Cellular Mechanism for Calcium Transfer and Homeostasis - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125180504, 9780323146159

Cellular Mechanism for Calcium Transfer and Homeostasis

1st Edition

Editors: George Jr. Nichols
eBook ISBN: 9780323146159
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1971
Page Count: 556
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Description

Cellular Mechanisms for Calcium Transfer and Homeostasis presents the proceedings of the Workshop Conference on Cell Mechanisms for Calcium Transfer and Homeostasis, held at Portsmouth, New Hampshire on September 13–16, 1970. This book examines the ubiquity of the involvement of calcium in the function and structure of biological systems. Comprised of seven parts encompassing 26 chapters, this book starts with the ramifications of calcium and its various roles in the body’s economy. This text then discusses how calcium is absorbed by an active cation-oriented transport process. Other chapters explore the fundamental roles of calcium as a component of bone mineral, as well as in the control of cell replication and growth. This text also examines the structural organization of the nerve cell membrane. The final chapter presents data on calcium transport across cellular and subcellular membranes. This book is a valuable resource for biologists, cellular biologists, researchers, and students.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

Credits

Acknowledgments

Franklin Chambers McLean and the State of Calcium in Body Fluids

I. The State of Calcium in Body Fluids

The Structure, Properties, and Formation of Calcium Phosphates in Hard Tissue

Introduction

Hydroxyapatite Structure

Carbonate Apatites

Bone Apatite

Amorphous Calcium Phosphate in Bone Mineral

Tissue Mineralization

Conclusions

References

Discussion

Differentiation Processes in Calcified Tissues

Introduction

Development as a General Process

Development in Bone and Dental Tissues

Conclusion

References

Discussion

The Binding of Calcium with Nucleic Acids and Phospholipids

General Procedures

Nucleic Acids

Phospholipids

Conclusions and Summary

References

Discussion

Chemical Structure of Bone Sialoprotein and a Preliminary Study of Its Calcium-Binding Properties

Isolation of Bone Sialoprotein

Composition of BSP

Physical Properties of BSP

Binding of Radioelements to BSP

Calcium Binding and Inhibition of Calcium Phosphate Precipitation

Conclusion

References

Discussion

II. Role of Calcium in Membrane Structure and Integrity

The Biionic Action Potential and Indispensability of Divalent Cations in the External Medium for Nerve Excitation

Introduction

Intracellular Perfusion of the Squid Giant Axon

Effects of Calcium Ions Inside the Axon

The Biionic Action Potential

Ionic Mechanism of Nerve Excitation

Change in the Hydrophobicity of the Membrane Macromolecules during Nerve Excitation

Conclusions

References

Discussion

The Calcium Homeostatic System as a Physiological Regulator of Cell Proliferation in Mammalian Tissues

Introduction

Basic Phenomena

Mechanism

Physiological Significance

Summary

References

Discussion

III. Calcium Transfer across Cell and Subcellular Membranes

A Calcium Pump in Red Cell Membranes

Text

References

Discussion

Calcium Transport in Kidney Cells and Its Regulation

Calcium Pools

Calcium Fluxes

A Model for Cellular Calcium Metabolism

References

Discussion

Recent Observations on the Mechanism of Ca2+ Transport by Fragmented Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Membranes

Introduction

Role of Phospholipids in ATPase Activity and Calcium Transport

Protein Composition of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Membranes

Isolation of a Phosphopeptide from Microsomal Membranes Labeled with AT32P or Acetyl-32P

References

Discussion

IV. Cell Mechanisms in Mineralized Tissues

The Concept of a Bone Membrane: Some Implications

Text

References

Discussion

Bone Cells, Calcification, and Calcium Homeostasis

Text

References

Discussion

The Role of Mitochondria in Intracellular Calcium Regulation

Experimental Protocol

Method

Results

Summary

References

Discussion

Bone Formation and Resorption by Osteocytes

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

Conclusions

References

Discussion

V. Calcium Transfer Across Epithelial Tissues

Intestinal Calcium Absorption, Vitamin D, Adaptation, and the Calcium-Binding Protein

A Dual Effect of Vitamin D?

Adaptation

Synthesis of CaBP in Organ Culture

Concluding Remarks

Summary

References

Discussion

Vagaries in the Use of Isolated Intestinal Mucosal Cell Preparations with Particular Emphasis on Calcium Uptake

Introduction

Materials and Methods

Results

Summary and Conclusions

References

Discussion

Active Transport of Calcium across Placenta and Mammary Gland Measured in Vivo

Introduction

Placental Calcium Transport

Mammary Calcium Transport

References

Discussion

Calcium Transfer across the Avian Shell Gland

Introduction

Anatomical Considerations

Autoradiographic Localization of Calcium

Calcium Transport Studies

Mitochondria and Metal Ion Translocation

References

Discussion

Active Transcellular Transport of Calcium by Embryonic Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane

Electron Probe Investigations

Oxygen Consumption and Active Calcium Transport

Sulfhydryl Groups and Calcium Transport

Concluding Remarks

References

Discussion

VI. Sites and Modes of Action of Humoral Factors

Chemistry of Parathyroid Hormone

Isolation

Sequence Analysis

Synthesis: Properties of the Synthetic Peptide

Conclusion

References

Discussion

Physiological Importance of Thyrocalcitonin

Text

References

Discussion

Metabolism and Mechanism of Action of 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol

