Cellular Endocrinology in Health and Disease

Cellular Endocrinology in Health and Disease

1st Edition - February 12, 2014

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  • Editors: Alfredo Ulloa-Aguirre, P. Michael Conn
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124167124
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124081345

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Description

Cellular Endocrinology in Health and Disease describes the underlying basis of endocrine function, providing an important tool to understand the fundamentals of endocrine diseases. Delivering a comprehensive review of the basic science of endocrinology, from cell biology to human disease, this work explores and dissects the function of a number of cellular systems. Among these are those whose function was not obvious until recently, including the endocrine functions of bone and the adipose tissue. Providing content that crosses disciplines, Cellular Endocrinology in Health and Disease details how cellular endocrine function contributes to system physiology and mediates endocrine disorders. A methods section proves novel and useful approaches across research focus that will be attractive to medical students, residents, and specialists in the field of endocrinology, as well as to those interested in cellular regulation. Editors Alfredo Ulloa-Aguirre and P. Michael Conn, experts in molecular and cellular aspects of endocrinology, deliver contributions carefully selected for relevance, impact, and clarity of expression from leading field experts. 

Key Features

  • Covers systemic endocrine action at the cellular level in both health and disease
  • Delivers information on the integration of cell identity and endocrinology
  • Incorporates recent developments in endocrinology to provide an up-to-date reference to researchers

Readership

Researchers in cell biology, biochemistry, endocrinology, graduate students and researchers across basic sciences and biomedicine

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors

    Preface

    Chapter 1. Thyroid Hormone Receptors and their Role in Cell Proliferation and Cancer

    Thyroid Hormone Action

    TRs and Cancer

    Inhibition of Tumor Cell Proliferation by the Thyroid Hormone Receptors

    The Thyroid Hormone Receptor Antagonizes Ras-Induced Proliferation

    The Thyroid Hormone Receptors Antagonize Transformation and Tumorigenesis by Oncogenic Ras

    Functional Domains Involved in TR Antagonism of Ras Responses

    TRβ1 Suppresses Tumor Invasion and Metastasis

    Hypothyroidism Retards Tumor Growth but Increases Metastasis Development

    Divergent Effects of TRs on Normal and Transformed Cell Proliferation

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 2. The Molecular Cell Biology of Anterior Pituitary Cells

    Introduction

    Anterior Pituitary: Organization, Cell Types, Hormones and Functions

    Diseases of the Anterior Pituitary

    Phenotypic Profile of Anterior Pituitary Cell Types: Different, Yet Somewhat Similar

    Heterogeneity within Anterior Pituitary Cell Types: Similar, Yet Somewhat Different

    Patterns of Anterior Pituitary Cell Signaling and Secretion

    Paracrine (Local) Regulation and Intercellular Signaling within the Anterior Pituitary

    Plasticity of Anterior Pituitary Cell Network Organization and Function

    Concluding Remarks

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 3. Sensing Calcium Levels: The Biology of the Parathyroid Cell

    Introduction

    Biosynthesis and Metabolism of PTH

    Regulation of PTH Secretion and Transcription

    Main Mechanisms of Parathyroid Gland Hyperplasia in SHPT

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 4. The Biology of Pituitary Stem Cells

    Introduction

    Location of Proliferating and Differentiating Cells During Pituitary Development

    Strategies for Identifying Pituitary Progenitors

    Pituitary Progenitors and Disease Pathophysiology

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 5. The Na+/I Symporter (NIS) and Thyroid Hormone Biosynthesis

    Iodide Metabolism

    Molecular Characterization of NIS

    Iodide Transport Defect (ITD)

    A Novel Mode of NIS Regulation

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 6. The Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Signaling Network in Sertoli Cells

    Introduction

    Is cAMP the Sole Driving Force to FSH Action in Sertoli Cells?

    cAMP-Independent FSH Signaling in Sertoli Cells

    Gene Regulation

    Integrating miRNA into the Complexity of the FSH Signaling Network

    Cross-Talk with Other Factors to Regulate Cell Fate

    Opened Questions

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 7. Epigenetics of Pituitary Cell Growth and Survival

    DNA Methylation

    References

    Chapter 8. Epigenetic and Developmental Basis of Risk of Obesity and Metabolic Disease

    Global Burden of Obesity and Metabolic Disease

    Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)

    Conceptual Framework

    Epigenetics and Development

    The Paternal Role

    Epigenetic Dysregulation in Later-Life Metabolic Disease

    Developmental Epigenomics and Human Health

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 9. Unraveling the Mechanism of Action of the GnRH Pulse Generator: A Possible Role for Kisspeptin/Neurokinin B/Dynorphin (KNDy) Neurons

