Cellular, Molecular, Physiological, and Behavioral Aspects of Traumatic Brain Injury

Cellular, Molecular, Physiological, and Behavioral Aspects of Traumatic Brain Injury

1st Edition - May 10, 2022

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  • Editors: Rajkumar Rajendram, Victor Preedy, Colin Martin
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128230602
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128230367

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Description

Traumatic brain injury has complex etiology and may arise as a consequence of physical abuse, violence, war, vehicle collisions, working in the construction industry, and sports. Cellular, Molecular, Physiological, and Behavioral Aspects of Traumatic Brain Injury will improve readers’ understanding of the detailed processes arising from traumatic brain injury. Featuring chapters on neuroinflammation, metabolism, and psychology, this volume discusses the impact of these injuries on neurological and body systems to better understand underlying pathways. This book will be relevant for neuroscientists, neurologists, clinicians, and anyone working to better understand traumatic brain injury.

Key Features

  • Summarizes the neuroscience of traumatic brain injury, including cellular and molecular biology
  • Contains chapter abstracts, key facts, dictionary, and summary points to aid in understanding
  • Features chapters on signaling and hormonal events
  • Includes plasticity and gene expression
  • Examines health and stress behaviors after traumatic brain injury

Readership

Neuroscientists, neurologists, clinicians, health scientists, public health workers, doctors, and research scientists. Undergraduates, postgraduate, lecturers and academic professors

