Cellular Endocrinology in Health and Disease - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124081345, 9780124167124

Cellular Endocrinology in Health and Disease

1st Edition

Editors: Alfredo Ulloa-Aguirre P. Michael Conn
eBook ISBN: 9780124167124
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124081345
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 3rd April 2014
Page Count: 414
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Description

Cellular Endocrinology in Health and Disease describes the underlying basis of endocrine function, providing an important tool to understand the fundamentals of endocrine diseases. Delivering a comprehensive review of the basic science of endocrinology, from cell biology to human disease, this work explores and dissects the function of a number of cellular systems. Among these are those whose function was not obvious until recently, including the endocrine functions of bone and the adipose tissue.

Providing content that crosses disciplines, Cellular Endocrinology in Health and Disease details how cellular endocrine function contributes to system physiology and mediates endocrine disorders. A methods section proves novel and useful approaches across research focus that will be attractive to medical students, residents, and specialists in the field of endocrinology, as well as to those interested in cellular regulation. Editors Alfredo Ulloa-Aguirre and P. Michael Conn, experts in molecular and cellular aspects of endocrinology, deliver contributions carefully selected for relevance, impact, and clarity of expression from leading field experts. 

Key Features

  • Covers systemic endocrine action at the cellular level in both health and disease
  • Delivers information on the integration of cell identity and endocrinology
  • Incorporates recent developments in endocrinology to provide an up-to-date reference to researchers

Readership

Researchers in cell biology, biochemistry, endocrinology, graduate students and researchers across basic sciences and biomedicine

Table of Contents

List of Contributors

Preface

Chapter 1. Thyroid Hormone Receptors and their Role in Cell Proliferation and Cancer

Thyroid Hormone Action

TRs and Cancer

Inhibition of Tumor Cell Proliferation by the Thyroid Hormone Receptors

The Thyroid Hormone Receptor Antagonizes Ras-Induced Proliferation

The Thyroid Hormone Receptors Antagonize Transformation and Tumorigenesis by Oncogenic Ras

Functional Domains Involved in TR Antagonism of Ras Responses

TRβ1 Suppresses Tumor Invasion and Metastasis

Hypothyroidism Retards Tumor Growth but Increases Metastasis Development

Divergent Effects of TRs on Normal and Transformed Cell Proliferation

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 2. The Molecular Cell Biology of Anterior Pituitary Cells

Introduction

Anterior Pituitary: Organization, Cell Types, Hormones and Functions

Diseases of the Anterior Pituitary

Phenotypic Profile of Anterior Pituitary Cell Types: Different, Yet Somewhat Similar

Heterogeneity within Anterior Pituitary Cell Types: Similar, Yet Somewhat Different

Patterns of Anterior Pituitary Cell Signaling and Secretion

Paracrine (Local) Regulation and Intercellular Signaling within the Anterior Pituitary

Plasticity of Anterior Pituitary Cell Network Organization and Function

Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 3. Sensing Calcium Levels: The Biology of the Parathyroid Cell

Introduction

Biosynthesis and Metabolism of PTH

Regulation of PTH Secretion and Transcription

Main Mechanisms of Parathyroid Gland Hyperplasia in SHPT

Conclusions

References

Chapter 4. The Biology of Pituitary Stem Cells

Introduction

Location of Proliferating and Differentiating Cells During Pituitary Development

Strategies for Identifying Pituitary Progenitors

Pituitary Progenitors and Disease Pathophysiology

Conclusion

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 5. The Na+/I− Symporter (NIS) and Thyroid Hormone Biosynthesis

Iodide Metabolism

Molecular Characterization of NIS

Iodide Transport Defect (ITD)

A Novel Mode of NIS Regulation

Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 6. The Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Signaling Network in Sertoli Cells

Introduction

Is cAMP the Sole Driving Force to FSH Action in Sertoli Cells?

cAMP-Independent FSH Signaling in Sertoli Cells

Gene Regulation

Integrating miRNA into the Complexity of the FSH Signaling Network

Cross-Talk with Other Factors to Regulate Cell Fate

Opened Questions

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 7. Epigenetics of Pituitary Cell Growth and Survival

DNA Methylation

References

Chapter 8. Epigenetic and Developmental Basis of Risk of Obesity and Metabolic Disease

Global Burden of Obesity and Metabolic Disease

Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)

Conceptual Framework

Epigenetics and Development

The Paternal Role

Epigenetic Dysregulation in Later-Life Metabolic Disease

Developmental Epigenomics and Human Health

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 9. Unraveling the Mechanism of Action of the GnRH Pulse Generator: A Possible Role for Kisspeptin/Neurokinin B/Dynorphin (KNDy) Neurons