    Introduction

    Early Work on the GnRh Pulse Generator

    A New Model for the Neural Elements of the GnRH Pulse Generator

    Test of the Model: Data from Sheep and Goats

    Test of the Model: Data from Rodents

    Conclusions and Important Unresolved Issues

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 10. Proteomics in Reproduction: The Dialogue Between the Blastocyst and the Endometrium

    Introduction

    Proteomics/Secretomics of the Human Embryo

    Proteomics of the Human Endometrium

    Proteomics of the Human Endometrial Fluid

    Proteomics of Endometriosis

    Proteomics in Other Endometrial Pathologies

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 11. Transcriptome Analysis of Adrenocortical Cells in Health and Disease

    Introduction

    Strategies for Determining a Transcriptome

    Data Mining

    Transcriptome Analysis of Adrenal Glands and Adrenocortical Cell Lines Under Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Stimulation

    Transcriptome Analysis of Different Zones

    Transcriptome Analysis of Adrenocortical Cells in a Mouse Model of Human Lipoid Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Perspective

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 12. Bone as an Endocrine Organ

    Introduction

    The Regulation of Energy Metabolism by Bone

    Coordinated Regulation of Bone Mass and Energy Metabolism: The View Point of the Pancreas

    Osteocalcin Regulation of Testosterone Production by the Leydig Cells of the Testis

    Osteocalcin Reproductive Function is Mediated by a G-Coupled Receptor, Gprc6a

    Osteocalcin Regulates Male Fertility Independently of the Hypothalamo–Pituitary Axis

    Insulin Signaling in Osteoblasts as a Determinant of Osteocalcin Reproductive Function in the Mouse

    Conservation of the Reproductive Function of Osteocalcin in Humans

    References

    Chapter 13. Regulation of Steroidogenesis

    Introduction

    Classes of Steroidogenic Enzymes

    Steroid Hormone Biosynthesis

    Tissue-Specific Pathways of Steroidogenesis

    Chronic Regulation of Steroidogenesis

    Acute Regulation of Steroidogenesis

    Post-Translational Differential Regulation of Steroidogenic Enzymes

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 14. Adipose Tissue as an Endocrine Organ

    Adipose Tissue Biology and Function

    Adipokine Secretion and Interaction with Other Tissues

    Adipose Tissue Dysfunction During Obesity

    Adipose Tissue as a Therapeutic Target and Future Perspectives

    References

    Chapter 15. Insulin-Secreting Cell Lines: Potential for Research and Diabetes Therapy

    Introduction

    Key Features of Primary β-Cells

    Rodent and Human Insulin-Secreting Cell Lines

    Stem Cell-Derived Insulin-Secreting Cells

    Use of Insulin-Secreting Cell Lines for Research

    Potential Use of Insulin-Secreting Cell Lines for Diabetes Therapy

    References

    Chapter 16. Architecture and Morphology of Human Pancreatic Islets

    Introduction

    Understanding of Human Biology has Greatly Increased

    Morphology and Cellular Composition of the Human Islet

    Vascularization and Innervation within the Islet

    Summary and Future Directions for Research

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 17. Computational Models to Decipher Cell-Signaling Pathways

    Introduction

    The Growing Complexity of Hormone-Induced Signaling Mechanisms

    Pathway-Selective Ligands

    Generation of Adapted Signaling Data

    Iterative Dialog Between Modeling and Experimentation

    Building the Static Model

    Building and Parameterizing the Dynamical Model

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 18. Defects in Ovarian Steroid Hormone Biosynthesis

    Introduction

    Mutations and Polymorphisms in Genes Affecting Ovarian Steroidogenesis

    Mutations and Polymorphisms in Genes Encoding Steroidogenic Enzymes

    Pathophysiology and Genetics of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    References

    Chapter 19. Control of the GnRH Pulse Generator

    Introduction: The GnRH Pulse Generator

    Roles of the Kiss1/Kiss1R System in the Control of GnRH Neurons

    Partners of Kiss1/Kiss1R in the Control of GnRH Neurons: NKB and Dynorphin

    Interplay between Kisspeptins, NKB and Dynorphin in the Control of GnRH: The KNDy Paradigm

    Re-Shaping the KNDy Paradigm: Differential Roles of Kisspeptins versus NKB on LH and FSH Secretion

    Future Perspectives and Concluding Remarks

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 20. Endocrinology of the Single Cell: Tools and Insights

    Introduction

    Single-Cell Studies: Benefits and Pitfalls

    Single-Cell Tools and Outcomes

    Parallel Applications in Single-Cell Analysis: The Secretory Process

    References

    Chapter 21. Intracellular Trafficking of G Protein-Coupled Receptors to the Plasma Membrane in Health and Disease

    Introduction

    The ER Quality Control System

    GPCR Motifs, Post-Translational Modifications and Structural Features that Promote/Limit ER-Golgi Export and Anterograde Trafficking to the PM

