The imaging of small cellular components requires powerful instruments, and an entire family of equipment and techniques based on the confocal principle has been developed over the past 30 years. Such methods are commonly used by neuroscience researchers, but the majority of these users do not have a microscopy or a cell biology backgrounds and do can encounter difficulties in obtaining and interpreting results. This volume brings experts in high-resolution optical microscopy applications in neuroscience and cell biology together to document the state of the art. Outlining what is currently possible, the volume also discusses promising developments for the future and aids readers in selecting the most scientifically meaningful approach to solve their questions. Each chapter discusses instrumentation and technology in relationship to application in research. All of the common and cutting edge trends are covered - fluorescence / laser electron / nonlinear microscopy, infrared fluorescence, multiphoton imaging, tomography, FRAP, live imaging, STED, PALM/STORM, etc.

Key Features

* Single and multiphoton confocal microscopy, and 4-pi confocal microscopy
* Obtaining nanoresolution via photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM)
* Several procedures that correlate observations in optical fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy
* Study of morphology and function via high-resolution fluorescence procedures
* Additional high-resolution microscopic techniques


Researchers and graduate students in neuroscience; confocal "aficionados" in the cell biology community

Table of Contents

1. Confocal laser scanning: Of instrument, computer processing, and men
    Jeroen A.M. Beliën and Floris G. Wouterlood

2. Beyond Abbe's resolution barrier: STED microscopy
    U. Valentin Nägerl

3. Enhancement of optical resolution by 4pi single and multiphoton confocal fluorescence microscopy
    W.A. van Cappellen, A. Nigg, and A.B. Houtsmuller

4. Nano resolution optical imaging through localization microscopy
    Helge Ewers

5. Optical investigation of brain networks using structured illumination
    Marco Dal Maschio, Francesco Difato, Riccardo Beltramo, Angela Michela De Stasi, Axel Blau, and Tommaso Fellin

6. Multiphoton microscopy advances toward super resolution
    Paolo Bianchini, Partha P. Mondal, Shilpa Dilipkumar, Francesca Cella Zanacchi, Emiliano Ronzitti, and Alberto Diaspro

7. The cell at molecular resolution: Principles and applications of cryo-electron tomography
    Rubén Fernández-Busnadiego and Vladan Lucic

8. Cellular-level optical biopsy using full-field optical coherence microscopy
    Arnaud Dubois

9. Retroviral labeling and imaging of newborn neurons in the adult brain
    Kurt A. Sailor, Hongjun Song, and Guo-Li Ming

10. Study of myelin sheaths by CARS microscopy
      Chun-Rui Hu, Bing Hu, and Ji-Xen Cheng

11. High-resolution approaches to studying presynaptic vesicle dynamics using variants of FRAP and electron microscopy
      Kevin Staras and Tiago Branco


No. of pages:
© 2012
Academic Press
Print ISBN:
Electronic ISBN:

About the author

Floris G. Wouterlood

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy & Neuroscience, Vrije University Medical Center, Amsterdam


"Wouterlood…introduces the confocal principle which eliminates out-of-focus haze, its components, and relevant equations. International scientists explain the principles and related methods of stimulated emission depletion (SRED), single molecule localization, and coherent anti-Stokes Raman (CARS) microscopy; labeling approaches; preparation of samples for imaging; and applications of, and developments in, this new wave of imaging, e.g., visualization of neuronal networks, DNA, and myelin."--Reference and Research Book News, February 2013