Cellular Regulation of Secretion and Release - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780121850586, 9781483273563

Cellular Regulation of Secretion and Release

1st Edition

Editors: P. Michael Conn
eBook ISBN: 9781483273563
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th December 1982
Page Count: 610
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Description

Cellular Regulation of Secretion and Release is a compilation of papers that deals with the processes in cellular perception of stimuli and the response to them.
Part I describes the receptor occupancy and regulation of stimulus through the use of video image intensification techniques. This part also explains a model for the transmembrane regulation of adenylate cyclase that shows the mechanisms that cells use in sensing and responding to extracellular conditions. Part II discusses the early responses of secretory cells including changes in phospholipid metabolism, in electrophysiological events, and in macromolecular carboxymethylation. One paper suggests that protein-carboxyl methylase has a role in neurotransmission and secretion whether as a part of the exocytotic process or just a help to regulate the process. Part III addresses the role in secretion of the subcellular architecture particularly as regards the role of the cytoskeleton in endocrine function or insulin secretion and cytoskeletal proteins. Part IV discusses the synthesis, processing, and storage of secretory products, including the role of signal peptides, their properties, and interactions. Part V addresses the mechanisms and modulation of secretion and release in a study of Leydig cells. One paper concludes that the regulation of release, through dopamine and TRH factors, can have more than one mechanism of action.
This book can be useful for cellular microbiologists, bacteriologists, endocrinologists, researchers, and academicians in the biochemistry and in reproductive medicine.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Preface