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Section A: Setting the scene: The spectrum of traumatic brain injuries
  • Chapter 1: Fall-related traumatic brain injuries in older adults: The role of the neck
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Role of neck muscles in TBI prevention
  • Effects of aging on neck muscles
  • Potential rehabilitation strategies
  • Conclusions
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Key facts of fall-related traumatic brain injuries
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 2: The implications of sex and gender in traumatic brain injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Conceptual considerations
  • Basic science and preclinical research
  • Clinical and population-based research
  • Population-based research
  • Implications for translational research and medicine
  • Application to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of sex/gender influences in traumatic brain injury
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Sport-related concussion: The role of repetitive head impact exposure
  • Abstract
  • Sport-related concussion
  • Monitoring head impact exposure in contact sports
  • Concussion and head impact exposure in soccer
  • Concussion and head impact exposure in ice hockey
  • Concussion and head impact exposure in American football
  • Summary
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of sport-related concussion: The role of repetitive head impact exposure
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Chapter 4: Traumatic brain injury and molecular biology: A new narrative
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Excitatory mechanisms post TBI
  • Neuroinflammation
  • Mitochondrial injury post TBI
  • Cell death mechanisms post TBI
  • Long-term sequelae of TBI
  • Clinical implications of understanding the molecular mechanisms of TBI
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of pCaMKII
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 5: Features of decompressive craniectomy in traumatic brain injury: History, effects, management, and new trends
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • History of decompressive craniectomy
  • Effect of decompressive craniectomy on intra-cranial pressure and brain perfusion
  • Decompressive craniectomy: Surgical techniques
  • Evidences on decompressive craniectomy for management of intra-cranial hypertension in TBI. The randomized controlled trials
  • New trends in management of post-traumatic intra-cranial hypertension: Hinge/floating craniotomy and cisternostomy
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of decompressive craniectomy
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 6: Management of traumatic brain injury in accordance with contemporary guidelines: Treatment, monitoring, and thresholds
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Decompressive craniectomy
  • Prophylactic hypothermia
  • Hyperosmolar therapy
  • Cerebrospinal fluid drainage
  • Thresholds and monitoring in TBI
  • Cerebral oxygenation
  • Brain tissue partial oxygen pressure (PbtO2)
  • Cerebral microdialysis
  • Conclusion
  • Mini-dictionary
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Section B: Cellular and molecular aspects of traumatic brain injury
  • Chapter 7: Insights into the pathological role of neuroinflammatory responses in traumatic brain injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Secondary cellular injury
  • Astrocytes
  • Acute neuroinflammation
  • Role of inflammatory mediators in neuroinflammation
  • Future direction of anti‑inflammation as a therapy for traumatic brain injury
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 8: Seizures in traumatic brain injury: A focus on cellular aspects
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Incidence of seizure following TBI
  • Pathogenesis of seizure following TBI
  • Acute phase
  • Sub-acute phase
  • Chronic/latent phase
  • Conclusion
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of seizure in traumatic brain injury
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 9: Linking traumatic brain injury, neural stem, and progenitor cells
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Neural stem and progenitor cells and neurogenesis in development
  • Adult neurogenesis and TBI
  • Development of therapeutics: Standard care, challenges and prospective treatments
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs)
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 10: Microglia in traumatic brain injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Microglia-resident immune cells in the brain with various morphologies
  • Microglial polarization (M1-like vs M2-like)
  • Heterogeneity of M1-like and M2-like polarization following TBI
  • Potential implications of microglia-mediated chronic neuroinflammation following TBI
  • Post-traumatic epilepsy
  • Chronic neurodegeneration
  • Psychosocial problems
  • Microglial priming after TBI
  • Areas for future investigation
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of microglia in TBI
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 11: Dendritic spine plasticity and traumatic brain injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Synapse structure and function
  • Potential mechanisms underlying dendritic spine damage after TBI
  • Treatments for dendritic spine dysfunction after TBI
  • Future directions of research for treatment of TBI
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of dendritic spine plasticity and traumatic brain injury
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 12: Aging, the immune response, and traumatic brain injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • The burden of TBI in geriatric populations
  • How aging affects the central nervous system
  • Aging influences the immune system
  • Vascular aging and inflammation
  • Neuroinflammation is an influential secondary injury mechanism in TBI
  • Aging affects TBI through neuroinflammation
  • Aging may influence TBI through other mechanisms
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of immunosenescence
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 13: The adaptive immune system in traumatic brain injury: A focus on T and B lymphocytes
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Innate and adaptive immunity
  • Acute and chronic lymphocytic response in TBI
  • Consequence of a persistent adaptive immune response after injury
  • Therapeutic avenues
  • Systemic immunosuppression in TBI
  • Auto-reactivity following CNS injury
  • Conclusion
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of the adaptive immune system in traumatic brain injury
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 14: The role of regulatory T cells in traumatic brain injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • The number of Tregs correlates with clinical outcome of TBI
  • Frequency and regulation of Tregs in animal models of TBI
  • Tregs attenuate immune responses in the acute phase of experimental TBI
  • Cell therapeutic approaches for increasing Tregs in experimental TBI
  • Pharmacological approaches for increasing Tregs in experimental TBI
  • Clinical studies evaluating effects of EPO and atorvastatin in TBI
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of “The role of regulatory T cells in traumatic brain injury”
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 15: The role of the chemokine prokineticin 2 in traumatic brain injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • PK2 is upregulated after traumatic brain injury
  • Enhanced expression of PK2 is part of the response to traumatic brain injury
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of traumatic brain injury (TBI)
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 16: The role of Na+,K+-ATPase on TBI-induced physiopathology
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Structural characteristics of Na+,K+-ATPase in the central nervous system
  • Role of Na+,K+-ATPase in the mobility and synaptic transmission
  • TBI progress and Na+,K+-ATPase activity
  • Concluding remarks and perspectives
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of Na+,K+-ATPase
