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Challenge of the Land - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080069135, 9781483155371

Challenge of the Land

1st Edition

Open Space Preservation at the Local Level

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Author: Charles E. Little
eBook ISBN: 9781483155371
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1969
Page Count: 164
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Challenge of the Land: Open Space Preservation at the Local Level deals with the challenge of the land at the municipal level and how it can be addressed using proven techniques of open space preservation. Focusing primarily on the New York metropolitan region, this book describes actions that a municipal government can take to help control rampant urbanization and discusses the benefits of open space preservation. This book is comprised of eight chapters and opens with an overview of how municipal officials and civic leaders have had to come to grips with urbanization throughout the United States. The economic implications of population growth and the function of suburbia are considered. The next chapter outlines the benefits of open space preservation, including the establishment of recreational opportunity; the establishment of attractive community design and a visually pleasant landscape; and the maintenance of natural processes (that is, conservation). The following chapters explore the reconciliation of subdivision and open space; the use of basic acquisition techniques having to do with purchase, green space development, and the donation of land in fee or easement; and the approaches used by municipalities to preserve open space. The economic consequences of preserved open space are also considered, along with how the municipal government copes with the increasing forces of urbanization. This monograph will be a useful resource for everyone in or out of government, including county and municipal officials, as well as civic leaders concerned with the use of open spaces.

Table of Contents



Chapter I. Coming to Grips

What Happened in Ramapo

Population Growth

Economic Penalty of Growth

The Function of Suburbia

Land is the Key. Open Space: The Environmental Focus

Chapter II. The Case for Open Space Preservation

The Three Functions of Open Space

Outdoor Recreation

The Statistics of Recreational Demand

The Case for Amenity

Natural Processes

How to Establish Priorities

Systems and Chunks

How Much Open Space

Gross Minimum Calculation

Acres per Thousand

Natural Processes as a Determinant

Chapter III. Direct Acquisition

A Big Acquisition: New Canaan

Strategy of Persuasion

A Piecemeal Effort: Cortlandt

Need for a Civic Base

Shifting Attitudes

Grant Programs

Land and Water Conservation Fund

HUD's Open-Space Program

State Aid


Westchester's Acquisition Procedure

Private Grants

Chapter IV. Open Space and Subdivision

Clustering as a Conservation Measure

"Block Plan" Technique

One-Step Reduction Technique

Mandating Cluster

A Question of Nomenclature

Who Should Sponsor Clustering

Setting Standards

Permanence as an Issue

Who Should Own the Open Space

Will Clustering Stimulate Development

The Question of Design

Clustering Guidelines

Chapter V. Land Donation: Fee and Easement

Using a Range of Recipients

Respecting the Landowner's Motives

Land Trusts

Conditions and Restrictions

Wildlife vs. People

Financial Motivations

Estate Planning

Donation of Development Rights

Gifts of Easements

Guidelines for Easement Acquisition

Chapter VI. More Tricks in the Bag

"Design" Zoning

Need for Permanence

Tax Inducements

"Open Space Gestalt"

The Demarest Open Space System

Using the Whole Bag of Tricks

Chapter VII. Economic Effects

The New Municipal Math

The Agent of Reversal: Open Space

Positive Results of Preservation

Methods of Determining Positive Economic Effects

Direct Revenues and Ratables

Chapter VIII. The Action Process

Need for New Machinery

New Official Groups

Initial Research

The First Project

Continuing Programs

Selected Bibliography



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© Pergamon 1969
1st January 1969
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Charles E. Little

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