Physiological Actions of Vitamin D

Metabolism of Vitamin D

Metabolism of 25-HCC

Mechanism of Action of Vitamin D

References

Discussion

Induction of Bone Resorption in Tissue Culture: Interaction of Humoral Agents and Ions

Induction Model

Role of RNA Synthesis

Role of Cyclic Adenosine 3', 5'-Monophosphate (cAMP)

Synergism between PTH and 25-HCC

Effect of Thyrocalcitonin

Effect of Calcium on Induction

Conclusion

References

Discussion

Abstracts of Submitted Papers

I. Calcification

Time Study of in Vivo Incorporation of 32P-Orthophosphate into Phospholipids of Chicken Epiphyseal Tissues

Metabolic Activity at the Cement Line of Bone

Calcification of the Cartilage Formed on Avian Bones

Evidences of a Direct Effect of Vitamin D3 or 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol upon Human Adult Bone Mineralization

Role of Protein-Polysaccharide Aggregates as a Biological Inhibitor of Mineral Growth

Calcification of Cartilage by Means of Mineralized Spherules

Decalcified Bone Implants under Hormonal Influence

Mechanism of Calcification

Biological Role of Heterologous Antibodies against Cartilage Protein Polysaccharide Complex Light Fraction (PP-L)

Isolation of Membrane-Bounded Extracellular Particles Associated with Calcification in Cartilage Matrix

Electron Microscope Measurements of Alkaline Earth Transport

Calcium Transport and Calcification Studies by Microperfusion

II. Calcitonin: Calcium Ion Activity and Pharmacological Action: Tooth Formation

47Ca Turnover of a Readily Exchangeable Calcium Pool in Pregnant and Lactating Cows

Metabolic Clearance Rate of Radioiodinated Human Calcitonin in Man

Extraosseous Actions of Calcitonin

Crystal-Matrix Relationship in Amelogenesis

Different Isozymes of Acid Phosphatase in Bone and Developing Teeth

Provisional Calcification of Cartilage in Tissue Culture

Bone Cell Response to Serum Calcium-Altering Drugs

Calcium Ion Activity in Plasma: Effects of Metabolic and Respiratory Acid-Base Changes

A Calcium Concentration Dependent Hypocalcemic Effect of Calcitonin in the Perfused Dog Limb

Natriuric Effect of Calcitonin in Man

Remissions in Paget's Disease Produced by Human Synthetic Calcitonin (Calcitonin M)

Relationship between Alkaline Phosphatase, Inorganic Pyrophosphatase, and L-Ascorbic Acid in Calcifying Hamster Molars

III. Diphosphonates; Bone Resorption; Osteoporosis

Mechanical Effects on Cell Mechanisms in Bone

Canalicular and Interstitial Changes in Osteocytic Osteolysis

Effect of Calcium Deficiency on Healing of Experimental Fractures in the Avian Tarsus as Determined by the Fracture Repair Ratio

Effect of Phosphonates on Bone Tissue: Studies in Man and Animals

Sites and Modes of an Estrogen-Gestagen Combination on Calcium and Phosphate Metabolism in Senile Osteoporosis

Resorption of Bone Collagen by Multinucleated Giant Cells

Effect of Disodium Ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate on Bone Formation in Animals

Effectiveness of Diphosphonates in Preventing Osteoporosis of Disuse in the Rat

Osteoporosis and Parathyroid Glands: The Effect of Prolonged Calcium Deficiency on Thyroparathyroidectomized Adult Rats

Role of a Lipoprotein in the Intracellular Hydroxyapatite Formation in Bacterionema Matruchotii

Hormonal Effects on Calcium Transport in Liver

IV. Intestinal Absorption of Calcium and Bone Metabolism

Osteocyte as a Bone Pump

25-Hydroxycholecalciferol (25-HCC): Effects in Deficiency Rickets and Vitamin D-Resistant Rickets

Induction of Calcium-Binding Protein (CaBP) Biosynthesis by Vitamin D3 and 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol (25-HCC)

Effect of Cortisol on Calcium-Binding Protein in Rat Duodenum

A Study of Nephron Permeability to Calcium by Microinjection Technique

A Study of Calcium-Binding Proteins in Human Animal Small Bowel Mucosa

A Method for Studying the Configuration, Dimensions, and Distribution of Remodeling Centers on the Endosteal, Cortical, and Trabecular Surfaces

Transport of Iodoantipyrine-125I (I-Ap) In Cortical Bone

Ca2+ Sensitive ATPase In Duodenal Mucosa: Localization in Basal Membranes

Refractive Index of Newly Forming Bone Tissue

Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) Calcium-Binding Studies with a Calcium-Selective Liquid Membrane Electrode

Passage of Calcium and Strontium across the Intestine in Man

Concept of Electropositive Crystal Bond Based on Ossification and Other Phenomena

Subject Index


Details

No. of pages:
556
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1971
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323146159

About the Editor

George Jr. Nichols

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