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 17: Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, metabolic enzymes, and energy derangement in traumatic brain injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex: Structure, function and regulation
  • PDHC in human pathologies
  • PDHC in TBI
  • Changes in gene and protein expressions of PDHC, PDP, PDK and TCA cycle enzymes after graded TBI
  • Post-traumatic dynamics of cellular energetics
  • Clinical implications and therapeutic targeting
  • Concluding remarks
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of “pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, metabolic enzymes and energy derangement in traumatic brain injury”
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 18: Angiopoietin-1/Tie-2 signaling in traumatic brain injury
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgment
  • Introduction
  • Ang-1 and Tie-2 in the vascular system
  • Role of Ang-1/Tie-2 signaling in the brain
  • Roles of Ang-1/Tie-2 signaling in TBI
  • Candidate drugs for TBI that activate the Ang-1/Tie-2 signaling pathway in the brain
  • Conclusion
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of Angiopoietin
  • Key facts of Tie-2
  • Key facts of the blood-brain barrier
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 19: Brain microdialysis and applications to drug therapy in severe traumatic brain injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Main text
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of brain microdialysis and applications to drug therapy in traumatic brain injury
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 20: Comparing radiation and traumatic brain injuries: New insights
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Different subsections of the main text
  • Structural changes in brain parenchyma resulting from TBI and radiation-induced brain injury
  • Structural changes in the vascular endothelium resulting from TBI or RBI
  • Activation of inflammatory responses following TBI and RBI
  • Inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response
  • Renin-angiotensin system, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors ACE I, and angiotensin type 1 receptor blockers
  • Diagnostics for TBI and RBI: Neural proteins released into blood compartment following brain injuries
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 21: Sodium dysregulation in traumatic brain injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Review of axon structure
  • Cellular models of axon stretch injury and sodium handling
  • Sodium interaction with cellular-level calcium
  • Voltage-gated sodium channels and spectrin
  • Longer term ionic effects of injury: Altered Nav expression and distribution in TBI
  • Multiple injuries and the effects on sodium
  • Interaction with and role of potassium
  • In vivo evidence of sodium derangement from sodium magnetic resonance imaging in human TBI subjects
  • Conclusion
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of sodium dysregulation in traumatic brain injury
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 22: WNT genes and their roles in traumatic brain injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • The epigenome during regeneration of the nervous system
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of transcription
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Section C: Physiological and metabolic effects
  • Chapter 23: Circuit reorganization after diffuse axonal injury: Utility of the whisker barrel circuit
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Circuit damage and recovery: Adaptive and maladaptive responses
  • Neuroplasticity
  • Whisker barrel circuit (WBC)
  • Chronic post-traumatic morbidity in the WBC
  • Rehabilitation and recovery
  • Conclusions, outlook, and challenges
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of brain injury circuit reorganization
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 24: Neuroendocrine abnormalities following traumatic brain injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Pituitary gland physiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Prevalence
  • Risk factors
  • Associations
  • Clinical course
  • Signs and symptoms
  • Corticotropin deficiency
  • Thyrotropin deficiency
  • Gonadotropin deficiency
  • Hyperprolactinemia
  • Growth hormone deficiency
  • DI and SIADH
  • Neuroimaging
  • Conclusion
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of confounding symptoms in traumatic brain injury with post-traumatic hypopituitarism
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 25: Thyroid hormone actions in traumatic brain injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and the brain
  • Neuroprotective actions of thyroid hormones in TBI
  • Thyroid hormones in TBI patients
  • Diagnosis of endocrine dysfunction in TBI patients
  • Future perspectives
  • Conclusions
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of thyroid hormone actions in the setting of traumatic brain injury
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 26: Testosterone: Features and role in treating traumatic brain injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Traumatic brain injury: From epidemiology to pituitary dysfunction
  • Testosterone synthesis, metabolism and signal transduction
  • Testosterone implications for brain trauma
  • Conclusion
  • Testosterone applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of testosterone use in traumatic brain injury
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 27: The rate of empty sella (ES) in traumatic brain injury: Links with endocrine profiles
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced hypopituitarism
  • Empty sella syndrome secondary to TBI and associated hypopituitarism
  • Treatment
  • Conclusion
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of “The rate of empty sella (ES) in traumatic brain injury: Links with endocrine profiles”
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 28: Traumatic brain injury: Inter-relationship with sleep
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Sleep physiology
  • Types of sleep disturbance associated with TBI
  • TBI-induced damage to sleep associated brain regions
  • TBI-induced inflammation can affect sleep
  • Severity and circumstance of injury can affect the patient’s sleep
  • Conclusion/future directions
  • Application to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 29: Puberty and traumatic brain injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Endocrine disruptions in juveniles following TBI
  • Puberty
  • Delayed puberty
  • Precocious puberty
  • HPG axis
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and kisspeptin
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone
  • Testosterone and estrogen
  • Growth hormone
  • Timing of brain injury on puberty
  • Possible mechanisms of TBI-induced damage leading to pubertal dysfunction
  • Conclusions
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of puberty and traumatic brain injury
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 30: Role of endocannabinoids in the escalation of alcohol use following traumatic brain injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Initial pathophysiology of TBI: Mechanical injury exacerbated by neuroinflammation
  • TBI-induced synaptic hyperexcitability
  • TBI and alcohol consumption
  • Possible mechanisms of post-TBI escalation of alcohol drinking
  • Targeting the endocannabinoid system to treat the biobehavioral consequences of TBI
  • Conclusions
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 31: Imaging connectivity and functional brain networks in mild traumatic brain injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Resting state fMRI—The basics
  • Data acquisition and processing
  • Analytical approaches to functional connectivity through rsfMRI
  • RsfMRI changes in early phase of injury
  • Challenges related to rsfMRI evaluation of TBI data
  • Future prospects
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 32: Multi-shell diffusion MR imaging and brain microstructure after mild traumatic brain injury: A focus on working memory
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • dMRI and MTBI
  • Working memory and dMRI
  • Summary
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI)
