Cells and Tissues - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125931205, 9780080984100

Cells and Tissues

1st Edition

An Introduction to Histology and Cell Biology

Authors: Rogers
eBook ISBN: 9780080984100
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1983
Page Count: 256
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Description

Cells and Tissues: An Introduction to Histology and Cell Biology begins by explaining why histology should be studied. Some chapters follow on the techniques for studying cells and tissues, the anatomy of the cell, the epithelia, the connective tissues, and the blood. This book also covers topics on the immunity against foreign material; contractility, specifically at how it is brought about and at how the system changes in a stationary cell; and harnessing of contraction to produce movement. This text also looks into the communication systems within cells, the life and death of cells, and the histological sections of small intestine. The responses of the body to injury in the processes of inflammation and repair are also explored. This book will be useful to students starting in histology, though it does assume some elementary knowledge of biochemistry and of the structure of the mammalian body.

Table of Contents


Preface

Chapter 1 Why Study Histology?

Further Reading

Chapter 2 The Techniques Available

Introduction

Dimensions

The Light Microscope

The Design of the Microscope

Magnification and Resolution

The Use of the Light Microscope

The Preparation of Tissues for Microscopy

Fixation, Embedding and Sectioning

Staining the Section

The Limitations of Conventional Techniques of Microscopy

The Tissue is Dead

The Stains are Non-Specific

Few Chemicals Survive the Preparative Techniques

A Section is Only Two-Dimensional

The Section is Static and Unchanging

The Resolution is Limited

Collecting Information is Difficult

Back to Earth

Further Reading

Chapter 3 The Anatomy of the Cell

Introduction

The Cell Membrane

Freeze Fracture

The Glycocalyx

The Nucleus

The Nuclear Membrane

Chromatin

The Cytoplasm

Energy Production

Synthetic Activity

Absorption

The Cell Skeleton

Storage within the Cell

Linking Cell Structure to Function

The Fibroblast

The Macrophage

The Unknown Cell

Further Reading

References

Chapter 4 Epithelia: The Body's Limits

Introduction

Definitions

Features Common to All Epithelia

The Recognition of Epithelia

The Organization of Glands

Contacts between Epithelial Cells

The Junctional Complex

The Gap Junction

The Classification of Epithelia

A Look at Particular Epithelia

The Small Intestine

The Pancreas

The Bronchus

The Urinary Bladder

The Oesophagus

The Skin

Summary

Further Reading

References

Chapter 5 Connective Tissue: The Spaces In Between

Introduction

The Extracellular Fluid

Renewal of the Extracellular Fluid

Removal of Proteins from the Extracellular Fluid

The Cells of Connective Tissue

Fibroblasts

Macrophages

Fat Cells

Mast Cells

Extracellular Materials of Connective Tissue

Collagen Fibres

Elastic Fibres

Glycosaminoglycans

Summary

Further Reading

Chapter 6 How to Look at a Section

Introduction

The Sequence of Observations

Examining a Section

Structure and Function in Skin

The Epidermis

The Dermis

Summary of the Functions of Skin

Review of Progress

Further Reading

Chapter 7 The Blood

Introduction

Blood Plasma

The Cells of the Blood

Erythrocytes

Polymorphonuclear Leucocytes

Lymphocytes

Monocytes

Platelets

The Blood Summarized

Exchange between Blood and Tissues

Capillaries

Sinusoids

Exchanging Vessels and Connective Tissue

The Effects of Damage to Endothelial Cells

Further Reading

Chapter 8 Immunity against Foreign Material

Introduction

The Removal of Proteins from the Extracellular Space

The Transport of Lymph

The Filtering of the Lymph

The Fate of Foreign Proteins in the Tissues

Lymphocytes

The Immune Responses

The Secondary Response to Soluble Antigens

The Secondary Response to Cell-Bound Antigens

The Primary Immune Response

