Changing Brains - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444633279, 9780444633347

Changing Brains, Volume 207

1st Edition

Applying Brain Plasticity to Advance and Recover Human Ability

Serial Volume Editors: Michael Merzenich Mor Nahum Tom van Vleet
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444633279
eBook ISBN: 9780444633347
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 17th December 2013
Page Count: 496
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Table of Contents

Series Page

Contributors

Introduction

Neuroplasticity

References

Further Reading

Part 1: Brain Plasticity Across the Lifespan

Chapter 1. Balancing Plasticity/Stability Across Brain Development

Abstract

1 Introduction

2 Critical Periods: Pruning Circuits by Early Experience

3 Critical Period Plasticity of Excitatory and Inhibitory Circuits

4 Critical Period Triggers and Brakes

5 Critical Period Gating

6 Implications

7 Future Directions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 2. Brain Plasticity in the Developing Brain

Abstract

1 Introduction

2 Stages of Brain Development

3 General types of brain plasticity

4 Factors Influencing Brain Development in the Normal Brain

5 Brain Development After Early Brain Injury

6 Unilateral Versus Bilateral Injury

7 Factors Influencing Brain Development in the Injured Brain

8 Summary

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 3. Cortical Plasticity, Excitatory–Inhibitory Balance, and Sensory Perception

Abstract

1 Introduction

2 Encoding Sensory Environments in Cortical Neural Circuits

3 Effects of Neuromodulation on Plasticity in Adult Sensory Cortices

4 Commonalities and differences between developmental and adult plasticity in sensory cortices

5 Improving Perception by Manipulating Neuromodulation

6 Conclusions

References

Chapter 4. Changes in Plasticity Across the Lifespan: Cause of Disease and Target for Intervention

Abstract

1 Introduction

2 Importance of plasticity for brain health across the lifespan

3 Disease as a manifestation of aberrant plasticity at different times in the lifespan

4 The use of TMS as a novel treatment strategy for neuropsychiatric disorders of plasticity

5 Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 5. What does It take to Show that a Cognitive Training Procedure is Useful?: A Critical Evaluation

Abstract

1 What is a Good Control?

2 Interpreting Correlations in Gains

3 What do Studies of “Neural Correlates” Tell Us?

4 How Large are the Magnitudes of Gains in Untrained Conditions?

5 Conclusions and Future Directions

References

Chapter 6. Principles of Neuroplasticity-Based Rehabilitation

Abstract

1 Introduction

2 Part 1: Principles of Brain Plasticity; Premises for Therapeutic Tool Development

3 Part 2: Designing Programs Targeting Specific Clinical Indications

4 Part 3: Evaluating Program Playability and Efficacy

5 Part 4: Examples of Practical Therapeutic Tools Constructed Following These Principles

6 Conclusions

References

Part 2: Brain Plasticity-Based Therapies for the Treatment of Developmental Disorders

Chapter 7. Fast ForWord®: The Birth of the Neurocognitive Training Revolution

Abstract

1 Introduction

2 Integrating Research on Language Development and Disorders with Neuroplasticity Research

3 Integrating Neuroplasticity-Based Training Research with Research on Individual Differences in Language Development

4 The Birth of Fast ForWord®: Translating Theory into Practice

5 Designing Neuroplasticity-Based Training Games

6 The First Laboratory Studies: Rutgers Summer Camps 1994–1995

7 Scaling up: The “Neurotherapeutic Revolution” Fast ForWord® Language Version 1 (v1)

8 The Fast ForWord® Reading Series

9 Independent Agency Evaluations of Fast ForWord® Products

10 Cognitive Neurotherapeutics: The Challenges of Translation

References

Chapter 8. Music Training for the Development of Reading Skills

Abstract

1 Phonological awareness

2 Speech in background noise

3 Rhythm

4 Auditory working memory

5 Learning sound patterns

6 Summary and limitations of cross-sectional studies

7 Longitudinal music training studies

8 Experimental studies without random assignment

9 Experimental studies with random assignment

10 Why music?

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 9. Mechanisms of Plasticity in the Developing and Adult Visual Cortex

