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Centrifugal Pumps - 3rd Edition - ISBN: 9780854610761, 9781483294506

Centrifugal Pumps

3rd Edition

Author: H.H. Anderson
eBook ISBN: 9781483294506
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 31st December 1980
Page Count: 466
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Centrifugal Pumps describes the whole range of the centrifugal pump (mixed flow and axial flow pumps are dealt with more briefly), with emphasis on the development of the boiler feed pump. Organized into 46 chapters, this book discusses the general hydrodynamic principles, performance, dimensions, type number, flow, and efficiency of centrifugal pumps. This text also explains the pumps performance; entry conditions and cavitation; speed and dimensions for a given duty; and losses. Some chapters further describe centrifugal pump mechanical design, installation, monitoring, and maintenance. The various types and applications of pumps in the light of the particular design features involved are addressed in other chapters. This book is authoritative, informative, and thought-provoking to an exceptional extent. It establishes a notable advance in the progress of the art of the designer and manufacturer of centrifugal pumps, to the material advantage of the user.

Table of Contents



Chapter 1. Introduction


Modern Pumps

Applications of Pumping Machines

The Design and Manufacture of Pumps — The Types of Pump

Reciprocating Pumps

Centrifugal Pumps (including Axial Flow Pumps)

Head and Quantity


Cavitation of Centrifugal Pumps

The Use of Experience

Variables in Manufacture

Empirical Designing

Mechanical Problems

Chapter 2. Units of the System International (S.I.)

Reason for Use of SI Units

Effect of Earth's Gravity

Abbreviations of SI Units

Chapter 3 General Review of Pumps

Technical Aspects of Centrifugal Pumps

Standard Pump Types

Reciprocating or Centrifugal Pump

Advantages of Centrifugal Pumps

Advantages of Reciprocating Pumps

Field of Operation of Centrifugal Pumps

General Construction

Chapter 4. General Hydrodynamic Principles

Geometric Designing

Hydraulic and Mechanical Limitations

Composite Similarity Rule

Model Tests

Summary of Similarity Formulas

Liquid or Water

Duty of the Pump

Chapter 5. Pump Performance and Dimensions

Determination of Dimensions of Pump for a Given Duty

Impeller to Casing Area Ratio (Figs 5 and 6)

Probable Shape of Performance Chart

Influence of Water Turbine Design on Pump Design

Subsequent Empirical Analysis


Chapter 6. Theory of Centrifugal Pumps

Pump Geometry

Inlet Conditions

Outlet Conditions

Area Ratio of Impeller Outlet Passages to Casing Throat

Flow Limitation of Throat

Classical Theories

Worster's Theoretical Investigation

Theoretical Analysis and Actual Tests Compared

Effect of Outlet Angle

Effect of Number of Impeller Vanes

Type Number


Chapter 7. Type Number, Flow and Efficiency

Efficiency and Type Number (See Appendix A)

Variation of Efficiency with Size and Speed

Efficiency Step-up Formulas

Efficiency Formulas for Variation of Size

Moody Formula

Surface Finish

Value of Efficiency

Efficiency, Quantity Chart

Efficiency, Quantity Formula

Comparison with Water Turbines

Effect of Surface Finish on Step-up Formulas

Scatter of Test Points

Present Position of Efficiency Analysis

Efficiency Majoration Formula for Fluid Machines (Refs 10, 11 and 12)

Available Data

Pump and Turbine Formulas

Majoration Formulas

Pump Data

Type Number (Ns)

Reversible Pump Turbines

Use of Model with Superior Finish

Examples of Use of Chart


Chapter 8. Statistical Analysis of Pump Performance

Surface Quality

Commercial Aspects

Improvement of the Breed


Efficiency Variation with Flow Quantity and Type Number

Pump Tests Codes (See Chapter 26)

Tolerance on Head Quantity Characteristic

Forecast of Phenomena

Current Analysis of Efficiency Tests

Variations in Generated Head

Variations in Characteristic from Specification

Plotting and Analysis of Pump Tests

Current Records

Chapter 9. Entry Conditions and Cavitation

The Determination of Pump Speed and Dimensions for a Given Duty

Analysis of Cavitation Characteristics

Cavitation Tests

Determination of Impeller Inlet Dimensions

General Observations on Cavitation Phenomena

Vaporizing Liquid Duties


Pump with Supercavitating Inducer (Ref 19)

Cavitation Tests

Long Term Basis

Temperature Effects


Chapter 10. The Determination of Pump Speed and Dimensions for a Given Duty

Analysis of Test: Head Quantity Characteristic

Effect of Area Ratio on Pump Characteristics (Appendix A)

Head and Quantity Coefficients

General Survey of a Whole Range of Pumps

Effect of Various Dimensional Changes in the Pump

Correlation of Area Ratio and Type Number

Determination of Impeller Outlet and Casing Dimensions:- General Summation


Chapter 11. Precision Manufacture of Hydraulic Passage Surfaces for Fluid Machines

