Challenge of the Land

Challenge of the Land

Open Space Preservation at the Local Level

1st Edition - January 1, 1969

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  • Author: Charles E. Little
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483155371

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Challenge of the Land: Open Space Preservation at the Local Level deals with the challenge of the land at the municipal level and how it can be addressed using proven techniques of open space preservation. Focusing primarily on the New York metropolitan region, this book describes actions that a municipal government can take to help control rampant urbanization and discusses the benefits of open space preservation. This book is comprised of eight chapters and opens with an overview of how municipal officials and civic leaders have had to come to grips with urbanization throughout the United States. The economic implications of population growth and the function of suburbia are considered. The next chapter outlines the benefits of open space preservation, including the establishment of recreational opportunity; the establishment of attractive community design and a visually pleasant landscape; and the maintenance of natural processes (that is, conservation). The following chapters explore the reconciliation of subdivision and open space; the use of basic acquisition techniques having to do with purchase, green space development, and the donation of land in fee or easement; and the approaches used by municipalities to preserve open space. The economic consequences of preserved open space are also considered, along with how the municipal government copes with the increasing forces of urbanization. This monograph will be a useful resource for everyone in or out of government, including county and municipal officials, as well as civic leaders concerned with the use of open spaces.

Table of Contents

  • Foreword


    Chapter I. Coming to Grips

    What Happened in Ramapo

    Population Growth

    Economic Penalty of Growth

    The Function of Suburbia

    Land is the Key. Open Space: The Environmental Focus

    Chapter II. The Case for Open Space Preservation

    The Three Functions of Open Space

    Outdoor Recreation

    The Statistics of Recreational Demand

    The Case for Amenity

    Natural Processes

    How to Establish Priorities

    Systems and Chunks

    How Much Open Space

    Gross Minimum Calculation

    Acres per Thousand

    Natural Processes as a Determinant

    Chapter III. Direct Acquisition

    A Big Acquisition: New Canaan

    Strategy of Persuasion

    A Piecemeal Effort: Cortlandt

    Need for a Civic Base

    Shifting Attitudes

    Grant Programs

    Land and Water Conservation Fund

    HUD's Open-Space Program

    State Aid


    Westchester's Acquisition Procedure

    Private Grants

    Chapter IV. Open Space and Subdivision

    Clustering as a Conservation Measure

    "Block Plan" Technique

    One-Step Reduction Technique

    Mandating Cluster

    A Question of Nomenclature

    Who Should Sponsor Clustering

    Setting Standards

    Permanence as an Issue

    Who Should Own the Open Space

    Will Clustering Stimulate Development

    The Question of Design

    Clustering Guidelines

    Chapter V. Land Donation: Fee and Easement

    Using a Range of Recipients

    Respecting the Landowner's Motives

    Land Trusts

    Conditions and Restrictions

    Wildlife vs. People

    Financial Motivations

    Estate Planning

    Donation of Development Rights

    Gifts of Easements

    Guidelines for Easement Acquisition

    Chapter VI. More Tricks in the Bag

    "Design" Zoning

    Need for Permanence

    Tax Inducements

    "Open Space Gestalt"

    The Demarest Open Space System

    Using the Whole Bag of Tricks

    Chapter VII. Economic Effects

    The New Municipal Math

    The Agent of Reversal: Open Space

    Positive Results of Preservation

    Methods of Determining Positive Economic Effects

    Direct Revenues and Ratables

    Chapter VIII. The Action Process

    Need for New Machinery

    New Official Groups

    Initial Research

    The First Project

    Continuing Programs

    Selected Bibliography


Product details

  • No. of pages: 164
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1969
  • Published: January 1, 1969
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483155371

About the Author

Charles E. Little

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