Cell Physiology Source Book

Cell Physiology Source Book

Essentials of Membrane Biophysics

4th Edition - November 29, 2011

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  • Editor: Nicholas Sperelakis
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123877574
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123877383

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Cell Physiology Source Book gathers together a broad range of ideas and topics that define the field. It provides clear, concise, and comprehensive coverage of all aspects of cellular physiology from fundamental concepts to more advanced topics. The 4e contains substantial new material. Most chapters have been thoroughly reworked. The book includes chapters on important topics such as sensory transduction, the physiology of protozoa and bacteria, and synaptic transmission.

Key Features

  • Authored by leading researchers in the field
  • Clear, concise, and comprehensive coverage of all aspects of cellular physiology, from fundamental concepts to more advanced topics
  • Full color illustrations


Graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and researchers in physiology, biophysics, cell biology, molecular biology, and biochemistry; upper-level undergraduates taking courses in cellular physiology

Table of Contents

  • Dedication

    In Memoriam


    Foreword to the First Edition

    Foreword to the Second Edition

    Foreword to the Third Edition

    Foreword to the Fourth Edition


    Section I Biophysical Chemistry, Metabolism, Second Messengers, and Ultrastructure

    Chapter 1. Biophysical Chemistry of Physiological Solutions

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III Structure and Properties of Water

    IV Interactions Between Water and Ions

    V Protons in Solution

    VI Interactions Between Ions

    VII Solute Transport: Basic Definitions

    VIII Measurement of Electrolytes and Membrane Potential

    Appendix: Thermodynamics of Membrane Transport

    AII Nernst Equilibrium


    Chapter 2. Physiological Structure and Function of Proteins

    I Summary

    II Molecular Structure of Proteins

    III Techniques for the Determination of the Structures of Proteins

    IV Bulk Properties of Proteins: Proteins as Polyelectrolytes

    V Relationship of Protein Structure to Function


    Chapter 3. Cell Membranes

    I Summary

    II The Bimolecular Lipid Membrane

    III Membrane Lipids and Proteins

    IV The Fluid Mosaic Model of Cell Membranes


    Chapter 4. Ionophores in Planar Lipid Bilayers

    I Summary

    II Ionophores

    III Planar Lipid Bilayers

    IV Ion Channel Properties in Planar Lipid Bilayers

    V Gramicidin


    Chapter 5. Cell Structure

    I Introduction

    II Techniques

    III Cell Theory

    IV The Plasma Membrane as the Basis of Cellularity

    V Nucleus

    VI Endoplasmic Reticulum

    VII Golgi Apparatus

    VIII Lysosomes

    IX Mitochondria

    X Cytoskeleton

    XI Cell Junctions

    XII Special Tissues, Specialized Ultrastructure



    Chapter 6. Signal Transduction and Second Messengers

    I What is Signal Transduction?

    II General Principles

    III General Types of Signal Transduction Cascades and their Components

    IV Phosphorylation by Kinases and Other Post-translational Modifications

    V Intracellular Signal Transduction Pathways

    VI Conclusions


    Chapter 7. Calcium as an Intracellular Second Messenger

    I Introduction

    II Determination of Ca2+ Involvement in Physiological Processes

    III Ca2+ as an Intracellular Signal

    IV Creation of the Ca2+ Signal

    V Mediation of the Ca2+ Signal

    VI Ca2+-Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase II

    VII Annexins: Calcium-Dependent Phospholipid-Binding Proteins

    VIII Protein Kinase C

    IX Current Perspectives

    X Summary


    Section II Membrane Potential, Transport Physiology, Pumps, and Exchangers

    Chapter 8. Diffusion and Permeability

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III Fick’s Law of Diffusion

    IV Diffusion Coefficient

    V Diffusion Across a Membrane with Partitioning

    VI Permeability Coefficient

    VII Electrodiffusion

    VIII Special Transport Processes

    IX Ussing Flux Ratio Equation


    Chapter 9. Origin of Resting Membrane Potentials

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III Passive Electrical Properties

    IV Maintenance of Ion Distributions

    V Equilibrium Potentials

    VI Electrochemical Driving Forces and Membrane Ionic Currents

    VII Determination of Resting Potential and Net Diffusion Potential (Ediff)

    VIII Electrogenic Sodium Pump Potentials


    AII Derivation of Nernst Equation

    AIII Half-Cell Potentials

    AIV Constant-Field Equation Details

    AV Derivation of Chord Conductance Equation

    AVI Circuit Analysis Applicable to Cell Membrane


    Chapter 10. Gibbs–Donnan Equilibrium Potentials

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III Mechanism for Development of the Gibbs–Donnan Potential

    IV Gibbs–Donnan Equilibrium

    V Quantitation of the Gibbs–Donnan Potential

    VI Osmotic Considerations


    Chapter 11. Mechanisms of Carrier-Mediated Transport

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III Electrochemical Potential

    IV Carrier-Mediated Transport Mechanisms


    Chapter 12. Active Ion Transport by ATP-Driven Ion Pumps

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III Classes of ATP-driven Ion Pumps

    IV The Albers–Post Mechanism of Ion Transport by P-type Ion Pumps

    V Structures of P-type Ion Pumps

    VI Beta Subunits

    VII Isoforms of Pump Subunits and Subfamilies of P-type Pumps

    VIII FXYD Proteins

    IX Regulation of P-type ATPase Activity

    X Pharmacological Inhibitors of P-type ATPases


    Chapter 13. Ca-ATPases

    I Introduction

    II Sarcoplasmic Reticular (SR) Ca2+-ATPase

    III Other ATPases

    IV Overview



    Chapter 14. Na-Ca Exchange Currents

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III Energetics of Na+-Ca2+ Exchange

