Changing Brains

Changing Brains

Applying Brain Plasticity to Advance and Recover Human Ability

1st Edition - December 3, 2013
This is the Latest Edition
  • Editors: Michael Merzenich, Mor Nahum, Tom van Vleet
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444633279
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444633347

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Description

This volume of Progress in Brain Research focuses on the applying brain plasticity to advance and recover human ability. The volume starts off discussing brain plasticity in the young, adults and old brains with follow on discussions regarding the type of neuroscience-based training that is on offer in impaired child populations as well as discussing the therapeutics involved in adults.

Key Features

  • Applying brain Plasticity and advances and recover human ability

Readership

Neuroscientists, psychologists, neurologists

Table of Contents

  • Series Page

    Contributors

    Introduction

    Neuroplasticity

    References

    Further Reading

    Part 1: Brain Plasticity Across the Lifespan

    Chapter 1. Balancing Plasticity/Stability Across Brain Development

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Critical Periods: Pruning Circuits by Early Experience

    3 Critical Period Plasticity of Excitatory and Inhibitory Circuits

    4 Critical Period Triggers and Brakes

    5 Critical Period Gating

    6 Implications

    7 Future Directions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 2. Brain Plasticity in the Developing Brain

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Stages of Brain Development

    3 General types of brain plasticity

    4 Factors Influencing Brain Development in the Normal Brain

    5 Brain Development After Early Brain Injury

    6 Unilateral Versus Bilateral Injury

    7 Factors Influencing Brain Development in the Injured Brain

    8 Summary

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 3. Cortical Plasticity, Excitatory–Inhibitory Balance, and Sensory Perception

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Encoding Sensory Environments in Cortical Neural Circuits

    3 Effects of Neuromodulation on Plasticity in Adult Sensory Cortices

    4 Commonalities and differences between developmental and adult plasticity in sensory cortices

    5 Improving Perception by Manipulating Neuromodulation

    6 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 4. Changes in Plasticity Across the Lifespan: Cause of Disease and Target for Intervention

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Importance of plasticity for brain health across the lifespan

    3 Disease as a manifestation of aberrant plasticity at different times in the lifespan

    4 The use of TMS as a novel treatment strategy for neuropsychiatric disorders of plasticity

    5 Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 5. What does It take to Show that a Cognitive Training Procedure is Useful?: A Critical Evaluation

    Abstract

    1 What is a Good Control?

    2 Interpreting Correlations in Gains

    3 What do Studies of “Neural Correlates” Tell Us?

    4 How Large are the Magnitudes of Gains in Untrained Conditions?

    5 Conclusions and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 6. Principles of Neuroplasticity-Based Rehabilitation

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Part 1: Principles of Brain Plasticity; Premises for Therapeutic Tool Development

    3 Part 2: Designing Programs Targeting Specific Clinical Indications

    4 Part 3: Evaluating Program Playability and Efficacy

    5 Part 4: Examples of Practical Therapeutic Tools Constructed Following These Principles

    6 Conclusions

    References

    Part 2: Brain Plasticity-Based Therapies for the Treatment of Developmental Disorders

    Chapter 7. Fast ForWord®: The Birth of the Neurocognitive Training Revolution

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Integrating Research on Language Development and Disorders with Neuroplasticity Research

    3 Integrating Neuroplasticity-Based Training Research with Research on Individual Differences in Language Development

    4 The Birth of Fast ForWord®: Translating Theory into Practice

    5 Designing Neuroplasticity-Based Training Games

    6 The First Laboratory Studies: Rutgers Summer Camps 1994–1995

    7 Scaling up: The “Neurotherapeutic Revolution” Fast ForWord® Language Version 1 (v1)

    8 The Fast ForWord® Reading Series

    9 Independent Agency Evaluations of Fast ForWord® Products

    10 Cognitive Neurotherapeutics: The Challenges of Translation

    References

    Chapter 8. Music Training for the Development of Reading Skills

    Abstract

    1 Phonological awareness

    2 Speech in background noise

    3 Rhythm

    4 Auditory working memory

    5 Learning sound patterns

    6 Summary and limitations of cross-sectional studies

    7 Longitudinal music training studies

    8 Experimental studies without random assignment

    9 Experimental studies with random assignment

    10 Why music?

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 9. Mechanisms of Plasticity in the Developing and Adult Visual Cortex