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 33: Monitoring real-time changes in physiology: Multi-modality neurologic monitoring for pediatric traumatic brain injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Neuromonitoring techniques
  • Pediatric TBI guidelines
  • Data integration
  • Integration and visualization of multi-modal neurologic monitoring systems
  • Clinical decision support
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of monitoring real-time changes in physiology: Multi-modality neurologic monitoring for pediatric traumatic brain injury
  • Summary points of monitoring real-time changes in physiology: Multi-modality neurologic monitoring for pediatric traumatic brain injury
  • References
  • Chapter 34: Blood gas, arterial, and end-tidal carbon dioxide in traumatic brain injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • The importance of carbon dioxide (CO2) in cerebral blood flow regulation
  • Clinical concerns related to hypocapnia
  • Basics of capnography
  • Current recommendations of ventilation therapies from Brain Trauma Foundation guidelines for sever TBI management
  • Capnography monitoring in adult severe TBI care
  • Utility and reliability of capnography monitoring in pre-hospital TBI care
  • Capnography monitoring in pediatric TBI care
  • Reliability of EtCO2 as a surrogate for PaCO2 in PICU
  • Agreement between PaCO2 and EtCO2 in hospitalized pediatric TBI
  • Future direction: Role of transcutaneous PCO2 to estimate PaCO2
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of how CO2 change brain blood flow and how we measure it
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 35: Disturbances of cerebral microcirculation in traumatic brain injury: The role of changes in microcirculatory biomarkers
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Blood viscosity impairment
  • Glia-mediated edema and capillary compression
  • Pericyte dysfunction
  • Vasoactive blood derivatives
  • Neurovascular coupling disorder
  • Intracranial hypertension and vascular wall tonus
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of cerebral microcirculation
  • Key facts of human blood
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Section D: Behavioral and psychological aspects
  • Chapter 36: Social cognition in traumatic brain injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Theoretical model of Cassel et al. (2016)
  • Social cognition components
  • Conclusion
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • References
  • Chapter 37: Physical exercise: Effects on cognitive function after traumatic brain injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Effects of physical exercise on the brain after a traumatic brain injury
  • Traumatic brain injury, physical exercise and cognition: Lessons from animal research
  • Cognitive effects of physical exercise after traumatic brain injury: Clinical studies
  • How to improve effective crosstalk between animal research and the clinical setting?
  • Final remark
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 38: Traumatic axonal injury as a key driver of the relationship between traumatic brain injury, cognitive dysfunction, and dementia
  • Abstract
  • Defining traumatic brain injury: Severity and type of precipitating injury
  • Detecting traumatic axonal injury
  • Mechanisms of injury in TAI: Primary versus secondary axotomy
  • Degenerative changes in axons persist long-term following injury
  • TAI and cognitive dysfunction
  • Increased dementia risk following TBI: The role of TAI
  • Accumulation of amyloid beta within axons following TAI
  • Accumulation of tau within axons following TAI
  • Conclusion
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts about traumatic axonal injury
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 39: Neuropsychological functioning of children and youth after traumatic brain injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Cognitive functioning after pediatric TBI
  • Emotional and behavioral functioning after pediatric TBI
  • Long-term sequelae of pediatric TBI
  • Current limitations of existing research
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of neuropsychological functioning of children and youth after traumatic brain injury
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 40: Behavioral effects of traumatic brain injury: Use of guanosine
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Guanosine as a potential therapy on traumatic brain injury
  • Cellular targets in neuroprotection of guanosine
  • Perspectives and conclusions
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of behavioral effects of traumatic brain injury: Use of guanosine
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 41: Recognizing emotions and effects of traumatic brain injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Emotion perception in TBI
  • Emotion recognition: Different stimuli and tasks
  • Multiple sensory channels
  • The valence’s effect
  • The physiological responsivity
  • Neural correlates of facial recognition impairment in TBI patients
  • The effects of emotion’s perception deficit on social cognition
  • Emotion perception deficits predict functional outcome
  • Interaction between emotion recognition, social cognition, and non-social cognition
  • Conclusion
  • Application to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of emotion perception
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 42: Cognitive communication connections and higher-level language with traumatic brain-injured population
  • Abstract
  • TBI and higher-level language introduction
  • Figurative language skills, inferencing, proverbs, and TBI
  • Framework and language deficits connections
  • Prosody and TBI
  • Working memory and traumatic brain injury
  • Attention and TBI
  • Working memory and language
  • Conclusion
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of higher-level language
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 43: Self-awareness after severe traumatic brain injury: From impairment of self-awareness to psychological adjustment
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Theoretical frameworks and explanatory models of ISA
  • The assessment of ISA
  • The dual aspect of reporting a functional problem after sTBI: From ISA to denial
  • The neuro-rehabilitation of ISA
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts of impairment in self-awareness after severe traumatic brain injury
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 44: Disentangling antecedents from consequences of traumatic brain injury: The need for prospective longitudinal studies
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Aggressive behavior and criminal offending observed in samples of TBI patients
  • Comparing TBI patients and healthy individuals within birth or population cohorts
  • TBIs in samples of criminal offenders
  • Do TBIs sustained in early childhood increase the risk of subsequent conduct problems?
  • Childhood conduct problems and accidents
  • Do conduct problems and inattention-hyperactivity in middle childhood increase the risk of subsequent TBIs?
  • Why or how would childhood CP increase the risk of accidents and TBIs?
  • Could treatments for CP and inattention reduce the risk of TBIs?
  • Conclusions
  • Applications to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts about TBIs
  • Key facts about childhood conduct problems and inattention
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Chapter 45: The link between sleep and quality of life in childhood traumatic brain injury
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Prevalence and assessment of sleep–wake disturbances in child TBI
  • Proposed causes of SWD in child TBI
  • Sleep outcomes in childhood TBI
  • Factors associated with SWD in child TBI
  • Quality of life in childhood TBI
  • Sleep and QoL in childhood TBI: Gaps in the literature
  • Conclusion
  • Application to other areas of neuroscience
  • Mini-dictionary of terms
  • Key facts about sleep and quality of life in children with TBI
  • Summary points
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 612
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2022
  • Published: May 10, 2022
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128230602
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128230367

