Ceramic Raw Materials

Ceramic Raw Materials

Institute of Ceramics Textbook Series

2nd Edition - January 1, 1982

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  • Author: W E Worrall
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483137612

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Ceramic Raw Materials, Second Revised Edition points to the consideration that clay is the oldest ceramic raw material. The text outlines that clay can assume different forms in varying conditions and discusses the emergence of other materials that are now being considered as ceramic raw materials. The book presents a discussion on various raw materials other than clay, including silica, natural clays, and silicates such as kyanite, sillimanite, and andalusite. The text also presents an analysis of the composition of these materials, putting emphasis on their strengths and how different processes can alter these materials to form other materials. The varying properties of these materials in different stages are also discussed. The selection can serve as a reference to geologists who want to explore further raw materials other than clay, taking into consideration their potential uses. As clay and other related materials are discussed here, this book can also capture the interest of those involved in pottery and other related disciplines.

Table of Contents

  • 1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Silica

    1.2.1 Structure of Crystals

    1.2.2 Structure of Quartz

    1.2.3 Structure of Tridymite and of Cristobalite

    1.2.4 Conversions

    1.2.5 Inversions

    1.2.6 Other Forms of Silica (Amorphous Silica)

    Silica Gel

    Vitreous Silica

    1.2.7 Physical Properties

    1.2.8 Chemical Properties

    1.2.9 Occurrence

    1.3 Clays

    1.3.1 The Clay Minerals

    1.3.2 Structure of the Clay Minerals

    1.3.3 The Kaolin Group

    1.3.4 The Montmorillonite Group

    1.3.5 The Micas

    1.3.6 The Chlorites

    1.3.7 The Illites


    1.3.8 The Physical Properties of the Clay Minerals

    Particle Size and Shape

    Specific Gravity

    Effect of Heat

    1.3.9 Clay-Water Suspensions

    1.3.10 Colloidal Properties

    Properties of Colloidal Suspensions

    Electrical Behavior of Colloidal Suspensions

    Distribution of Charges in a Colloidal Suspension

    1.3.11 Cation Exchange

    1.3.12 Stability of Colloidal Suspensions

    1.3.13 Deflocculants

    1.3.14 Soluble Salts

    1.3.15 Adsorption

    1.3.16 Application of Colloidal Theory

    Measurement of Concentration

    1.3.17 Casting-Slips ··

    Elementary Ideas of Flow Properties

    Flow Properties of Casting-Slips

    Measurement of Flow Properties



    Permeability to Water

    Dry Strength

    1.3.18 Plasticity


    1.4 Natural Clays

    1.4.1 Method of Calculation

    1.4.2 Errors in Rational Analysis

    1.5 Geology of the Clays

    1.5.1 Rocks

    1.5.2 Composition of Igneous Rocks

    1.5.3 Composition of Sedimentary Rocks

    1.5.4 Occurrence of Deposits

    1.5.5 Classification of Clays

    1.6 General Properties of the Clays

    1.6.1 Ball Clays


    Chemical Composition

    Particle Size Distribution

    Specific Surface Area

    Wet-to-Dry Shrinkage

    Dry Strength

    Base Exchange and Deflocculation

    Soluble Salts

    Fired Color



    Beneficiation of Ball Clay

    1.6.2 China Clay



    Particle Size


    Cation Exchange


    Wet-to-Dry Shrinkage

    Green Strength

    Fired Color

    Firing Shrinkage


    1.6.3 Fireclays



    Rational Analysis

    Particle Size Distribution

    Critical Moisture Content

    Dry Strength



    Firing Shrinkage


    Fired Color


    1.6.4 Building Clays



    Physical Properties

    Particle Size Distribution


    Working Moisture Content

    Firing Shrinkage

    Fired Color



    Stoneware Clays


    Boulder Clays


    Fuller's Earth

    1.7 Other Silicates

    1.7.1 Sillimanite, Kyanite and Andalusite

    Structure and General Properties

    1.7.2 Mullite

    Occurrence and Composition



    1.7.3 Steatite




    1.8 Fluxes

    1.8.1 Definition of Fluxes

    1.8.2 Soda- and Potash-Bearing Minerals. The Feldspars

    1.8.3 Bone Ash

    1.8.4 Occurrence of Alkali-Bearing Minerals

    1.8.5 Physical and Chemical Properties

    1.9 Alumina

    1.9.1 Structure

    1.9.2 Occurrence

    1.9.3 Physical Properties

    1.9.4 Chemical Properties

    1.10 Other Refractory Raw Materials

    1.10.1 Magnesite

    Production of Sea-Water Magnesite

    Preparation of Natural Magnesite

    Structure of Magnesium Oxide

    Physical Properties

    Chemical Properties

    1.10.2 Dolomite

    Dolomite or Magnesian Limestone


    Physical Properties

    Chemical Properties

    1.10.3 Chrome


    Occurrence and Uses of Chrome Ore

    Physical Properties

    Chemical Properties

    1.11 Miscellaneous Materials

    1.11.1 Plaster of Paris

    Setting of Plaster

    Accelerators and Retarders

    Uses of Plaster

    1.11.2 Rutile (TiO2)

    1.11.3 Zirconia (ZrO2)

    1.11.4 Beryllia (BeO)

Product details

  • No. of pages: 116
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1982
  • Published: January 1, 1982
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483137612

About the Author

W E Worrall

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