Centrifugal Pumps

Centrifugal Pumps

3rd Edition - December 31, 1980

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  • Author: H.H. Anderson
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483294506

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Centrifugal Pumps describes the whole range of the centrifugal pump (mixed flow and axial flow pumps are dealt with more briefly), with emphasis on the development of the boiler feed pump. Organized into 46 chapters, this book discusses the general hydrodynamic principles, performance, dimensions, type number, flow, and efficiency of centrifugal pumps. This text also explains the pumps performance; entry conditions and cavitation; speed and dimensions for a given duty; and losses. Some chapters further describe centrifugal pump mechanical design, installation, monitoring, and maintenance. The various types and applications of pumps in the light of the particular design features involved are addressed in other chapters. This book is authoritative, informative, and thought-provoking to an exceptional extent. It establishes a notable advance in the progress of the art of the designer and manufacturer of centrifugal pumps, to the material advantage of the user.

Table of Contents

  • Preface


    Chapter 1. Introduction


    Modern Pumps

    Applications of Pumping Machines

    The Design and Manufacture of Pumps — The Types of Pump

    Reciprocating Pumps

    Centrifugal Pumps (including Axial Flow Pumps)

    Head and Quantity


    Cavitation of Centrifugal Pumps

    The Use of Experience

    Variables in Manufacture

    Empirical Designing

    Mechanical Problems

    Chapter 2. Units of the System International (S.I.)

    Reason for Use of SI Units

    Effect of Earth's Gravity

    Abbreviations of SI Units

    Chapter 3 General Review of Pumps

    Technical Aspects of Centrifugal Pumps

    Standard Pump Types

    Reciprocating or Centrifugal Pump

    Advantages of Centrifugal Pumps

    Advantages of Reciprocating Pumps

    Field of Operation of Centrifugal Pumps

    General Construction

    Chapter 4. General Hydrodynamic Principles

    Geometric Designing

    Hydraulic and Mechanical Limitations

    Composite Similarity Rule

    Model Tests

    Summary of Similarity Formulas

    Liquid or Water

    Duty of the Pump

    Chapter 5. Pump Performance and Dimensions

    Determination of Dimensions of Pump for a Given Duty

    Impeller to Casing Area Ratio (Figs 5 and 6)

    Probable Shape of Performance Chart

    Influence of Water Turbine Design on Pump Design

    Subsequent Empirical Analysis


    Chapter 6. Theory of Centrifugal Pumps

    Pump Geometry

    Inlet Conditions

    Outlet Conditions

    Area Ratio of Impeller Outlet Passages to Casing Throat

    Flow Limitation of Throat

    Classical Theories

    Worster's Theoretical Investigation

    Theoretical Analysis and Actual Tests Compared

    Effect of Outlet Angle

    Effect of Number of Impeller Vanes

    Type Number


    Chapter 7. Type Number, Flow and Efficiency

    Efficiency and Type Number (See Appendix A)

    Variation of Efficiency with Size and Speed

    Efficiency Step-up Formulas

    Efficiency Formulas for Variation of Size

    Moody Formula

    Surface Finish

    Value of Efficiency

    Efficiency, Quantity Chart

    Efficiency, Quantity Formula

    Comparison with Water Turbines

    Effect of Surface Finish on Step-up Formulas

    Scatter of Test Points

    Present Position of Efficiency Analysis

    Efficiency Majoration Formula for Fluid Machines (Refs 10, 11 and 12)

    Available Data

    Pump and Turbine Formulas

    Majoration Formulas

    Pump Data

    Type Number (Ns)

    Reversible Pump Turbines

    Use of Model with Superior Finish

    Examples of Use of Chart


    Chapter 8. Statistical Analysis of Pump Performance

    Surface Quality

    Commercial Aspects

    Improvement of the Breed


    Efficiency Variation with Flow Quantity and Type Number

    Pump Tests Codes (See Chapter 26)