Introduction

Early Work on the GnRh Pulse Generator

A New Model for the Neural Elements of the GnRH Pulse Generator

Test of the Model: Data from Sheep and Goats

Test of the Model: Data from Rodents

Conclusions and Important Unresolved Issues

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 10. Proteomics in Reproduction: The Dialogue Between the Blastocyst and the Endometrium

Introduction

Proteomics/Secretomics of the Human Embryo

Proteomics of the Human Endometrium

Proteomics of the Human Endometrial Fluid

Proteomics of Endometriosis

Proteomics in Other Endometrial Pathologies

Conclusions

References

Chapter 11. Transcriptome Analysis of Adrenocortical Cells in Health and Disease

Introduction

Strategies for Determining a Transcriptome

Data Mining

Transcriptome Analysis of Adrenal Glands and Adrenocortical Cell Lines Under Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Stimulation

Transcriptome Analysis of Different Zones

Transcriptome Analysis of Adrenocortical Cells in a Mouse Model of Human Lipoid Adrenal Hyperplasia

Perspective

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 12. Bone as an Endocrine Organ

Introduction

The Regulation of Energy Metabolism by Bone

Coordinated Regulation of Bone Mass and Energy Metabolism: The View Point of the Pancreas

Osteocalcin Regulation of Testosterone Production by the Leydig Cells of the Testis

Osteocalcin Reproductive Function is Mediated by a G-Coupled Receptor, Gprc6a

Osteocalcin Regulates Male Fertility Independently of the Hypothalamo–Pituitary Axis

Insulin Signaling in Osteoblasts as a Determinant of Osteocalcin Reproductive Function in the Mouse

Conservation of the Reproductive Function of Osteocalcin in Humans

References

Chapter 13. Regulation of Steroidogenesis

Introduction

Classes of Steroidogenic Enzymes

Steroid Hormone Biosynthesis

Tissue-Specific Pathways of Steroidogenesis

Chronic Regulation of Steroidogenesis

Acute Regulation of Steroidogenesis

Post-Translational Differential Regulation of Steroidogenic Enzymes

Conclusion

References

Chapter 14. Adipose Tissue as an Endocrine Organ

Adipose Tissue Biology and Function

Adipokine Secretion and Interaction with Other Tissues

Adipose Tissue Dysfunction During Obesity

Adipose Tissue as a Therapeutic Target and Future Perspectives

References

Chapter 15. Insulin-Secreting Cell Lines: Potential for Research and Diabetes Therapy

Introduction

Key Features of Primary β-Cells

Rodent and Human Insulin-Secreting Cell Lines

Stem Cell-Derived Insulin-Secreting Cells

Use of Insulin-Secreting Cell Lines for Research

Potential Use of Insulin-Secreting Cell Lines for Diabetes Therapy

References

Chapter 16. Architecture and Morphology of Human Pancreatic Islets

Introduction

Understanding of Human Biology has Greatly Increased

Morphology and Cellular Composition of the Human Islet

Vascularization and Innervation within the Islet

Summary and Future Directions for Research

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 17. Computational Models to Decipher Cell-Signaling Pathways

Introduction

The Growing Complexity of Hormone-Induced Signaling Mechanisms

Pathway-Selective Ligands

Generation of Adapted Signaling Data

Iterative Dialog Between Modeling and Experimentation

Building the Static Model

Building and Parameterizing the Dynamical Model

Conclusion

References

Chapter 18. Defects in Ovarian Steroid Hormone Biosynthesis

Introduction

Mutations and Polymorphisms in Genes Affecting Ovarian Steroidogenesis

Mutations and Polymorphisms in Genes Encoding Steroidogenic Enzymes

Pathophysiology and Genetics of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

References

Chapter 19. Control of the GnRH Pulse Generator

Introduction: The GnRH Pulse Generator

Roles of the Kiss1/Kiss1R System in the Control of GnRH Neurons

Partners of Kiss1/Kiss1R in the Control of GnRH Neurons: NKB and Dynorphin

Interplay between Kisspeptins, NKB and Dynorphin in the Control of GnRH: The KNDy Paradigm

Re-Shaping the KNDy Paradigm: Differential Roles of Kisspeptins versus NKB on LH and FSH Secretion

Future Perspectives and Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 20. Endocrinology of the Single Cell: Tools and Insights

Introduction

Single-Cell Studies: Benefits and Pitfalls

Single-Cell Tools and Outcomes

Parallel Applications in Single-Cell Analysis: The Secretory Process

References

Chapter 21. Intracellular Trafficking of G Protein-Coupled Receptors to the Plasma Membrane in Health and Disease

Introduction

The ER Quality Control System

GPCR Motifs, Post-Translational Modifications and Structural Features that Promote/Limit ER-Golgi Export and Anterograde Trafficking to the PM