Generation Methods

Flow Conditions

Gearing Analogy

Purely Generated (Hobbed) Impellers

Numerical Control of Passage Shape

Stationary Components


Chapter 12. Pump Type Variations

Choice of Speed and Number of Stages

High Pressure High Temperature Pumps

Series Operation, High-pressure High-temperature Glands

The Choice of Single or Double Entry Impellers

Large Single Entry Pumps

Diffusers on Multistage Pumps

Chapter 13. Planning a Range of Pumps


Dimensionless Designing

Variations of Type Numbers

Choice of Area Ratio for a Given Duty

Typical Example of a Range of Pumps for 30—50 m Head

Design Details

Area Ratio and Type Number


Chapter 14. Losses in Centrifugal Pumps

Power Losses

Head Losses

Leakage Losses


Chapter 15. Normal Construction Materials

Corrosion — Erosion

Chapter 16. Special Construction Materials

Severely Corrosive Duties

Materials for High Stage Heads (See Ref 27)



Chapter 17. Mechanical Design of Centrifugal Pumps

Radial Thrust Formula

Axial Thrust

Example of Mechanical Design of Combined Motor Pump (Ref 18, Fig 92, Chapter 37)

Large Pumps and Water Turbines

Shaft and Bearing Loadings

Axial Loadings

Centrifugal Stresses


Chapter 18. Critical Speeds and Vibrations

Critical Speed of a Combined Motor Pump (Ref 17 and Fig 92, Chapter 37)

Electrical Radial Loadings

Shaft Deflection

Critical Speed of the Rotor of the Combined Unit

Rigidity of Anchorage Between Pump and Motor

Size of Shaft

Rotating Dynamic Machinery

Multistage Pumps on Medium Duties

Multistage Pumps on More Severe Duty

Shaft Centering Forces


Chapter 19. Bearings

Sleeve Bearings

Tilting Pad Thrust Bearings

Bearings Lubricated by Pumped Liquid

Thrust Bearings Lubricated by the Pumped Liquid

Non-Metallic Bearings

Secondary Bearings


Chapter 20. Pressure Vessel Aspects

Economical Use of Metal on Single Stage Machines

Two Versions of the Closure


Chapter 21. Shaft Sealing


Hydrodynamic Seals

Mechanical Seals (Ref 36)

Balanced Seals

Coolant Circulation

Double Seal Arrangements

Split Seals

Radial Seals

Split Seal Rings

Sealing by Limited Clearance Flow


Chapter 22. Approach and Discharge Conditions

Methods of Conveying Water

Pump Drawing Water from a Sump or Culvert

Inlet Conditions

Suction Piping

Vaporizing Liquid Pumps

Foot Valves and Strainers

Delivery Valves and Non-Return Valves

Velocity and Pressure

Delivery Piping

Overall Picture of Pumping Station


Chapter 23. Characteristics of Pumps and Pipe Systems

Pump Characteristics

Consideration of Pump and Pipeline

Falling Characteristic

Static Head and Flow Conditions

Physical Explanation of Pressure Oscillations

Chapter 24. Installation of Pumps

Erection of Centrifugal Pumps

Pipe Loadings

Chapter 25. Starting Transient and Emergency Conditions

Priming and Suction Arrangements

Starting of Centrifugal Pumps

Starting Characteristics of Submersible Pumps

Omission of Foot Valve

Transient Conditions

Abnormal Conditions

Inertias of Rotor and Water Column

Inertia of Pipe Column

Example 1

Example 2

Example of Filling of Rising Main

Incorrect Assembly of impeller


Chapter 26. Testing and Test Codes

Testing of Pumps

Test Codes

Chapter 27. Monitoring and Maintenance of Pumps

Maintenance of Pumps

Routine Recording

Periodic Service

Repair Procedures

Rebuilding of Worn Surfaces

Monitoring of Pump Performance

Chapter 28. Single Stage Pumps

Single Stage Pumps of the Simplest Type (Fig 50)

Cost Aspect

Materials of Construction

General Construction Details

Splitting of Casing

Radial and Axial Thrust

Glanding Arrangements

Applications of Small Single Stage Pumps

Single Stage Double Entry Centrifugal Pumps (Fig 51)

General Construction

Provision for Wear


Details and Auxiliaries

Design Problems of Single Stage Pumps

Vertical Operation

Standard Single Stage Pumps

Chapter 29. Multistage Split Casing Pumps

Design of Two Stage Pumps (Fig 55)

Mechanical Problems

Rigidity of Two Stage Pump

Hydraulic Problems

Position of Cross Over

Application of Two Stage Pumps

Chapter 30. Borehole Pumps


Description of Borehole Pump

Details of Pump

Details of Rising Main (Fig 56)

