Cells and Tissues - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483167442, 9781483194929

Cells and Tissues

1st Edition

Physical Techniques in Biological Research

Editors: Gerald Oster Arthur W. Pollister
eBook ISBN: 9781483194929
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1956
Page Count: 744
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Physical Techniques in Biological Research, Volume III: Cells and Tissues focuses on physical techniques applied to the study of cells, determining the morphology, chemical characteristics, and functions of the cellular organelles.

This book discusses the microtomy and postdrying treatment of tissues, phase contrast and interference microscopy in cytology, and fluorescence microscopy. The electron microscopy of microorganisms, ultrastructure of layered lipoprotein structures, and techniques for the mass isolation of cellular components are also elaborated. This publication likewise covers the microphotometry with visible light, ultraviolet absorption techniques, and stereoscopic techniques in X-ray microscopy.Other topics include the birefringence and dichroism of cells and tissues, autoradiography at the cellular level, and manometric techniques for single cells.

This volume is a good source for biologists and specialists concerned with the study of cells and tissues.

Table of Contents

Preface To Volume I

Preface To Volume III

Contributors To Volume III

1. Freeze-Drying

I. Introduction

II. Theoretical Discussion on Diffusion

III. Sampling

IV. Quenching

V. Drying

VI. Embedding

VII. Microtomy and Postdrying Treatment of Tissues

VIII. An Evaluation of the Freezing and Drying of Tissues for Microscopy


2. Phase Contrast and Interference Microscopy in Cytology

I. Introduction

II. Observational Methods and Results

III. Quantitative Techniques


3. Fluorescence Microscopy

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Survey of Applications


4. Birefringence and Dichroism of Cells and Tissues

I. Introduction

II. Plant Cell Walls

III. Cytoplasm

IV. Chloroplasts

V. Nerve Fibers

VI. Muscle Fibers

VII. Nucleus


5. Electron Microscopy of Microorganisms

I. Introduction

II. Preliminary Preparation of Materials for Drying

III. Techniques for Drying Specimens

IV. Techniques for Studying Dried Specimens

V. Conclusion


6. Electron Microscopy of Cells and Tissues

I. Introduction

II. Physical Conditions for High-Resolution Electron Microscopy of Cells and Tissues

III. The Material for High-Resolution Electron Microscopy of Cells and Tissues

IV. Techniques

V. The Ultrastructural Patterns of Basic Cell Component

VI. The Ultrastructure of Layered Lipoprotein Structures

VII. The Interpretation of the Ultrastructural Patterns Observed in the Electron Microscope

VIII. The Structural Patterns Observed with the Electron Microscope and the Organization of the Living Cell

IX. Fundamental, Actual, and Future Technical Problems in Electron Microscopy of Cells and Tissues


7. Techniques for the Mass Isolation of Cellular Components

I. Introduction

II. Isolation Techniques with Aqueous Media

III. Isolation Techniques with Nonaqueous Media

IV. Interpretation of Results


8. Microphotometry with Visible Light

I. Introduction

II. Instruments

III. Alignment of the Instrument

IV. Measuring Technique

V. The Two-Wavelength Method

VI. Photometric Variables

VII. Testing the Instrument

VIII. Examples of Microphotometer Use


9. Ultraviolet Absorption Techniques

Part I

I. Introduction

II. Ultraviolet-Absorbing Compounds

III. Errors Caused by the Biological Specimen and the Microscope

IV. Radiation Damage

V. Methods of Measurement

Part II

VI. Radiation Sources

VII. Monochromators

VIII. Microscopes

IX. Photographic Recording

X. Photoelectric Recording

Part III

XI. Biological Results

XII. Conclusions


10. Historadiography

I. Introduction

II. Absorption and Scattering of X-Rays

III. Methods to Obtain Enlarged X-Ray Images

IV. Stereoscopic Techniques in X-Ray Microscopy

V. Properties of Photographic Emulsions with High Resolution

VI. Histochemical Elementary Analysis by X-Ray Absorption

VII. The X-Ray Method for Weighing Histo- and Cytological Structures

VIII. Qualitative Microradiography

IX. Microangiography

X. Preparation of the Biological Material for Historadiography and a Discussion of Errors

XI. A Short Discussion of the Relative Merits of X-Ray Methods and Their Future Outlook


11. Autoradiography at the Cellular Level

I. Introduction

II. Techniques for Autoradiography

III. Resolution and Quantitative Aspects

IV. Applications of Autoradiography to Cytochemistry

V. Prospects and Future Applications of High-Resolution Autoradiography


12. Manometric Techniques for Single Cells

I. Introduction

II. Capillary Respirometers

III. Cartesian Diver Respirometers

IV. Concluding Remarks


13. Microtomy

I. Introduction

II. The Specimen and Embedding

III. Microtomes

IV. Knives and Knife Sharpening

V. Measurement of Section Thickness as a Criterion of Over-All Performance

VI. Microscopic Resolution and Section Thickness


Author Index

Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1956
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Gerald Oster

Arthur W. Pollister

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