Characterization of Biomaterials - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781845698102, 9780857093684

Characterization of Biomaterials

1st Edition

Editors: M Jaffe W. Hammond P Tolias T Arinzeh
Hardcover ISBN: 9781845698102
eBook ISBN: 9780857093684
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 19th December 2012
Page Count: 334
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Table of Contents

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Chapter 1: Microscopy techniques for analyzing the phase nature and morphology of biomaterials

Abstract:

1 Introduction: basic imaging concepts

1.2 Image perception and interpretation

1.3 Light microscopy

1.4 Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM)

1.5 Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

1.6 Atomic force microscopy (AFM)

Chapter 2: Scattering techniques for structural analysis of biomaterials

Abstract:

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Light scattering

2.3 Wide-angle X-ray diffraction

2.4 Measuring orientation using X-ray diffraction

2.5 Small-angle scattering techniques

2.6 Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)

2.7 Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS)

2.8 Acknowledgment

Chapter 3: Quantitative assays for measuring cell adhesion and motility in biomaterials

Abstract:

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Cell attachment assays

3.3 Cell adhesion strength

3.4 Collective motility of cell populations

3.5 Individual cell motility

3.6 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 4: Assays for determining cell differentiation in biomaterials

Abstract:

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) assays

4.3 Protein and chemical assays

4.4 Imaging assays

4.5 Future trends

Chapter 5: Bioreactors for evaluating cell infiltration and tissue formation in biomaterials

Abstract:

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Bioreactor designs

5.3 Evaluation of cell infiltration and cell seeding

5.4 Evaluation of tissue formation

5.5 Importance of computational fluid mechanics in modeling, imaging, and simulation of the bioreactors

5.6 Failure of bioreactors

5.7 Future trends

5.8 Conclusion

5.9 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 6: Studying molecular-scale protein–surface interactions in biomaterials

Abstract:

6.1 Introduction: surface-induced thrombosis on artificial surfaces

6.2 Process and changes during protein adsorption

6.3 Factors affecting protein adsorption

6.4 Models of protein adsorption and adsorption isotherms

6.5 Protein adsorption kinetics

6.6 The Vroman effect

6.7 Structure and functions of fibrinogen

6.8 Intermolecular forces and interactions

6.9 Adsorption profile and interfacial kinetics

6.10 Competitive adsorption

6.11 Atomic force microscopy (AFM)

6.12 Interfacial properties of fibrinogen studied by AFM

6.13 Future trends

6.14 Conclusion

Chapter 7: Assessing the mutagenic effects of biomaterials: analyzing the cellular genome and abnormalities

Abstract:

7.1 Introduction

7.2 DNA structure

7.3 Genetic mutations

7.4 Cytogenetic mutations

7.5 Types of mutations that can occur at the chromosomal level

7.6 Methods of detection of cytogenetic mutations

7.7 Analyzing genomic organization and variations in genomic copy number

7.8 Copy number variations (CNVs)

7.9 Epigenetic effects on the genome

7.10 Effects of biomaterials on mutagenesis

7.11 Conclusion

Chapter 8: Using microarrays to measure cellular changes induced by biomaterials

Abstract:

8.1 Introduction

8.2 What do we measure?

8.3 Normalization

8.4 Analysis

8.5 Conclusion

Chapter 9: Standards and methods for assessing the safety and biocompatibility of biomaterials

Abstract:

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Regulatory definition of medical devices

9.3 International Standards Organization (ISO) regulation and guidance

9.4 United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation and guidance

9.5 Regulation and guidance in Japan and other countries

9.6 Biological tests

9.7 Phasing (timing) of non-clinical testing of medical devices

Index


Description

Contributor contact details

Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles

Chapter 1: Microscopy techniques for analyzing the phase nature and morphology of biomaterials

Abstract:

1 Introduction: basic imaging concepts

1.2 Image perception and interpretation

1.3 Light microscopy

1.4 Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM)

1.5 Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

1.6 Atomic force microscopy (AFM)

Chapter 2: Scattering techniques for structural analysis of biomaterials

Abstract:

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Light scattering

2.3 Wide-angle X-ray diffraction

2.4 Measuring orientation using X-ray diffraction

2.5 Small-angle scattering techniques

2.6 Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)

2.7 Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS)

2.8 Acknowledgment

Chapter 3: Quantitative assays for measuring cell adhesion and motility in biomaterials

Abstract:

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Cell attachment assays

3.3 Cell adhesion strength

3.4 Collective motility of cell populations

3.5 Individual cell motility

3.6 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 4: Assays for determining cell differentiation in biomaterials

Abstract:

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) assays

4.3 Protein and chemical assays

4.4 Imaging assays

4.5 Future trends

Chapter 5: Bioreactors for evaluating cell infiltration and tissue formation in biomaterials

Abstract:

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Bioreactor designs

5.3 Evaluation of cell infiltration and cell seeding

5.4 Evaluation of tissue formation

5.5 Importance of computational fluid mechanics in modeling, imaging, and simulation of the bioreactors

5.6 Failure of bioreactors

5.7 Future trends

5.8 Conclusion

5.9 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 6: Studying molecular-scale protein–surface interactions in biomaterials

Abstract:

6.1 Introduction: surface-induced thrombosis on artificial surfaces

6.2 Process and changes during protein adsorption

6.3 Factors affecting protein adsorption

6.4 Models of protein adsorption and adsorption isotherms

6.5 Protein adsorption kinetics

6.6 The Vroman effect

6.7 Structure and functions of fibrinogen

6.8 Intermolecular forces and interactions

6.9 Adsorption profile and interfacial kinetics

6.10 Competitive adsorption

6.11 Atomic force microscopy (AFM)

6.12 Interfacial properties of fibrinogen studied by AFM

6.13 Future trends

6.14 Conclusion

Chapter 7: Assessing the mutagenic effects of biomaterials: analyzing the cellular genome and abnormalities

Abstract:

7.1 Introduction

7.2 DNA structure

7.3 Genetic mutations

7.4 Cytogenetic mutations

7.5 Types of mutations that can occur at the chromosomal level

7.6 Methods of detection of cytogenetic mutations

7.7 Analyzing genomic organization and variations in genomic copy number

7.8 Copy number variations (CNVs)

7.9 Epigenetic effects on the genome

7.10 Effects of biomaterials on mutagenesis

7.11 Conclusion

Chapter 8: Using microarrays to measure cellular changes induced by biomaterials

Abstract:

8.1 Introduction

8.2 What do we measure?

8.3 Normalization

8.4 Analysis

8.5 Conclusion

Chapter 9: Standards and methods for assessing the safety and biocompatibility of biomaterials

Abstract:

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Regulatory definition of medical devices

9.3 International Standards Organization (ISO) regulation and guidance

9.4 United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation and guidance

9.5 Regulation and guidance in Japan and other countries

9.6 Biological tests

9.7 Phasing (timing) of non-clinical testing of medical devices

Index

Key Features

  • Reviews the latest methods for analyzing the structure, properties and behaviour of biomaterials
  • Discusses scattering techniques for structural analysis, quantitative assays for measuring cell adhesion, and motility and differentiation
  • Examines the evaluation of cell infiltration and tissue formation using bioreactors

Readership

Industrial and academic researchers in the biomedical sector


Details

No. of pages:
334
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Woodhead Publishing 2013
Published:
Imprint:
Woodhead Publishing
eBook ISBN:
9780857093684
Hardcover ISBN:
9781845698102
Paperback ISBN:
9780081016244

Reviews

"...a collection of topics fundamental for the characterization of biomaterials, contributed by the experts in the respective fields...very well-written and useful overview, suitable for specialists as well as researchers new to the field."--Biomat.net, March 2013

A brief, yet very well-written and useful overview, suitable for specialists as well as researchers new to the field., Dr. Aleksandr Ovsianikov, The Biomaterials Network.


About the Editors

M Jaffe Editor

Professor Michael Jaffe was with Celanese and Hoechst Celanese Research in the USA before leaving for the Biomedical Engineering Department at New Jersey Institute of Technology.

Affiliations and Expertise

New Jersey Institute of Technology, USA

W. Hammond Editor

Willis B. Hammond is a Research Professor in the Department of Biomedical Engineering at NJIT.

Affiliations and Expertise

Major and Chief MLSO, Royal Army Medical College, Millbank, London, UK

P Tolias Editor

Peter Tolias is Director of the Bio-innovation Program and a Research Professor in the Schaefer School of Engineering and Science at the Stevens Institute of Technology, USA.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Medicine and Dentistry New Jersey

T Arinzeh Editor

Treena Arinzeh is Professor of Biomedical Engineering at NJIT.

Affiliations and Expertise

New Jersey Institute of Technology, USA