Protein Misfolding and Disease

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 22. Iodothyronine Deiodinases: Emerging Clinical Crossroads

Introduction

Deiodinases

Clinical Crossroads of Deiodination

Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 23. MicroRNAs and Long Non-Coding RNAs in Pancreatic Beta Cell Function

Introduction

miRNAs: Biosynthesis and Mechanism of Action

Role of miRNAs in Beta Cell Development

Role of miRNAs in Beta Cell Function

Modulation of miRNA Under Physiological and Pathological Conditions

Long Non-Coding RNAs and their Possible Role in Beta Cells

Conclusions

Acknowledgements

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
414
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780124167124
Hardcover ISBN:
9780124081345

About the Editor

Alfredo Ulloa-Aguirre

Alfredo Ulloa-Aguirre, M.D., D.Sc. is senior scientist in the Research Center for Population Health at the National Institute of Public Health and Professor of

the National University of Mexico (UNAM), where he heads the Research Support Network of the National Institutes of Health in Mexico City. He received his

graduate training in internal medicine and reproductive endocrinology at the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition SZ and earned the Doctoral degree in Medical Sciences from the UNAM. He received postdoctoral training at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, and has been visiting scientist at the Oregon National Primate Resarch Center, OHSU, Beaverton OR, and the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, in Tours, France (Le Studium Scientist). He is currently a member of the Studium Consortium for Research and Training in Reproductive Sciences (sCORTS, Le Studium, Orléans, France). An internationally recognized physician-scientist, Dr Ulloa-Aguirre has developed programmes in both clinical and basic research. His laboratory focuses on the structure-function relationship of gonadotropins and gonadotropin receptors as well as on the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor, with particular emphasis on the factors and mechanisms that control intracellular trafficking of these receptors. He is the author or co-author of over 165 research publications and several book chapters.

Affiliations and Expertise

Research Center for Population Health, National Institute of Public Health; National University of Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City, Mexico

P. Michael Conn

P. Michael Conn is the Senior Vice President for Research and Associate Provost, Texas Tech Health Sciences Center. He is The Robert C. Kimbrough, Professor of Internal Medicine and Cell Biology/Biochemistry. He was previously Director of Research Advocacy and Professor of Physiology and Pharmacology, Cell Biology and Development and Obstetrics and Gynecology at Oregon Health and Science University and Senior Scientist of the Oregon National Primate Research Center (ONPRC). He served for twelve years as Special Assistant to the President and Associate Director of the ONPRC. After receiving a B.S. degree and teaching certification from the University of Michigan (1971), a M.S. from North Carolina State University (1973), and a Ph.D. degree from Baylor College of Medicine (1976), Conn did a fellowship at the NIH, then joined the faculty in the Department of Pharmacology, Duke University Medical Center where he was promoted to Associate Professor in 1982. In 1984, he became Professor and Head of Pharmacology at the University of Iowa College of Medicine, a position he held for eleven years. Conn is known for his research in the area of the cellular and molecular basis of action of gonadotropin releasing hormone action in the pituitary and therapeutic approaches that restore misfolded proteins to function. His work has led to drugs that have benefitted humans and animals. Most recently, he has identified a new class of drugs, pharmacoperones, which act by regulating the intracellular trafficking of receptors, enzymes and ion channels. He has authored or co-authored over 350 publications in this area and written or edited over 200 books, including texts in neurosciences, molecular biology and endocrinology. Conn has served as the editor of many professional journals and book series (Endocrinology, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Endocrine, Methods, Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science and Contemporary Endocrinology). Conn served on the National Board of Medical Examiners, including two years as chairman of the reproduction and endocrinology committee. The work of his laboratory has been recognized with a MERIT award from the NIH, the J.J. Abel Award of the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, the Weitzman, Oppenheimer and Ingbar Awards of the Endocrine Society, the National Science Medal of Mexico (the Miguel Aleman Prize) and the Stevenson Award of Canada. He is the recipient of the Oregon State Award for Discovery, the Media Award of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology and was named a distinguished Alumnus of Baylor College of Medicine in 2012. Conn is a previous member of Council for the American Society for Cell Biology and the Endocrine Society and is a prior President of the Endocrine Society, during which time he founded the Hormone Foundation and worked with political leadership to heighten the public’s awareness of diabetes. Conn’s students and fellows have gone on to become leaders in industry and academia. He is an elected member of the Mexican Institute of Medicine and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is the co-author of The Animal Research War (2008) and many articles for the public and academic community on the value of animal research and the dangers posed by animal extremism. His op/eds have appeared in The Washington Post, The LA Times, The Wall Street Journal, the Des Moines Register, and elsewhere. Conn consults with organizations that are influenced by animal extremism and with universities and companies facing challenges from these groups.

Affiliations and Expertise

Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, USA