Efficiency Aspect

Comparison with Submersible Pumps

Suction Strainer

Suction Piping

Absence of Foot Valve

The Pump Proper (Figs 58 and 59)

Internal Tube and Shafting (Fig 56)

Head Gear (Fig 56)

Examples of Borehole Pumps

Ejector Pumps

Chapter 31. Submersible Pumps


Introduction of Submersible Pumps (Ref 10)

Pump Details

Materials of Construction

Type Number


Journal and Thrust-Bearing Loadings

Radial Loadings

Influence of Borehole Diameter on Type of Pump


Chapter 32. Cone Flow and Axial Flow Pumps

Cone Flow or Mixed Flow Pumps

Axial Flow Pumps

Syphon Pipe Systems


Chapter 33. Multistage Cellular Pumps





Mechanical Thrust Bearings

Disposal of Balance Water on Multistage Pumps

Section Drawings

Materials of Multistage Pumps

Chapter 34. Severe Duty Pumps

Head per Stage

Cavitation Problems

Chemical Effects

Load Factor

Increase of Size of Plant over the Years


Chapter 35. Small High Speed Pumps

Geared Pump Sets (Fig 71)

Rocket Pumps

Rotating Casing Pumps

Chapter 36. Boiler Feed Pumps

SI Units

Part 1 up to 1961

Symmetrical Feed Pump

60 MW Thermal Shock Test: 1948

Barrel Feed Pump (Fig 73)

100 MW Thermal Shock Test: 1957

Test Problems

Test Results

Main Bolt Stressing

Thermal Stress in the Shell of the Barrel

Site Tests on 100 MW Units

Barrel Material

Thermal and Stress Symmetry

End Cover

End Cover Stresses

Stress Calculations

Feed Range Characteristics

Pump Characteristics

Pump Operation on Zero Boiler Demand

Transient Temperature Conditions

Hydraulic Design

Determination of Impeller Vane and Passage Shape

Chemical Aspects

Metallurgical Details

Other Mechanical Design Aspects


Main Bolts



Pressure Joints

Minimizing of High-Frequency Vibration and Noise

General Chart of Mechanical Design

Thermal Comparison of Pump Casing and Boiler Drum

Comparison with Steam and Gas Turbines

Feed Pump Drives

Variation of Pump Efficiency with Temperature of Feed Water and with Rotational Speed

Effect of Viscosity Change

Make-up of Losses in Multistage Pumps (Ref 30 and Chapter 11)

Effect of Clearance Change

Determination of Leak-off Quantity

Procedure for Approximate Determination of Temperature Changes

Determination of Other Temperatures

Temperature Rise of Mixture

pH and Material Chart


Part 2: The 1970's by Leith McColl & Ryall (Ref 46)

Design Philosophy

Main Pump Construction

Internal Cartridge Assembly

Pump Rotating Element

Oil Seals and Coupling Guards

Rotor Dynamics

Hydraulic Design

Hydraulic Thrust

Impeller Seal and Balance Drum Geometry

External Gland Design

Compatibility of Materials

Test Program

Choice of Suction Pump

Future Developments


Chapter 37. Large Single Entry Pumps

Review of Developments

Pumps Designed for Rigidity

Water Turbines

Unit Construction, Single Entry Pumps

Construction and Application Details

Stainless Casings

Diesel Drive


Storage Pumps

Model Tests

Transient Conditions (See also Chapter 25)

Water Turbo-Alternators on the Unit Construction Principle

Small Combined Motor Pumps

Application of Single Entry Combined Motor Pumps

Mechanical Design

Hydraulic Design



Chapter 38. Pumps for Storage of Energy and other Large Power Duties


The Ffestiniog Scheme (Ref 54)

Reversible Pump Turbine

American Francis Pump Turbines

Deriaz Units

Higher Head Deriaz Units

Problems of High Head Reversible Application

Cruachan 100 MW Reversible Units (Plates 47 and 48, Fig 104 and Refs 53 and 55)

Tehachapi (Fig 105 and Plate 60)

Future Developments


Chapter 39. Mine Pumps


Main Drainage Pumps


Sinking and Dewatering Pumps

Coal-Face Pumps


Sludge Pumping

Pump Characteristics

Maximum Speeds

The Choice of Speed


Severe Mine Waters

Motors (See Chapter 44)

Submersible Motors (See Chapter 31)

Fiery Mines

Typical Examples of Drainage Pumps


Chapter 40. Thermal Power Station Pumps

Condenser Cooling Water Circulating Pumps

Extraction Pumps

Boiler Feed Pumps

Boiler Circulating Pumps

Wet and Canned Motor Pumps

Nuclear Power Station Circulating Pumps


Chapter 41. Offshore Marine and Aerospace Pumps

Glandless Combined Steam Turbine and Pump Lubricated by Imped Water ('Weir')