About the Editors

Rajkumar Rajendram

Dr. Rajendram is a clinician scientist whose focus is on perioperative medicine, anesthesia, and intensive care. He graduated in 2001 with a distinction from Guy’s, King’s, and St. Thomas Medical School in London, and began his postgraduate medical training in general medicine and intensive care in Oxford. Dr. Rajendram returned to Oxford as a consultant in general medicine at the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, before moving to the Royal Free London Hospitals as a consultant in intensive care, anesthesia, and perioperative medicine. He is currently a consultant in internal and perioperative medicine at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. As a visiting lecturer in the Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences, King’s College London, he has published over 100 textbook chapters, review articles, peer-reviewed papers, and abstracts.

Affiliations and Expertise

Visiting Lecturer, Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences, King’s College London, UK

Victor Preedy

Victor R. Preedy BSc, PhD, DSc, FRSB, FRSPH, FRCPath, FRSC is Emeritus Professor of Nutritional Biochemistry, at King’s College London and Professor of Clinical Biochemistry (Hon) at King’s College Hospital. He was the long-term Director of the Genomics Centre at King’s College London from 2006 to 2020. Professor Preedy has carried out research when attached to Imperial College London, The School of Pharmacy (now part of University College London) and the MRC Centre at Northwick Park Hospital. He has collaborated with research groups in Finland, Japan, Australia, USA and Germany. Prof. Preedy is a leading expert on the science of health and has a long-standing interest in dietary and plant-based components. To his credit, Professor Preedy has published over 750 articles, which includes peer-reviewed manuscripts based on original research, abstracts and symposium presentations, reviews and numerous books and volumes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor, King’s College London; Professor, King’s College Hospital, London, UK

Colin Martin

Dr. Martin is a Professor of Mental Health at Buckinghamshire New University. He is a Registered Nurse, Chartered Health Psychologist, and a Chartered Scientist. He has published or has in press well over 250 research papers and book chapters. He is a keen book author and editor having written and/or edited several books all of which reflect his diverse academic and clinical interests that examine in-depth, the interface between mental health and physical health. These outputs include the Handbook of Behavior; Food and Nutrition (2011), Perinatal Mental Health: A Clinical Guide (2012); Nanomedicine and the Nervous System (2012), and the major reference works Comprehensive Guide to Autism (2014), Diet and Nutrition in Dementia and Cognitive Decline (2015), Comprehensive Guide to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (2016) and Metabolism and Pathophysiology of Bariatric Surgery: Nutrition, Procedures, Outcomes, and Adverse Effects (2017).

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Clinical Psychobiology and Applied Psychoneuroimmunology and Clinical Director: Institute for Health and Wellbeing, University of Suffolk, Ipswich, UK

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