    Tolerance on Head Quantity Characteristic

    Forecast of Phenomena

    Current Analysis of Efficiency Tests

    Variations in Generated Head

    Variations in Characteristic from Specification

    Plotting and Analysis of Pump Tests

    Current Records

    Chapter 9. Entry Conditions and Cavitation

    The Determination of Pump Speed and Dimensions for a Given Duty

    Analysis of Cavitation Characteristics

    Cavitation Tests

    Determination of Impeller Inlet Dimensions

    General Observations on Cavitation Phenomena

    Vaporizing Liquid Duties


    Pump with Supercavitating Inducer (Ref 19)

    Cavitation Tests

    Long Term Basis

    Temperature Effects


    Chapter 10. The Determination of Pump Speed and Dimensions for a Given Duty

    Analysis of Test: Head Quantity Characteristic

    Effect of Area Ratio on Pump Characteristics (Appendix A)

    Head and Quantity Coefficients

    General Survey of a Whole Range of Pumps

    Effect of Various Dimensional Changes in the Pump

    Correlation of Area Ratio and Type Number

    Determination of Impeller Outlet and Casing Dimensions:- General Summation


    Chapter 11. Precision Manufacture of Hydraulic Passage Surfaces for Fluid Machines

    Generation Methods

    Flow Conditions

    Gearing Analogy

    Purely Generated (Hobbed) Impellers

    Numerical Control of Passage Shape

    Stationary Components


    Chapter 12. Pump Type Variations

    Choice of Speed and Number of Stages

    High Pressure High Temperature Pumps

    Series Operation, High-pressure High-temperature Glands

    The Choice of Single or Double Entry Impellers

    Large Single Entry Pumps

    Diffusers on Multistage Pumps

    Chapter 13. Planning a Range of Pumps


    Dimensionless Designing

    Variations of Type Numbers

    Choice of Area Ratio for a Given Duty

    Typical Example of a Range of Pumps for 30—50 m Head

    Design Details

    Area Ratio and Type Number


    Chapter 14. Losses in Centrifugal Pumps

    Power Losses

    Head Losses

    Leakage Losses


    Chapter 15. Normal Construction Materials

    Corrosion — Erosion

    Chapter 16. Special Construction Materials

    Severely Corrosive Duties

    Materials for High Stage Heads (See Ref 27)



    Chapter 17. Mechanical Design of Centrifugal Pumps

    Radial Thrust Formula

    Axial Thrust

    Example of Mechanical Design of Combined Motor Pump (Ref 18, Fig 92, Chapter 37)

    Large Pumps and Water Turbines

    Shaft and Bearing Loadings

    Axial Loadings

    Centrifugal Stresses


    Chapter 18. Critical Speeds and Vibrations

    Critical Speed of a Combined Motor Pump (Ref 17 and Fig 92, Chapter 37)

    Electrical Radial Loadings

    Shaft Deflection

    Critical Speed of the Rotor of the Combined Unit

    Rigidity of Anchorage Between Pump and Motor

    Size of Shaft

    Rotating Dynamic Machinery

    Multistage Pumps on Medium Duties

    Multistage Pumps on More Severe Duty

    Shaft Centering Forces


    Chapter 19. Bearings

    Sleeve Bearings

    Tilting Pad Thrust Bearings

    Bearings Lubricated by Pumped Liquid

    Thrust Bearings Lubricated by the Pumped Liquid

    Non-Metallic Bearings

    Secondary Bearings


    Chapter 20. Pressure Vessel Aspects

    Economical Use of Metal on Single Stage Machines

    Two Versions of the Closure


    Chapter 21. Shaft Sealing


    Hydrodynamic Seals

    Mechanical Seals (Ref 36)