    Protein Misfolding and Disease

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 22. Iodothyronine Deiodinases: Emerging Clinical Crossroads

    Introduction

    Deiodinases

    Clinical Crossroads of Deiodination

    Concluding Remarks

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 23. MicroRNAs and Long Non-Coding RNAs in Pancreatic Beta Cell Function

    Introduction

    miRNAs: Biosynthesis and Mechanism of Action

    Role of miRNAs in Beta Cell Development

    Role of miRNAs in Beta Cell Function

    Modulation of miRNA Under Physiological and Pathological Conditions

    Long Non-Coding RNAs and their Possible Role in Beta Cells

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 414
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2014
  • Published: February 12, 2014
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124167124
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124081345

About the Editors

Alfredo Ulloa-Aguirre

Alfredo Ulloa-Aguirre
Alfredo Ulloa-Aguirre, M.D., D.Sc. is senior scientist in the Research Center for Population Health at the National Institute of Public Health and Professor of

the National University of Mexico (UNAM), where he heads the Research Support Network of the National Institutes of Health in Mexico City. He received his

graduate training in internal medicine and reproductive endocrinology at the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition SZ and earned the Doctoral degree in Medical Sciences from the UNAM. He received postdoctoral training at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, and has been visiting scientist at the Oregon National Primate Resarch Center, OHSU, Beaverton OR, and the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, in Tours, France (Le Studium Scientist). He is currently a member of the Studium Consortium for Research and Training in Reproductive Sciences (sCORTS, Le Studium, Orléans, France). An internationally recognized physician-scientist, Dr Ulloa-Aguirre has developed programmes in both clinical and basic research. His laboratory focuses on the structure-function relationship of gonadotropins and gonadotropin receptors as well as on the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor, with particular emphasis on the factors and mechanisms that control intracellular trafficking of these receptors. He is the author or co-author of over 165 research publications and several book chapters.

Affiliations and Expertise

Research Center for Population Health, National Institute of Public Health; National University of Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City, Mexico

P. Michael Conn

P. Michael Conn is the Senior Vice President for Research and Associate Provost, Texas Tech Health Sciences Center. He is The Robert C. Kimbrough, Professor of Internal Medicine and Cell Biology/Biochemistry. He was previously Director of Research Advocacy and Professor of Physiology and Pharmacology, Cell Biology and Development and Obstetrics and Gynecology at Oregon Health and Science University and Senior Scientist of the Oregon National Primate Research Center (ONPRC). He served for twelve years as Special Assistant to the President and Associate Director of the ONPRC. After receiving a B.S. degree and teaching certification from the University of Michigan (1971), a M.S. from North Carolina State University (1973), and a Ph.D. degree from Baylor College of Medicine (1976), Conn did a fellowship at the NIH, then joined the faculty in the Department of Pharmacology, Duke University Medical Center where he was promoted to Associate Professor in 1982. In 1984, he became Professor and Head of Pharmacology at the University of Iowa College of Medicine, a position he held for eleven years. Conn is known for his research in the area of the cellular and molecular basis of action of gonadotropin releasing hormone action in the pituitary and therapeutic approaches that restore misfolded proteins to function. His work has led to drugs that have benefitted humans and animals. Most recently, he has identified a new class of drugs, pharmacoperones, which act by regulating the intracellular trafficking of receptors, enzymes and ion channels. He has authored or co-authored over 350 publications in this area and written or edited over 200 books, including texts in neurosciences, molecular biology and endocrinology. Conn has served as the editor of many professional journals and book series (Endocrinology, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Endocrine, Methods, Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science and Contemporary Endocrinology). Conn served on the National Board of Medical Examiners, including two years as chairman of the reproduction and endocrinology committee. The work of his laboratory has been recognized with a MERIT award from the NIH, the J.J. Abel Award of the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, the Weitzman, Oppenheimer and Ingbar Awards of the Endocrine Society, the National Science Medal of Mexico (the Miguel Aleman Prize) and the Stevenson Award of Canada. He is the recipient of the Oregon State Award for Discovery, the Media Award of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology and was named a distinguished Alumnus of Baylor College of Medicine in 2012. Conn is a previous member of Council for the American Society for Cell Biology and the Endocrine Society and is a prior President of the Endocrine Society, during which time he founded the Hormone Foundation and worked with political leadership to heighten the public’s awareness of diabetes. Conn’s students and fellows have gone on to become leaders in industry and academia. He is an elected member of the Mexican Institute of Medicine and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is the co-author of The Animal Research War (2008) and many articles for the public and academic community on the value of animal research and the dangers posed by animal extremism. His op/eds have appeared in The Washington Post, The LA Times, The Wall Street Journal, the Des Moines Register, and elsewhere. Conn consults with organizations that are influenced by animal extremism and with universities and companies facing challenges from these groups.

Affiliations and Expertise

Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, USA

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