Lymphocytes and Lymphoid Tissue

The Life Histories of Lymphocytes

The Organization of Lymphoid Tissue

The Immune System throughout Life

Further Reading

Chapter 9 Contraction and Muscle

Introduction

The Major Proteins of Contraction

Movement in Non-Muscle Cells

Patterns of Movement

The Varying Patterns of Actin

A Moving Cell Becomes Stationary

Muscle Cells

Smooth Muscle

The Organization of Smooth Muscle

The Functional Characteristics of Smooth Muscle

The Recognition of Smooth Muscle

Striated Muscle

The Structure of a Single Sarcomere

The Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

The Functional Characteristics of Striated Muscle

The Recognition of Striated Muscle

Cardiac Muscle

The Intercalated Disc

The Functional Characteristics of Cardiac Muscle

The Recognition of Cardiac Muscle

The Biological Importance of Muscle Contraction

Further Reading

Chapter 10 Harnessing Contraction to Produce Movement

Introduction

Tendons

Cartilage

The Matrix of Cartilage

The Cells of Cartilage

The Recognition of Varieties of Cartilage

Ageing and Repair in Cartilage

Bone

The Extracellular Matrix of Bone

The Cells of Bone

The Micro-Architecture of Bone

The Periosteum

Effects of Movements on Surrounding Structures

Fat

Fluid-Filled Sacs

Joints

Joints with Little or no Movement

Freely Movable Joints

Summary

Further Reading

Chapter 11 A Look at Tubes

Introduction

General Observations about the Tube

Muscle Coat Present

What Other Components Accompany Muscle in the Wall of the Tube?

The Structure of the Wall of a Tube That Contains Muscle Fibres

The Distribution of Vessels and Nerves to Tubes

Tubes Modified to Form Storage Chambers

Tubes Lacking a Muscle Coat

Structure and Function in Tubes

Chapter 12 Communication Systems

Introduction

Local Communications between Cells

Local Diffusion of Signals

Cell Contacts

Assisted Diffusion of Signaling Molecules — Hormones

The Economics of Hormonal Signaling

Cells That Produce Hormones

Target Cells and Their Responses

The Characteristics of Hormonal Signaling

Signaling by Nerves

The Cell Membrane of the Neurone

Nerve Impulses

Release of Transmitter at a Nerve Terminal

Electrical Events at the Nerve Cell Body

The Structure of a Nerve Cell

The Cell Body

Theaxon

The Organization of Nervous Tissue

The Supporting Cells of the Central Nervous System

The Epithelial Nature of Nervous Tissue

Peripheral Nerves

Review of Communication by Means of Nerves

Further Reading

References

Chapter 13 The Life and Death of Cells

Introduction

Mitosis

The Cell Cycle in Intestinal Epithelium

Labeling Methods

Phases of the Cell Cycle

The Fate of Labeled Cells

Patterns of Cell Renewal

Continually Dividing Populations

Cells That Divide in Response to Cell Loss

Cells That Never Divide

The Regulation of Cell Division

The Male and Female Germ Cells

Meiosis

Male Germ Cells

Female Germ Cells

Summary

Further Reading

References

Chapter 14 The Small Intestine

Introduction

Initial Observations on Sections of Small Intestine

The Region inside the Muscle Layer

The Mucosa

The Muscularis Mucosae and Submucosa

The Muscle Layer and the Region outside it

The Muscularis Externa

The Serosa

Summary of Function and Structure of the Jejunum

Variations in Structure down the Length of the Small Intestine

The Duodenum

The Ileum

Summary

Further Reading

Chapter 15 Interpreting Abnormal Structure

Introduction

Inflammation

Mobilization of Defenses into the Injured Area

Restriction of Damage and Removal of the Cause

Repairing the Damage

Chronic Inflammation

Acute Bronchopneumonia

Cancer

Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Skin

The Spread of Cancer by Metastasis

Summary

Further Reading

References

Chapter 16 What Have We Achieved?

Recurring Patterns

Patterns and Learning

Notes

Index


Details

No. of pages:
256
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1983
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780080984100

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