    Balanced Seals

    Coolant Circulation

    Double Seal Arrangements

    Split Seals

    Radial Seals

    Split Seal Rings

    Sealing by Limited Clearance Flow


    Chapter 22. Approach and Discharge Conditions

    Methods of Conveying Water

    Pump Drawing Water from a Sump or Culvert

    Inlet Conditions

    Suction Piping

    Vaporizing Liquid Pumps

    Foot Valves and Strainers

    Delivery Valves and Non-Return Valves

    Velocity and Pressure

    Delivery Piping

    Overall Picture of Pumping Station


    Chapter 23. Characteristics of Pumps and Pipe Systems

    Pump Characteristics

    Consideration of Pump and Pipeline

    Falling Characteristic

    Static Head and Flow Conditions

    Physical Explanation of Pressure Oscillations

    Chapter 24. Installation of Pumps

    Erection of Centrifugal Pumps

    Pipe Loadings

    Chapter 25. Starting Transient and Emergency Conditions

    Priming and Suction Arrangements

    Starting of Centrifugal Pumps

    Starting Characteristics of Submersible Pumps

    Omission of Foot Valve

    Transient Conditions

    Abnormal Conditions

    Inertias of Rotor and Water Column

    Inertia of Pipe Column

    Example 1

    Example 2

    Example of Filling of Rising Main

    Incorrect Assembly of impeller


    Chapter 26. Testing and Test Codes

    Testing of Pumps

    Test Codes

    Chapter 27. Monitoring and Maintenance of Pumps

    Maintenance of Pumps

    Routine Recording

    Periodic Service

    Repair Procedures

    Rebuilding of Worn Surfaces

    Monitoring of Pump Performance

    Chapter 28. Single Stage Pumps

    Single Stage Pumps of the Simplest Type (Fig 50)

    Cost Aspect

    Materials of Construction

    General Construction Details

    Splitting of Casing

    Radial and Axial Thrust

    Glanding Arrangements

    Applications of Small Single Stage Pumps

    Single Stage Double Entry Centrifugal Pumps (Fig 51)

    General Construction

    Provision for Wear


    Details and Auxiliaries

    Design Problems of Single Stage Pumps

    Vertical Operation

    Standard Single Stage Pumps

    Chapter 29. Multistage Split Casing Pumps

    Design of Two Stage Pumps (Fig 55)

    Mechanical Problems

    Rigidity of Two Stage Pump

    Hydraulic Problems

    Position of Cross Over

    Application of Two Stage Pumps

    Chapter 30. Borehole Pumps


    Description of Borehole Pump

    Details of Pump

    Details of Rising Main (Fig 56)

    Efficiency Aspect

    Comparison with Submersible Pumps

    Suction Strainer

    Suction Piping

    Absence of Foot Valve

    The Pump Proper (Figs 58 and 59)

    Internal Tube and Shafting (Fig 56)

    Head Gear (Fig 56)

    Examples of Borehole Pumps

    Ejector Pumps

    Chapter 31. Submersible Pumps


    Introduction of Submersible Pumps (Ref 10)

    Pump Details

    Materials of Construction

    Type Number


    Journal and Thrust-Bearing Loadings

    Radial Loadings

    Influence of Borehole Diameter on Type of Pump


    Chapter 32. Cone Flow and Axial Flow Pumps

    Cone Flow or Mixed Flow Pumps

    Axial Flow Pumps

    Syphon Pipe Systems


    Chapter 33. Multistage Cellular Pumps





    Mechanical Thrust Bearings

    Disposal of Balance Water on Multistage Pumps

    Section Drawings

    Materials of Multistage Pumps

    Chapter 34. Severe Duty Pumps

    Head per Stage

    Cavitation Problems

    Chemical Effects

    Load Factor

    Increase of Size of Plant over the Years


    Chapter 35. Small High Speed Pumps

    Geared Pump Sets (Fig 71)

    Rocket Pumps

    Rotating Casing Pumps

    Chapter 36. Boiler Feed Pumps

    SI Units

    Part 1 up to 1961

    Symmetrical Feed Pump

    60 MW Thermal Shock Test: 1948

    Barrel Feed Pump (Fig 73)

    100 MW Thermal Shock Test: 1957

    Test Problems

    Test Results

    Main Bolt Stressing

    Thermal Stress in the Shell of the Barrel

    Site Tests on 100 MW Units

    Barrel Material

    Thermal and Stress Symmetry

    End Cover

    End Cover Stresses

    Stress Calculations

    Feed Range Characteristics

    Pump Characteristics

    Pump Operation on Zero Boiler Demand

    Transient Temperature Conditions

    Hydraulic Design

    Determination of Impeller Vane and Passage Shape

    Chemical Aspects

    Metallurgical Details

    Other Mechanical Design Aspects


    Main Bolts



    Pressure Joints

    Minimizing of High-Frequency Vibration and Noise

    General Chart of Mechanical Design

    Thermal Comparison of Pump Casing and Boiler Drum

    Comparison with Steam and Gas Turbines

    Feed Pump Drives

    Variation of Pump Efficiency with Temperature of Feed Water and with Rotational Speed

