Cells and Tissues

Cells and Tissues

An Introduction to Histology and Cell Biology

1st Edition - January 28, 1983

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  • Author: Rogers
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080984100

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Cells and Tissues: An Introduction to Histology and Cell Biology begins by explaining why histology should be studied. Some chapters follow on the techniques for studying cells and tissues, the anatomy of the cell, the epithelia, the connective tissues, and the blood. This book also covers topics on the immunity against foreign material; contractility, specifically at how it is brought about and at how the system changes in a stationary cell; and harnessing of contraction to produce movement. This text also looks into the communication systems within cells, the life and death of cells, and the histological sections of small intestine. The responses of the body to injury in the processes of inflammation and repair are also explored. This book will be useful to students starting in histology, though it does assume some elementary knowledge of biochemistry and of the structure of the mammalian body.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    Chapter 1 Why Study Histology?

    Further Reading

    Chapter 2 The Techniques Available



    The Light Microscope

    The Design of the Microscope

    Magnification and Resolution

    The Use of the Light Microscope

    The Preparation of Tissues for Microscopy

    Fixation, Embedding and Sectioning

    Staining the Section

    The Limitations of Conventional Techniques of Microscopy

    The Tissue is Dead

    The Stains are Non-Specific

    Few Chemicals Survive the Preparative Techniques

    A Section is Only Two-Dimensional

    The Section is Static and Unchanging

    The Resolution is Limited

    Collecting Information is Difficult

    Back to Earth

    Further Reading

    Chapter 3 The Anatomy of the Cell


    The Cell Membrane

    Freeze Fracture

    The Glycocalyx

    The Nucleus

    The Nuclear Membrane


    The Cytoplasm

    Energy Production

    Synthetic Activity


    The Cell Skeleton

    Storage within the Cell

    Linking Cell Structure to Function

    The Fibroblast

    The Macrophage

    The Unknown Cell

    Further Reading


    Chapter 4 Epithelia: The Body's Limits



    Features Common to All Epithelia

    The Recognition of Epithelia

    The Organization of Glands

    Contacts between Epithelial Cells

    The Junctional Complex

    The Gap Junction

    The Classification of Epithelia

    A Look at Particular Epithelia

    The Small Intestine

    The Pancreas

    The Bronchus

    The Urinary Bladder

    The Oesophagus

    The Skin


    Further Reading


    Chapter 5 Connective Tissue: The Spaces In Between


    The Extracellular Fluid

    Renewal of the Extracellular Fluid

    Removal of Proteins from the Extracellular Fluid

    The Cells of Connective Tissue



    Fat Cells

    Mast Cells

    Extracellular Materials of Connective Tissue

    Collagen Fibres

    Elastic Fibres



    Further Reading

    Chapter 6 How to Look at a Section


    The Sequence of Observations

    Examining a Section

    Structure and Function in Skin

    The Epidermis

    The Dermis

    Summary of the Functions of Skin

    Review of Progress

    Further Reading

    Chapter 7 The Blood


    Blood Plasma

    The Cells of the Blood


    Polymorphonuclear Leucocytes




    The Blood Summarized

    Exchange between Blood and Tissues



    Exchanging Vessels and Connective Tissue

    The Effects of Damage to Endothelial Cells

    Further Reading

    Chapter 8 Immunity against Foreign Material


    The Removal of Proteins from the Extracellular Space

    The Transport of Lymph

    The Filtering of the Lymph

    The Fate of Foreign Proteins in the Tissues


    The Immune Responses

    The Secondary Response to Soluble Antigens

    The Secondary Response to Cell-Bound Antigens

    The Primary Immune Response

    Lymphocytes and Lymphoid Tissue

    The Life Histories of Lymphocytes

    The Organization of Lymphoid Tissue

    The Immune System throughout Life

    Further Reading

    Chapter 9 Contraction and Muscle


    The Major Proteins of Contraction

    Movement in Non-Muscle Cells

    Patterns of Movement

    The Varying Patterns of Actin

    A Moving Cell Becomes Stationary

    Muscle Cells

    Smooth Muscle

    The Organization of Smooth Muscle

    The Functional Characteristics of Smooth Muscle

    The Recognition of Smooth Muscle

    Striated Muscle

    The Structure of a Single Sarcomere

    The Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

    The Functional Characteristics of Striated Muscle

    The Recognition of Striated Muscle

    Cardiac Muscle

    The Intercalated Disc

    The Functional Characteristics of Cardiac Muscle

    The Recognition of Cardiac Muscle

    The Biological Importance of Muscle Contraction

    Further Reading

    Chapter 10 Harnessing Contraction to Produce Movement




    The Matrix of Cartilage

    The Cells of Cartilage

    The Recognition of Varieties of Cartilage

    Ageing and Repair in Cartilage


    The Extracellular Matrix of Bone

    The Cells of Bone

    The Micro-Architecture of Bone

    The Periosteum

    Effects of Movements on Surrounding Structures


    Fluid-Filled Sacs


    Joints with Little or no Movement

    Freely Movable Joints


    Further Reading

    Chapter 11 A Look at Tubes


    General Observations about the Tube

    Muscle Coat Present

    What Other Components Accompany Muscle in the Wall of the Tube?

    The Structure of the Wall of a Tube That Contains Muscle Fibres

    The Distribution of Vessels and Nerves to Tubes

    Tubes Modified to Form Storage Chambers

    Tubes Lacking a Muscle Coat

    Structure and Function in Tubes

    Chapter 12 Communication Systems


    Local Communications between Cells

    Local Diffusion of Signals

    Cell Contacts

    Assisted Diffusion of Signaling Molecules — Hormones

    The Economics of Hormonal Signaling

    Cells That Produce Hormones

    Target Cells and Their Responses

    The Characteristics of Hormonal Signaling

    Signaling by Nerves

    The Cell Membrane of the Neurone

    Nerve Impulses

    Release of Transmitter at a Nerve Terminal

    Electrical Events at the Nerve Cell Body

    The Structure of a Nerve Cell

    The Cell Body


    The Organization of Nervous Tissue

    The Supporting Cells of the Central Nervous System

    The Epithelial Nature of Nervous Tissue

    Peripheral Nerves

    Review of Communication by Means of Nerves

    Further Reading


    Chapter 13 The Life and Death of Cells



    The Cell Cycle in Intestinal Epithelium

    Labeling Methods

    Phases of the Cell Cycle

    The Fate of Labeled Cells

    Patterns of Cell Renewal

    Continually Dividing Populations

    Cells That Divide in Response to Cell Loss

    Cells That Never Divide

    The Regulation of Cell Division

    The Male and Female Germ Cells


    Male Germ Cells

    Female Germ Cells


    Further Reading


    Chapter 14 The Small Intestine


    Initial Observations on Sections of Small Intestine

    The Region inside the Muscle Layer

    The Mucosa

    The Muscularis Mucosae and Submucosa

    The Muscle Layer and the Region outside it

    The Muscularis Externa

    The Serosa

    Summary of Function and Structure of the Jejunum

    Variations in Structure down the Length of the Small Intestine

    The Duodenum

    The Ileum


    Further Reading

    Chapter 15 Interpreting Abnormal Structure



    Mobilization of Defenses into the Injured Area

    Restriction of Damage and Removal of the Cause

    Repairing the Damage

    Chronic Inflammation

    Acute Bronchopneumonia


    Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Skin

    The Spread of Cancer by Metastasis


    Further Reading


    Chapter 16 What Have We Achieved?

    Recurring Patterns

    Patterns and Learning



Product details

  • No. of pages: 256
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1983
  • Published: January 28, 1983
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080984100

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