    Abstract

    1 Visual Cortex Plasticity During Development

    2 Plasticity in the Adult Visual Cortex

    3 Common Principles of Developmental and Adult Plasticity

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 10. Brain Mechanisms of Plasticity in Response to Treatments for Core Deficits in Autism

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 The Typical and Atypical Social Brain

    3 Treatment Overview

    4 Neural Response to ASD Treatment

    5 Summary and Future Directions

    References

    Part 3: Brain Plasticity-Based Therapeutics for the Treatment of Clinical Indications in the Adult Brain

    Chapter 11. Targeting Plasticity with Vagus Nerve Stimulation to Treat Neurological Disease

    Abstract

    1 Neural plasticity in the context of neurological dysfunction

    2 Neuromodulatory control of plasticity and memory

    3 Harnessing plasticity with vagus nerve stimulation

    4 Applying targeted plasticity to treat disease

    5 Mechanisms of targeted plasticity directed by VNS

    6 Targeted plasticity requires less VNS than approved protocols

    7 Future applications

    8 Concluding remarks

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 12. Computerized Cognitive Training Targeting Brain Plasticity in Schizophrenia

    Abstract

    1 Neurocognitive Impairments in Schizophrenia

    2 Shifting the View of Schizophrenia from Neurodegeneration to Neuroplasticity and Recovery

    3 Computerized Cognitive Training in Schizophrenia: Behavioral Results

    4 Computerized Cognitive Training in Schizophrenia: Neurobiological Results

    5 Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 13. The Nonspatial Side of Spatial Neglect and Related Approaches to Treatment

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Spatial Deficits in Neglect

    3 Theoretical Accounts of Lateralized Spatial Deficits in Neglect

    4 Nonspatially Lateralized Deficits in Neglect and Nonspatial/Spatial Interactions

    5 Theoretical Accounts of Nonspatial Deficits and Nonspatial/Spatial Interactions

    6 Treatments for Neglect

    7 Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 14. A Cognitive Framework for Understanding and Improving Interference Resolution in the Brain

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 External Interference Resolution Across the Lifespan

    3 Internal Interference Resolution Across the Lifespan

    4 Neuroplasticity-Targeted Interventions for the Recovery of Deficits in Interference Resolution

    5 Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 15. Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: A Method for Harnessing Neuroplasticity to Treat Motor Disorders

    Abstract

    1 Recovery of Function After Unilateral Forelimb Deafferentation in Primates

    2 Initial Applications of Primate Model to Rehabilitation of Paretic Arm Use After Stroke in Humans

    3 Demonstration of Efficacy of CI Therapy at University of Alabama at Birmingham

    4 Components of CI Therapy

    5 CI Therapy in Other Laboratories

    6 Severity of Impairment, Time Since Stroke, and Lower Extremity CI Therapy

    7 Other Conditions

    8 Mechanisms Responsible for CI Therapy Treatment Effect

    9 Principles for Exploiting CNS Neuroplasticity to Enhance Rehabilitation

    References

    Chapter 16. Novelty Interventions to Enhance Broad Cognitive Abilities and Prevent Dementia: Synergistic Approaches for the Facilitation of Positive Plastic Change

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Effects of Challenging Mental Activities

    3 Rationale and Evidence for Synergistic Approaches

    4 Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 17. Decoding Speech for Understanding and Treating Aphasia

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Aphasia Subtypes, Symptoms, and Rehabilitation

    3 A Neural Systems Approach to Language

    4 Applications to Aphasia

    References

    Index

    Other volumes in PROGRESS IN BRAIN RESEARCH

Product details

  • No. of pages: 496
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2013
  • Published: December 3, 2013
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444633279
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444633347
  • About the Serial Volume Editors

    Michael Merzenich

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Brain Plasticity Institute at Posit Science Corporation, San Francisco, CA, USA

    Mor Nahum

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Brain Plasticity Institute at Posit Science Corporation, San Francisco, and Department of Optometry, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA

    Tom van Vleet

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Brain Plasticity Institute at Posit Science Corporation, San Francisco, and Department of Veteran Affairs, Martinez, CA, USA