    Effect of Viscosity Change

    Make-up of Losses in Multistage Pumps (Ref 30 and Chapter 11)

    Effect of Clearance Change

    Determination of Leak-off Quantity

    Procedure for Approximate Determination of Temperature Changes

    Determination of Other Temperatures

    Temperature Rise of Mixture

    pH and Material Chart


    Part 2: The 1970's by Leith McColl & Ryall (Ref 46)

    Design Philosophy

    Main Pump Construction

    Internal Cartridge Assembly

    Pump Rotating Element

    Oil Seals and Coupling Guards

    Rotor Dynamics

    Hydraulic Design

    Hydraulic Thrust

    Impeller Seal and Balance Drum Geometry

    External Gland Design

    Compatibility of Materials

    Test Program

    Choice of Suction Pump

    Future Developments


    Chapter 37. Large Single Entry Pumps

    Review of Developments

    Pumps Designed for Rigidity

    Water Turbines

    Unit Construction, Single Entry Pumps

    Construction and Application Details

    Stainless Casings

    Diesel Drive


    Storage Pumps

    Model Tests

    Transient Conditions (See also Chapter 25)

    Water Turbo-Alternators on the Unit Construction Principle

    Small Combined Motor Pumps

    Application of Single Entry Combined Motor Pumps

    Mechanical Design

    Hydraulic Design



    Chapter 38. Pumps for Storage of Energy and other Large Power Duties


    The Ffestiniog Scheme (Ref 54)

    Reversible Pump Turbine

    American Francis Pump Turbines

    Deriaz Units

    Higher Head Deriaz Units

    Problems of High Head Reversible Application

    Cruachan 100 MW Reversible Units (Plates 47 and 48, Fig 104 and Refs 53 and 55)

    Tehachapi (Fig 105 and Plate 60)

    Future Developments


    Chapter 39. Mine Pumps


    Main Drainage Pumps


    Sinking and Dewatering Pumps

    Coal-Face Pumps


    Sludge Pumping

    Pump Characteristics

    Maximum Speeds

    The Choice of Speed


    Severe Mine Waters

    Motors (See Chapter 44)

    Submersible Motors (See Chapter 31)

    Fiery Mines

    Typical Examples of Drainage Pumps


    Chapter 40. Thermal Power Station Pumps

    Condenser Cooling Water Circulating Pumps

    Extraction Pumps

    Boiler Feed Pumps

    Boiler Circulating Pumps

    Wet and Canned Motor Pumps

    Nuclear Power Station Circulating Pumps


    Chapter 41. Offshore Marine and Aerospace Pumps

    Glandless Combined Steam Turbine and Pump Lubricated by Imped Water ('Weir')


    Bearings and Balance Disc

    Miscellaneous Marine Pumps

    Aerospace Pumps


    Chapter 42. Chemical, Refinery and Process Pumps

    Chemical Duties

    Nature of Liquids — Acidity and Alkalinity

    Aggressive Nature of Liquid

    Raw Materials

    Viscosity and Specific Gravity


    Properties of Hydrocarbons

    Variation of Pump Performance with Specific Gravity and Viscosity

    Liquid Properties Affecting the Design of Pumps

    Pressure and Temperature

    Corrosion and Erosion


    Saturation Aspects

    Flammability, Poisoning, etc

    Light Fractions and Liquefied Gases

    Use of Non-Ferrous Metals

    Nature of Drive

    Refinery Layout


    Pumping of Solids

    High and Low Temperatures

    Vaporizing Duties

    Freezing Problems

    Thermal Controls

    Hydraulic Configuration

    Configuration of Pumps

    Shaft Material

    Shaft Sealing

    Canned and Wet Motors

    Detail Design of Pump for Non-abrasive Liquids

    Pumps for Abrasive Duties (See Ref 68)