Abstract

1 Visual Cortex Plasticity During Development

2 Plasticity in the Adult Visual Cortex

3 Common Principles of Developmental and Adult Plasticity

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 10. Brain Mechanisms of Plasticity in Response to Treatments for Core Deficits in Autism

Abstract

1 Introduction

2 The Typical and Atypical Social Brain

3 Treatment Overview

4 Neural Response to ASD Treatment

5 Summary and Future Directions

References

Part 3: Brain Plasticity-Based Therapeutics for the Treatment of Clinical Indications in the Adult Brain

Chapter 11. Targeting Plasticity with Vagus Nerve Stimulation to Treat Neurological Disease

Abstract

1 Neural plasticity in the context of neurological dysfunction

2 Neuromodulatory control of plasticity and memory

3 Harnessing plasticity with vagus nerve stimulation

4 Applying targeted plasticity to treat disease

5 Mechanisms of targeted plasticity directed by VNS

6 Targeted plasticity requires less VNS than approved protocols

7 Future applications

8 Concluding remarks

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 12. Computerized Cognitive Training Targeting Brain Plasticity in Schizophrenia

Abstract

1 Neurocognitive Impairments in Schizophrenia

2 Shifting the View of Schizophrenia from Neurodegeneration to Neuroplasticity and Recovery

3 Computerized Cognitive Training in Schizophrenia: Behavioral Results

4 Computerized Cognitive Training in Schizophrenia: Neurobiological Results

5 Future Directions

References

Chapter 13. The Nonspatial Side of Spatial Neglect and Related Approaches to Treatment

Abstract

1 Introduction

2 Spatial Deficits in Neglect

3 Theoretical Accounts of Lateralized Spatial Deficits in Neglect

4 Nonspatially Lateralized Deficits in Neglect and Nonspatial/Spatial Interactions

5 Theoretical Accounts of Nonspatial Deficits and Nonspatial/Spatial Interactions

6 Treatments for Neglect

7 Future Directions

References

Chapter 14. A Cognitive Framework for Understanding and Improving Interference Resolution in the Brain

Abstract

1 Introduction

2 External Interference Resolution Across the Lifespan

3 Internal Interference Resolution Across the Lifespan

4 Neuroplasticity-Targeted Interventions for the Recovery of Deficits in Interference Resolution

5 Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 15. Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: A Method for Harnessing Neuroplasticity to Treat Motor Disorders

Abstract

1 Recovery of Function After Unilateral Forelimb Deafferentation in Primates

2 Initial Applications of Primate Model to Rehabilitation of Paretic Arm Use After Stroke in Humans

3 Demonstration of Efficacy of CI Therapy at University of Alabama at Birmingham

4 Components of CI Therapy

5 CI Therapy in Other Laboratories

6 Severity of Impairment, Time Since Stroke, and Lower Extremity CI Therapy

7 Other Conditions

8 Mechanisms Responsible for CI Therapy Treatment Effect

9 Principles for Exploiting CNS Neuroplasticity to Enhance Rehabilitation

References

Chapter 16. Novelty Interventions to Enhance Broad Cognitive Abilities and Prevent Dementia: Synergistic Approaches for the Facilitation of Positive Plastic Change

Abstract

1 Introduction

2 Effects of Challenging Mental Activities

3 Rationale and Evidence for Synergistic Approaches

4 Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 17. Decoding Speech for Understanding and Treating Aphasia