Bearings and Balance Disc

Miscellaneous Marine Pumps

Aerospace Pumps


Chapter 42. Chemical, Refinery and Process Pumps

Chemical Duties

Nature of Liquids — Acidity and Alkalinity

Aggressive Nature of Liquid

Raw Materials

Viscosity and Specific Gravity


Properties of Hydrocarbons

Variation of Pump Performance with Specific Gravity and Viscosity

Liquid Properties Affecting the Design of Pumps

Pressure and Temperature

Corrosion and Erosion


Saturation Aspects

Flammability, Poisoning, etc

Light Fractions and Liquefied Gases

Use of Non-Ferrous Metals

Nature of Drive

Refinery Layout


Pumping of Solids

High and Low Temperatures

Vaporizing Duties

Freezing Problems

Thermal Controls

Hydraulic Configuration

Configuration of Pumps

Shaft Material

Shaft Sealing

Canned and Wet Motors

Detail Design of Pump for Non-abrasive Liquids

Pumps for Abrasive Duties (See Ref 68)

Tangent Pumps

Higher Pressure Duties

Pipe Loadings

Power Recovery


Chapter 43. Pumps for Various Specific Duties

Paper Mill Pumps

Steelworks Pumps

Sewage Pumps and Storm Water Pumps

Pumps for Industrial Slurries

Molten Metal Pumps

Food Industries: Milk and Beer Pumps, etc

Drainage and Irrigation Pumps

Self Priming Pumps


Chapter 44. Drivers

Coupling of Driver to Pump

Determination of Pump Efficiency

Pump, Motor and Overall Efficiencies

Starting Conditions, etc


Chapter 45. Miscellaneous Aspects


Frame Selection Chart

Plotting and Analysis of Pump Tests

Pipe Friction

Flow through Orifices and Nozzles

Economical Assessment of Efficiency

Quality Assurance

Calculation of Combined Stresses

Mise Hencky Ductile Material Formula

Two Dimensional Stresses

Application to Shafts

Final Formula for Shear and Longitudinal Tensile Stress on a Shaft

Three Dimensional Stresses:

Hoop and Longitudinal Stresses in Brittle Materials

Design of Single Stage Pump Castings

Heating Effects

Pressure Test


Chapter 46. The Third Millennium


Escalation of Present Activities

Boiler Feed Pumps

Space Rocket Pumps

Production and Performance

Statistical Control of Performance

Cost of Mass Produced Pumps

Production of Flow Passage Surfaces

Metallurgy and Plastics

Future Development of Pumps

Mechanical Seals

Submersible Motors and Pumps

Canned Motors

Pressure Vessel Design


Liquid Metal Induction Pumps

Stage Numbers



New and Untried Processes

Nuclear duties

Space and Deep Sea Duties




Appendix A: Effect of Pump Geometry on Pump Performance

Inlet Conditions

Outlet Conditions


Torque Equation

Head Characteristics

Power and Efficiency Characteristics


Efficiency Taking into Account Shock Losses only

Other Losses

Type Number



Actual Tests of Pumps


Appendix B: Materials for Various Liquids

Data Required by Pump Manufacturers for Proper Selection of Material

Abrasive Aspects

Pump Materials (from Ref 29)

Cast Irons

Cast Steels

Stainless Steels










Appendix C: Example of Centrifugal Pump Design — Double Entry Pump Practical Application of Design Factors


Suction Performance


Area Ratio


Outlet Angle

Eye and Shaft Design

Inlet Angle

Number of Impeller Vanes





Choice of Type Number for Best Efficiency

Efficiency Losses in this Example

Radial Loading at Zero Flow

Shaft Stress

Torque Stress

IMPSH and Atmospheric Pressure

Geometric Designing

Change of Speed for the Same Size of Pump

Geometric Change of Size for the Same rev/min

Geometric Change of Size with Inverse Change of Speed


The Use of a Slide Rule or Calculator without Fractional Powers

Determination of Type Number

Fractional Powers


Appendix D Quality Assurance (Ref 21)

Pressure Vessels — Cycling Tests

Photoelastic Tests on a 120 mm Araldite Vessel (Epoxy Resin)

Bursting Tests

Stress Analysis

Materials for Rotating and Stationary Surfaces

High Speed Impeller and Diffuser Tests


Appendix E.


Increase of Power

Development of Turbines

Modern Turbines

Specific Speed

Choice of Turbine

Limiting Speed

Application of Water Turbines

Problems in the Operation of Turbines

Pipeline Inertia

Rotor Inertia

Construction of Turbines


References - Alphabetical


Index to Advertisers


No. of pages:
© Elsevier Science 1980
31st December 1980
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

H.H. Anderson

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