    Tangent Pumps

    Higher Pressure Duties

    Pipe Loadings

    Power Recovery


    Chapter 43. Pumps for Various Specific Duties

    Paper Mill Pumps

    Steelworks Pumps

    Sewage Pumps and Storm Water Pumps

    Pumps for Industrial Slurries

    Molten Metal Pumps

    Food Industries: Milk and Beer Pumps, etc

    Drainage and Irrigation Pumps

    Self Priming Pumps


    Chapter 44. Drivers

    Coupling of Driver to Pump

    Determination of Pump Efficiency

    Pump, Motor and Overall Efficiencies

    Starting Conditions, etc


    Chapter 45. Miscellaneous Aspects


    Frame Selection Chart

    Plotting and Analysis of Pump Tests

    Pipe Friction

    Flow through Orifices and Nozzles

    Economical Assessment of Efficiency

    Quality Assurance

    Calculation of Combined Stresses

    Mise Hencky Ductile Material Formula

    Two Dimensional Stresses

    Application to Shafts

    Final Formula for Shear and Longitudinal Tensile Stress on a Shaft

    Three Dimensional Stresses:

    Hoop and Longitudinal Stresses in Brittle Materials

    Design of Single Stage Pump Castings

    Heating Effects

    Pressure Test


    Chapter 46. The Third Millennium


    Escalation of Present Activities

    Boiler Feed Pumps

    Space Rocket Pumps

    Production and Performance

    Statistical Control of Performance

    Cost of Mass Produced Pumps

    Production of Flow Passage Surfaces

    Metallurgy and Plastics

    Future Development of Pumps

    Mechanical Seals

    Submersible Motors and Pumps

    Canned Motors

    Pressure Vessel Design


    Liquid Metal Induction Pumps

    Stage Numbers



    New and Untried Processes

    Nuclear duties

    Space and Deep Sea Duties




    Appendix A: Effect of Pump Geometry on Pump Performance

    Inlet Conditions

    Outlet Conditions


    Torque Equation

    Head Characteristics

    Power and Efficiency Characteristics


    Efficiency Taking into Account Shock Losses only

    Other Losses

    Type Number



    Actual Tests of Pumps


    Appendix B: Materials for Various Liquids

    Data Required by Pump Manufacturers for Proper Selection of Material

    Abrasive Aspects

    Pump Materials (from Ref 29)

    Cast Irons

    Cast Steels

    Stainless Steels










    Appendix C: Example of Centrifugal Pump Design — Double Entry Pump Practical Application of Design Factors


    Suction Performance


    Area Ratio


    Outlet Angle

    Eye and Shaft Design

    Inlet Angle

    Number of Impeller Vanes





    Choice of Type Number for Best Efficiency

    Efficiency Losses in this Example

    Radial Loading at Zero Flow

    Shaft Stress

    Torque Stress

    IMPSH and Atmospheric Pressure

    Geometric Designing

    Change of Speed for the Same Size of Pump

    Geometric Change of Size for the Same rev/min

    Geometric Change of Size with Inverse Change of Speed


    The Use of a Slide Rule or Calculator without Fractional Powers

    Determination of Type Number

    Fractional Powers


    Appendix D Quality Assurance (Ref 21)

    Pressure Vessels — Cycling Tests

    Photoelastic Tests on a 120 mm Araldite Vessel (Epoxy Resin)

    Bursting Tests

    Stress Analysis

    Materials for Rotating and Stationary Surfaces

    High Speed Impeller and Diffuser Tests


    Appendix E.


    Increase of Power

    Development of Turbines

    Modern Turbines

    Specific Speed

    Choice of Turbine

    Limiting Speed

    Application of Water Turbines

    Problems in the Operation of Turbines

    Pipeline Inertia

    Rotor Inertia

    Construction of Turbines


    References - Alphabetical


    Index to Advertisers

Product details

  • No. of pages: 466
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 1980
  • Published: December 31, 1980
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483294506

About the Author

H.H. Anderson

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