Abstract

1 Introduction

2 Aphasia Subtypes, Symptoms, and Rehabilitation

3 A Neural Systems Approach to Language

4 Applications to Aphasia

References

Index

Other volumes in PROGRESS IN BRAIN RESEARCH


Description

Series Page

Contributors

Introduction

Neuroplasticity

References

Further Reading

Part 1: Brain Plasticity Across the Lifespan

Chapter 1. Balancing Plasticity/Stability Across Brain Development

Abstract

1 Introduction

2 Critical Periods: Pruning Circuits by Early Experience

3 Critical Period Plasticity of Excitatory and Inhibitory Circuits

4 Critical Period Triggers and Brakes

5 Critical Period Gating

6 Implications

7 Future Directions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 2. Brain Plasticity in the Developing Brain

Abstract

1 Introduction

2 Stages of Brain Development

3 General types of brain plasticity

4 Factors Influencing Brain Development in the Normal Brain

5 Brain Development After Early Brain Injury

6 Unilateral Versus Bilateral Injury

7 Factors Influencing Brain Development in the Injured Brain

8 Summary

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 3. Cortical Plasticity, Excitatory–Inhibitory Balance, and Sensory Perception

Abstract

1 Introduction

2 Encoding Sensory Environments in Cortical Neural Circuits

3 Effects of Neuromodulation on Plasticity in Adult Sensory Cortices

4 Commonalities and differences between developmental and adult plasticity in sensory cortices

5 Improving Perception by Manipulating Neuromodulation

6 Conclusions

References

Chapter 4. Changes in Plasticity Across the Lifespan: Cause of Disease and Target for Intervention

Abstract

1 Introduction

2 Importance of plasticity for brain health across the lifespan

3 Disease as a manifestation of aberrant plasticity at different times in the lifespan

4 The use of TMS as a novel treatment strategy for neuropsychiatric disorders of plasticity

5 Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 5. What does It take to Show that a Cognitive Training Procedure is Useful?: A Critical Evaluation

Abstract

1 What is a Good Control?

2 Interpreting Correlations in Gains

3 What do Studies of “Neural Correlates” Tell Us?

4 How Large are the Magnitudes of Gains in Untrained Conditions?

5 Conclusions and Future Directions

References

Chapter 6. Principles of Neuroplasticity-Based Rehabilitation

Abstract

1 Introduction

2 Part 1: Principles of Brain Plasticity; Premises for Therapeutic Tool Development

3 Part 2: Designing Programs Targeting Specific Clinical Indications

4 Part 3: Evaluating Program Playability and Efficacy

5 Part 4: Examples of Practical Therapeutic Tools Constructed Following These Principles

6 Conclusions

References

Part 2: Brain Plasticity-Based Therapies for the Treatment of Developmental Disorders

Chapter 7. Fast ForWord®: The Birth of the Neurocognitive Training Revolution

Abstract

1 Introduction

2 Integrating Research on Language Development and Disorders with Neuroplasticity Research

3 Integrating Neuroplasticity-Based Training Research with Research on Individual Differences in Language Development

4 The Birth of Fast ForWord®: Translating Theory into Practice

5 Designing Neuroplasticity-Based Training Games

6 The First Laboratory Studies: Rutgers Summer Camps 1994–1995

7 Scaling up: The “Neurotherapeutic Revolution” Fast ForWord® Language Version 1 (v1)

8 The Fast ForWord® Reading Series

9 Independent Agency Evaluations of Fast ForWord® Products

10 Cognitive Neurotherapeutics: The Challenges of Translation

References

Chapter 8. Music Training for the Development of Reading Skills

Abstract

1 Phonological awareness

2 Speech in background noise

3 Rhythm

4 Auditory working memory

5 Learning sound patterns

6 Summary and limitations of cross-sectional studies

7 Longitudinal music training studies

8 Experimental studies without random assignment

9 Experimental studies with random assignment

10 Why music?

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 9. Mechanisms of Plasticity in the Developing and Adult Visual Cortex

Abstract

1 Visual Cortex Plasticity During Development

2 Plasticity in the Adult Visual Cortex

3 Common Principles of Developmental and Adult Plasticity

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 10. Brain Mechanisms of Plasticity in Response to Treatments for Core Deficits in Autism

Abstract

1 Introduction

2 The Typical and Atypical Social Brain

3 Treatment Overview

4 Neural Response to ASD Treatment

5 Summary and Future Directions

References

Part 3: Brain Plasticity-Based Therapeutics for the Treatment of Clinical Indications in the Adult Brain

