Control of Microbial Growth

    Influence of NaCl on Enzyme Activity in Cheese

    Influence of NaCl on the Water Activity (aw) of Cheese

    Overall Influence of NaCl on Cheese Ripening and Quality

    Effect of NaCl on Casein Hydration and the Physical Properties of Cheese

    Reduced Sodium Cheese

    Salt Absorption and Diffusion into Cheese

    Effect of Salt on Cheese Composition


    Application of Membrane Separation Technology to Cheese Production


    Membrane Design and Configuration

    Membrane Applications in Cheesemaking

    Concluding Remarks

    The Microbiology of Cheese Ripening


    Techniques used to Study Micro-organisms in Cheese

    Source of Micro-organisms in Cheese

    Factors Influencing Growth of Micro-organisms in Cheese

    Starter Bacteria

    Non-starter Bacteria

    Propionic Acid Bacteria

    Micrococcus and Staphylococcus



    Surface Smear Micro-organisms


    Raw Milk Cheeses


    Microbiological Aspects

    Biochemical Aspects

    Sensory Aspects


    Biochemistry of Cheese Ripening: Introduction and Overview


    Glycolysis of Residual Lactose and Catabolism of Lactate

    Lipolysis and Metabolism of Fatty Acids

    Proteolysis and Catabolism of Amino Acids

    Ripening Agents in Cheese

    Acceleration of Cheese Ripening


    Metabolism of Residual Lactose and of Lactate and Citrate

    Metabolism of Lactose in Cheese

    Changes to Lactate During Ripening

    Citrate Metabolism

    Lipolysis and Catabolism of Fatty Acids in Cheese


    Lipolytic Agents in Cheese

    Catabolism of Fatty Acids and Other Reactions

    Contribution of Lipolysis and Catabolism of FFA to Cheese Flavour

    Patterns of Lipolysis in Various Cheese Varieties

    Measurement of Lipolysis

    Proteolysis in Cheese during Ripening


    Enzymes from the Coagulant

    Indigenous Proteinases in Milk

    Proteolytic Enzymes of LAB

    Enzymes from Secondary Starter Microorganisms

    Patterns of Proteolysis in Cheese

    Methods for Monitoring Proteolysis in Cheese

    Catabolism of Amino Acids in Cheese during Ripening


    Transamination of Amino Acids

    Production of Volatile Sulphur Compounds by Amino Acid Catabolism

    Catabolism of Aromatic Amino Acids

    Catabolism of Branched-Chain Amino Acids



    Catabolism of Other Amino Acids

    Sensory Character of Cheese and its Evaluation


    A Definition of Sensory Character

    Sensory Characteristics and Cheese Preferences

    Cheesemaking and the Variety of Sensory Character

    The Human Senses and the Sensory Properties of Cheese

    Sensory Methods Used to Evaluate Cheese

    Influence of Cheesemaking Variables on Sensory Character

    Towards a Universal Cheese-Sensory Language

    Relating Sensory Characteristics to Consumer Preferences

    Relating Sensory Perception to Chemical Components and Instrumental Measurements


    Cheese Flavour: Instrumental Techniques


    Characterisation of Aroma (Volatiles)

    Characterisation of Sapid (Non-Volatile) Flavour Compounds

    Dynamic Methods for Flavour Characterisation

    Global and Fast Assessment of Cheese Flavour

    Concluding Remarks

    Rheology and Texture of Cheese

    Introduction – Overview of Cheese Rheology and Texture

    Terminology of Rheology and Texture

    Rheological Measurements in Cheese: Sensoric Methods

    Rheological Measurements in Cheese: Empirical Instrumental Methods

    Fundamental Measurements: Oscillatory Rheometry for Linear Viscoelastic Measurements in Cheese

    Fundamental Measurements: Large Strain Deformation

    Measurement of Time-Dependent Rheological Characteristics

    Effect of Sample Temperature on Large Strain Deformation Characteristics in Cheese

    Techniques for Measurement of Viscosity

    Terminology Applied to Cheese Texture



    Growth and Survival of Microbial Pathogens in Cheese


    Factors that Influence the Safety of Cheese

    Previous Reviews on the Safety of Raw Milk Cheeses

    Challenge Studies

    Growth and Survival of Bacterial Pathogens in Soft and Semi-Soft Cheeses

    Stress Adaptation of Pathogens and Impact upon Cheese Safety

    Improvement in Cheese Safety

    Future Research and Conclusions

    Toxins in Cheese

    Biogenic Amines and Mycotoxins

    Biogenic Amines


    Nutritional Aspects of Cheese




    Fat and Cholesterol



    Cheese and Dental Caries

    Factors that Affect the Quality of Cheese


    Production of Rennet-Coagulated Cheese

    Milk Supply

    Coagulant (rennet)


    Post-Coagulation Operations


    Use of UF in Cheese Production


    Indigenous Enzymes



    Non-Starter Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Lactobacillus Species as Adjunct Cultures

    Cheese Composition

    Ripening Temperature


























Product details

  • No. of pages: 640
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2004
  • Published: August 4, 2004
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080500935

About the Editors

Patrick Fox

Dr. Patrick Fox is Emeritus Professor of Food Chemistry at University College, Cork, Ireland. Prof. Fox's research has focused on the biochemistry of cheese, the heat stability of milk, physico-chemical properties of milk proteins and food enzymology. He has authored or co-authored about 450 research and review papers, authored or edited 25 text-books on Dairy Chemistry and was one of the founding editors of the International Dairy Journal. In recognition of his work, Prof Fox has received the Research & Innovation Award of the (Irish) National Board for Science and Technology (1983), the Miles-Marschall Award of the American Dairy Science Association (1987), Medal of Honour, University of Helsinki (1991), the DSc degree of the National University of Ireland (1993), the Senior Medal for Agricultural & Food Chemistry of the Royal Society for Chemistry (2000), the ISI Highly Cited Award in Agricultural Science (2002) and the International Dairy Federation Award for 2002. Prof Fox has been invited to lecture in various countries around the world, and has served in various capacities with the International Dairy Federation, including President of Commission F (Science, Nutrition and Education) from 1980 to 1983.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor of Food Chemistry, University College Cork, Ireland

Paul McSweeney

Paul McSweeney
Paul McSweeney is Professor of Food Chemistry in the Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College, Cork, Ireland (UCC). He graduated with a BSc (Hons) in Food Science and Technology in 1990 and a PhD in Food Chemistry from UCC in 1993 and also has an MA in Ancient Classics and a Post-Graduate Certificate in Teaching and Learning in Higher Education (2012). He spent seven months (Jan-Aug, 2014) as interim head of the College of Science, Engineering and Food Science in UCC. He worked for a year in the University of Wisconsin (1991-2) as part of PhD and as a post-doctoral research scientist in UCC (1993-4). He was appointed to the academic staff of UCC in 1995. Prof McSweeney is an experienced lecturer and researcher and has successfully managed research projects funded through the Food Industry Research Measure and its predecessors administered by the Irish Department of Agriculture and Food, the EU Framework programs, the US-Ireland Co-operative Program in Agriculture/Food Science and Technology, Bioresearch Ireland and industry. He was awarded the Marschall Danisco International Dairy Science Award of the American Dairy Science Association in 2004 and in 2009 a higher doctorate (DSc) on published work by the National University of Ireland.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Food Chemistry, Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Ireland

Timothy Cogan

Affiliations and Expertise

Dairy Products Research Centre, Ireland

Timothy Guinee

Affiliations and Expertise

Teagasc, Ireland

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