One of the key challenges current biomaterials researchers face is identifying which of the dizzying number of highly specialized characterization tools can be gainfully applied to different materials and biomedical devices. Since this diverse marketplace of tools and techniques can be used for numerous applications, choosing the proper characterization tool is highly important, saving both time and resources.

Characterization of Biomaterials is a detailed and multidisciplinary discussion of the physical, chemical, mechanical, surface, in vitro and in vivo characterization tools and techniques of increasing importance to fundamental biomaterials research.

Characterization of Biomaterials will serve as a comprehensive resource for biomaterials researchers requiring detailed information on physical, chemical, mechanical, surface, and in vitro or in vivo characterization. The book is designed for materials scientists, bioengineers, biologists, clinicians and biomedical device researchers seeking input on planning on how to test their novel materials, structures or biomedical devices to a specific application. Chapters are developed considering the need for industrial researchers as well as academics.

Key Features

  • Biomaterials researchers come from a wide variety of disciplines: this book will help them to analyze their materials and devices taking advantage of the multiple experiences on offer.
  • Coverage encompasses a cross-section of the physical sciences, biological sciences, engineering and applied sciences characterization community, providing gainful and cross-cutting insight into this highly multi-disciplinary field.
  • Detailed coverage of important test protocols presents specific examples and standards for applied characterization


Graduate level biomaterials scientists, tissue engineers, stem cell and regenerative medicine researchers, and biomedical researchers

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Chapter 1. Introduction to Biomaterials

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Types of Materials

1.3 Biomaterials and Biocompatibility

1.4 Types of Biomaterials

1.5 Properties of Biomaterials

1.6 Biomaterials Characterization and Outline of this Book

1.7 Summary

Suggested Further Reading

Chapter 2. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Biomaterials

2.1 Microstructural Characterization

2.2 Scanning Probe Microscopy

2.3 X-ray Diffraction and Scattering Methods

2.4 FT-IR Spectroscopy

2.5 DLS Techniques

2.6 Contact Angle Measurements

2.7 Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry

2.8 Gas Adsorption Measurements

2.9 Summary


Chapter 3. Mechanical Characterization of Biomaterials

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Fundamental Concepts

3.3 Specimens

3.4 Application and Measurement of Load and Deformation

3.5 Environment

3.6 Data Acquisition and Analysis



Chapter 4. Surface Characterization of Biomaterials

4.1 X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

4.2 Auger Electron Spectroscopy

4.3 Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS)

4.4 Surface Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry

4.5 Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy

4.6 Raman Spectroscopy

4.7 Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

4.8 Ultraviolet–Visible Spectroscopy

4.9 Light Microscopy and Confocal Microscopy

4.10 Scanning Electron Microscopy

4.11 Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy

4.12 Profilometry

4.13 Contact Angle Measurement

4.14 Ellipsometry

4.15 Conclusions


Chapter 5.1. In Vitro Characterization of Cell–Biomaterials Interactions

5.1.1 Introduct


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About the authors

Amit Bandyopadhyay

Prof. Bandyopadhyay is Herman and Brita Lindholm Endowed Chair Professor at the School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University (WSU), also a Fellow of the National Academy of Inventors (NAI), American Ceramic Society (ACerS), American Society for Materials (ASM International), American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering (AIMBE) and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). He has published over 250 technical papers including over 170 journal papers. He holds 11 US patents and several patent applications are currently pending at the United States Patent and Trademark Office. He has edited 8 books.His research expertise lies with additive manufacturing of metallic and ceramic materials and their composites towards structural, bio- and piezoelectric materials.

Susmita Bose

Susmita Bose is a Professor in the School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, an affiliate professor in the Department of Chemistry at Washington State University (WSU). In 2004, Dr. Bose received the prestigious Presidential Early Career Award for Scientist and Engineers (PECASE, the highest honor given to a young scientist by the US President at the White House) award from the National Science Foundation. Dr. Bose was named as a “Kavli fellow” by the National Academy of Sciences. In 2009, she received the prestigious Schwartzwalder-Professional Achievement in Ceramic Engineering (PACE) Award, and in 2014 Richard M. Fulrath Award, which is an international award given to one academician in the US annually (below age 45), from the American Ceramic Society. Dr. Bose is editorial board member for several international journals, including Acta Biomaterialia , Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Journal of Materials Chemistry B, International Journal of Nanomedicine and Additive Manufacturing. Dr. Bose has published over 200 technical papers with ~ 5000 citations, “h” index 40. Dr. Bose is a fellow of the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering (AIMBE) and the American Ceramic Society (ACerS).