Chapter 11. Targeting Plasticity with Vagus Nerve Stimulation to Treat Neurological Disease

Abstract

1 Neural plasticity in the context of neurological dysfunction

2 Neuromodulatory control of plasticity and memory

3 Harnessing plasticity with vagus nerve stimulation

4 Applying targeted plasticity to treat disease

5 Mechanisms of targeted plasticity directed by VNS

6 Targeted plasticity requires less VNS than approved protocols

7 Future applications

8 Concluding remarks

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 12. Computerized Cognitive Training Targeting Brain Plasticity in Schizophrenia

Abstract

1 Neurocognitive Impairments in Schizophrenia

2 Shifting the View of Schizophrenia from Neurodegeneration to Neuroplasticity and Recovery

3 Computerized Cognitive Training in Schizophrenia: Behavioral Results

4 Computerized Cognitive Training in Schizophrenia: Neurobiological Results

5 Future Directions

References

Chapter 13. The Nonspatial Side of Spatial Neglect and Related Approaches to Treatment

Abstract

1 Introduction

2 Spatial Deficits in Neglect

3 Theoretical Accounts of Lateralized Spatial Deficits in Neglect

4 Nonspatially Lateralized Deficits in Neglect and Nonspatial/Spatial Interactions

5 Theoretical Accounts of Nonspatial Deficits and Nonspatial/Spatial Interactions

6 Treatments for Neglect

7 Future Directions

References

Chapter 14. A Cognitive Framework for Understanding and Improving Interference Resolution in the Brain

Abstract

1 Introduction

2 External Interference Resolution Across the Lifespan

3 Internal Interference Resolution Across the Lifespan

4 Neuroplasticity-Targeted Interventions for the Recovery of Deficits in Interference Resolution

5 Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 15. Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: A Method for Harnessing Neuroplasticity to Treat Motor Disorders

Abstract

1 Recovery of Function After Unilateral Forelimb Deafferentation in Primates

2 Initial Applications of Primate Model to Rehabilitation of Paretic Arm Use After Stroke in Humans

3 Demonstration of Efficacy of CI Therapy at University of Alabama at Birmingham

4 Components of CI Therapy

5 CI Therapy in Other Laboratories

6 Severity of Impairment, Time Since Stroke, and Lower Extremity CI Therapy

7 Other Conditions

8 Mechanisms Responsible for CI Therapy Treatment Effect

9 Principles for Exploiting CNS Neuroplasticity to Enhance Rehabilitation

References

Chapter 16. Novelty Interventions to Enhance Broad Cognitive Abilities and Prevent Dementia: Synergistic Approaches for the Facilitation of Positive Plastic Change

Abstract

1 Introduction

2 Effects of Challenging Mental Activities

3 Rationale and Evidence for Synergistic Approaches

4 Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 17. Decoding Speech for Understanding and Treating Aphasia

Abstract

1 Introduction

2 Aphasia Subtypes, Symptoms, and Rehabilitation

3 A Neural Systems Approach to Language

4 Applications to Aphasia

References

Index

Other volumes in PROGRESS IN BRAIN RESEARCH

Key Features

  • Applying brain Plasticity and advances and recover human ability

Readership

Neuroscientists, psychologists, neurologists


Details

No. of pages:
496
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2013
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780444633347
Hardcover ISBN:
9780444633279

About the Serial Volume Editors

Michael Merzenich Serial Volume Editor

Affiliations and Expertise

Brain Plasticity Institute at Posit Science Corporation, San Francisco, CA, USA

Mor Nahum Serial Volume Editor

Affiliations and Expertise

Brain Plasticity Institute at Posit Science Corporation, San Francisco, and Department of Optometry, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA

Tom van Vleet Serial Volume Editor

Affiliations and Expertise

Brain Plasticity Institute at Posit Science Corporation, San Francisco, and Department of Veteran Affairs, Martinez, CA, USA