Introduction

Part I Stimulus: Receptor Occupancy and Regulation

1 Receptor Regulation by Hormones: Relevance to Secretion and Other Biological Functions

I. Introduction

II. Pituitary Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptors

III. Opiate (Enkephalin) Receptors in Neuroblastoma Cells

IV. Receptor Internalization as a Possible Mechanism for Biological Responses

V. Receptor Cross-Linking as a Possible Mechanism for Biological Responses

VI. Conclusions: Models for Hormone Action

References

2 The ß-Adrenergic Receptor System: A Model for the Transmembrane Regulation of Adenylate Cyclase

I. Introduction

II. Identification and Characterization of the Receptor

III.Adenylate Cyclase

IV. Desensitization

V. Reconstitution

VI. A Model for Activation of Adenylate Cyclase by ß-Adrenergic Hormones

References

Part II Early Responses of Secretory Cells

3 Roles of Phospholipid Metabolism in Secretory Cells

I. Introduction

II. Fatty Acids and Phospholipids Affect SecretioN

III. Phospholipase C, Phosphoinositides, and Ca2+ Mobilization

IV. Phospholipase A, Phospholipids, and Secretion

V. Conclusion

References

4 Electrophysiological Correlates of Secretion in Endocrine Cells

I. Endocrine Cells versus Neurons

II. Passive Membrane Properties

III. Active Membrane Properties

IV. Functional Significance of Electrical Events

References

5 Protein-Carboxyl Methylation: Putative Role in Exocytosis and in the Cellular Regulation of Secretion and Chemotaxis

I. Introduction

II. Protein-Carboxyl Methylase

III. Exocytotic Secretion and Protein-Carboxyl Methylation

IV. Alternative Secretory Functions for Protein-Carboxyl Methylase

V. Function of Protein-Carboxyl Methylation in Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Chemotaxis

VI. Concluding Remarks

References

Part III Subcellular Architecture: Its Role in Secretion

6 The Role of the Cytoskeleton in Endocrine Function

I. Introduction

II. The Functions of Microtubules and Microfilaments

III. The Role of Microfilaments in Endocrine Activities

IV. The Regulation of Cytoskeletal Function

References

7 Cytoskeletal Proteins and Insulin Secretion

I. Introduction

II. Microtubules and Insulin Secretion

III. Actin in Pancreatic Islets

IV. Quantitation of Actin in Islets and RIN Cells

V. Actin Levels in Islets and in Monolayer Cultures of Beta Cells

VI. Actin-Binding Proteins

VII. Actin-Binding Proteins in Rat Insulinoma Cells

VIII. Calcium and Insulin Secretion

IX. Calmodulin: The Intracellular Calcium Receptor

X. Calmodulin Regulation of Enzymes That Could Control Insulin Secretion

XI. Pharmacological Studies of Calmodulin Antagonists and Insulin Secretion

XII. Studies of Effects of the W Compounds on Insulin Release

XIII. Calmodulin-Binding Proteins in RIN 5F in Cells

XIV. Ca2+ -Calmodulin Phosphorylation of Beta Cell Proteins

XV. Insulin Secretion in Type II, Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes

XVI. Secretory Abnormalities in Diabetic Rabbits

XVII. Diabetes in the Spiny Mouse

XVIII. Cytoskeletal Proteins in Diabetic Mice

References

Part IV Synthesis, Processing, and Storage of Secretory Products

8 Regulation of Prolactin Gene Expression

I. Introduction

II. Biosynthesis of Prolactin

III. Regulation of Prolactin Synthesis and Prolactin mRNA Levels

IV. Analysis of the Prolactin Gene

V. Summary and Future Prospects

References

9 Signal Peptides: Properties and Interactions

I. Introduction

II. General Structural Considerations

III. Interaction of the Leader Peptide with Membranes

IV. Model Systems of Leader-Like Peptides Interacting with Membranes

V. Hypothesis of Transmembrane Translocations of Proteins

VI. Conclusions

References

10 Diseases of Secretion

I. Introduction

II. Cystic Fibrosis

III. The Normal Exocrine Pancreas

IV. The Exocrine Pancreas in Cystic Fibrosis

V. Other Secretions in Cystic Fibrosis

VI. Cystic Fibrosis Research

VII. Conclusion

References

Part V Mechanisms and Modulation of Secretion and Release

11 Regulation of Steroidogenesis in Leydig Cells

I. Introduction

II. Purification of Leydig Cells

III. LH Receptors and Testosterone Production in Different Populations of Leydig Cells

IV. Gonadotropin Regulation of LH Receptors and Steroidogenesis in Leydig Cells

V. Steroidogenic Enzymes

VI. Leydig Cells during Sexual Maturation

VII. Conclusion

References

12 Regulation of Steroid Production in Adrenal, Gonadal, and Placental Tumor Cells

I. Introduction

II. Origin and General Characteristics of Steroid-Secreting Tumors

III. Steroidogenic Pathways

IV. Hormonal Control of Steroidogenesis

V. Control of Steroidogenesis by Substrate Availability: Choriocarcinoma Cells

VI. Conclusions

References

13 Possible Regulatory Roles of Calmodulin and Myosin Light Chain Kinase in Secretion

I. Introduction

II. Calmodulin

III. Calmodulin and Hormone Action

IV. Myosin Light Chain Kinase

V. Conclusion

References

14 Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Stimulation of Pituitary Gonadotropin Release: A Model System for Receptor- Mediated Ca2+-Dependent Secretion

I. Introduction

II. Distribution, Characterization, and Molecular Biology of the GnRH Receptor

III. Calcium as a Second Messenger for GnRH

IV. Extrapituitary Sites of Action of GnRH and Cross-Reactive Substances

V. Conclusions

References

15 Hormonal Modulation of LH and FSH Secretion by Cultured Pituitary Cells

I. Introduction

II. Effect of Agonistic and Antagonistic Analogs of GnRH on Gonadotropin Production

III. Effect of Estrogens and Catechol Estrogens on Gonadotropin Production

IV. Effect of Progestins on Gonadotropin Production and the Antagonism of Estrogen Action by Progestins

V. Effect of Antiestrogens on Gonadotropin Production

VI. Effect of Androgens on Gonadotropin Production

VII. Effect of Ovarian Inhibin-Like Factor on Gonadotropin Production

VIII. Effect of Insulin and Growth Factors on Gonadotropin Production

IX. Conclusion

References

16 Mechanisms of Regulation of Prolactin Release

I. Basal Prolactin Release

II. Compounds That Affect Prolactin Release

III. Release in Intact Animals

IV. Concluding Remarks

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
610
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1982
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483273563

About the Editor

P. Michael Conn

P. Michael Conn is the Senior Vice President for Research and Associate Provost, Texas Tech Health Sciences Center. He is The Robert C. Kimbrough, Professor of Internal Medicine and Cell Biology/Biochemistry. He was previously Director of Research Advocacy and Professor of Physiology and Pharmacology, Cell Biology and Development and Obstetrics and Gynecology at Oregon Health and Science University and Senior Scientist of the Oregon National Primate Research Center (ONPRC). He served for twelve years as Special Assistant to the President and Associate Director of the ONPRC. After receiving a B.S. degree and teaching certification from the University of Michigan (1971), a M.S. from North Carolina State University (1973), and a Ph.D. degree from Baylor College of Medicine (1976), Conn did a fellowship at the NIH, then joined the faculty in the Department of Pharmacology, Duke University Medical Center where he was promoted to Associate Professor in 1982. In 1984, he became Professor and Head of Pharmacology at the University of Iowa College of Medicine, a position he held for eleven years. Conn is known for his research in the area of the cellular and molecular basis of action of gonadotropin releasing hormone action in the pituitary and therapeutic approaches that restore misfolded proteins to function. His work has led to drugs that have benefitted humans and animals. Most recently, he has identified a new class of drugs, pharmacoperones, which act by regulating the intracellular trafficking of receptors, enzymes and ion channels. He has authored or co-authored over 350 publications in this area and written or edited over 200 books, including texts in neurosciences, molecular biology and endocrinology. Conn has served as the editor of many professional journals and book series (Endocrinology, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Endocrine, Methods, Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science and Contemporary Endocrinology). Conn served on the National Board of Medical Examiners, including two years as chairman of the reproduction and endocrinology committee. The work of his laboratory has been recognized with a MERIT award from the NIH, the J.J. Abel Award of the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, the Weitzman, Oppenheimer and Ingbar Awards of the Endocrine Society, the National Science Medal of Mexico (the Miguel Aleman Prize) and the Stevenson Award of Canada. He is the recipient of the Oregon State Award for Discovery, the Media Award of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology and was named a distinguished Alumnus of Baylor College of Medicine in 2012. Conn is a previous member of Council for the American Society for Cell Biology and the Endocrine Society and is a prior President of the Endocrine Society, during which time he founded the Hormone Foundation and worked with political leadership to heighten the public’s awareness of diabetes. Conn’s students and fellows have gone on to become leaders in industry and academia. He is an elected member of the Mexican Institute of Medicine and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is the co-author of The Animal Research War (2008) and many articles for the public and academic community on the value of animal research and the dangers posed by animal extremism. His op/eds have appeared in The Washington Post, The LA Times, The Wall Street Journal, the Des Moines Register, and elsewhere. Conn consults with organizations that are influenced by animal extremism and with universities and companies facing challenges from these groups.

Affiliations and Expertise

Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, USA