    IV Methods and Problems Associated with the Measurement of Na+-Ca2+ Exchange Current

    V Isolation of Na+-Ca2+ Exchange Current

    VI Ionic Dependencies of Na+-Ca2+ Exchange Current

    VII Regulation of Na+-Ca2+ Exchange Current

    VIII Structure of NCX and its Relationship to Function

    IX The Phylogeny of the Na+-Ca2+ Exchanger

    X Isoforms of the Na+-Ca2+ Exchanger

    XI Current–Voltage Relationships and Voltage Dependence of Na+-Ca2+ Exchange Current

    XII Mechanism of Na+-Ca2+ Exchange

    XIII Na+-Ca2+ Exchange Currents During the Cardiac Action Potential

    XIV Na+-Ca2+ Exchange Currents and Excitation–Contraction Coupling


    Chapter 15. Intracellular Chloride Regulation

    I Introduction

    II Origin of the Passive Cl− Distribution Assumption

    III Passive and Non-passive Cl− Distribution Across the Plasma Membrane

    IV Active Transport Mechanisms for Cl−

    V Electroneutral Na+-K+-Cl− Cotransporters

    VI Electroneutral K+-Cl− Cotransporters

    VII Electroneutral Na+-Cl− Cotransporter



    Chapter 16. Osmosis and Regulation of Cell Volume

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III Water Movement Across Model Membranes

    IV Mechanisms of Osmosis

    V Water Movement Across Cell Membranes

    VI Regulation of Cell Volume under Isosmotic Conditions

    VII Regulation of Cell Volume under Anisosmotic Conditions



    Chapter 17. Intracellular pH Regulation

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III pH and Buffering Power

    IV Intracellular pH

    V Organellar pH

    VI Maintenance of a Steady-State pHi

    VII Active Membrane Transport of Acids and Bases

    VIII Cellular Functions Affected by Intracellular pH


    Section III Membrane Excitability and Ion Channels

    Chapter 18. Cable Properties and Propagation of Action Potentials

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III Frequency-Modulated Signals

    IV Cable Properties

    V Conduction of Action Potentials

    VI External Recording of Action Potentials

    Appendix 1 Additional Discussion of Input Resistance and Impedance

    Appendix 2 Propagation in Cardiac Muscle and Smooth Muscles

    AII Some Experimental Facts

    AIII Electric Field Model

    AIV Electronic Model for Simulation of Propagation

    AV PSpice Model for Simulation of Propagation


    Chapter 19. Electrogenesis of Membrane Excitability

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III Action Potential Characteristics

    IV Electrogenesis of Action Potentials

    V Effect of Resting Potential on Action Potential

    VI Electrogenesis of Afterpotentials


    AII Additional Information on K+ Channels

    AIII Whole-Cell Voltage Clamp


    Chapter 20. Patch-Clamp Techniques

    I Introduction

    II Applications of the Patch-Clamp Technique

    III Patch-Clamp Techniques

    IV Data Acquisition

    V Current Recordings and Analysis

    VI Automated Patch-clamp



    Chapter 21. Structure and Mechanism of Voltage-Gated Ion Channels

    I Summary

    II Introduction: How Is Ion Channel Structure Studied?

    III Biochemistry of Ion Channels: Purification and Characterization of Voltage-Gated Channels

    IV Channel Structure Investigation through Manipulation of DNA Sequences Encoding Channel Polypeptides

    V Molecular Mechanisms of Channel Function: How Does One Investigate Them?

    VI Isoforms of Voltage-Gated Channels as Part of a Large Superfamily

    VII Future Directions


    Chapter 22. Biology of Gap Junctions

    I Introduction

    II Advantages of Electrical Synapses in Excitable Cells

    III Ubiquitous Membrane Permeable Junctions

    IV Structural Candidates for the Permeable Cell Junction

    V Ultrastructural Characterization of Gap Junctions and Correlations with Cell Coupling

    VI Molecular and Structural Studies of Gap Junction Proteins

    VII Two Large Families of Gap Junction Proteins

    VIII Channels within Gap Junctions

    IX Evidence for Charge Selectivity

    X Channel Properties of Different Connexins

    XI Gating by Ions and Second Messengers

    XII Regulation of Functions of Connexin-Based Gap Junctions at Multiple Levels

    XIII Specific Biological Functions of Gap Junctions

    XIV Gap Junctions in Human Disease and in Murine Models of Human Disease

    In Memoriam


    Chapter 23. Regulation of Cardiac Ion Channels by Cyclic Nucleotide-Dependent Phosphorylation

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III Regulation of the Cardiac L-type Ca2+ Channels by Cyclic AMP

    IV Regulation of the L-type Ca2+ Channels by Cyclic GMP

    V Phosphodiesterases

    VI Compartmentalization of Cyclic Nucleotides


    Chapter 24. Direct Regulation of Ion Channels by GTP-Binding Proteins

    I Introduction

    II G-Protein-Coupled Receptors

    III The G-Protein Cyclic Reaction Mediates Receptor-to-Channel Signal Transmission

    IV Electrophysiological Evidence for K+ Channel Activation by G Proteins

    V Electrophysiological Properties of KG Channels

    VI Direct Coupling of KG Channel Subunits to Gβγ

    VII Structural Basis of the Regulation of KG Channel Activity

    VIII RGS Proteins Confer Voltage-Dependent Gating on KG Channel

    IX Conclusions


    Chapter 25. Developmental Changes in Ion Channels

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III Cardiomyocytes

    IV Skeletal Muscle Fibers

    V Neurons

    VI Concluding Remarks


    Chapter 26. Regulation of Ion Channel Localization and Activity Through Interactions with the Cytoskeleton

    I Summary

    II General Introduction

    III Mechanisms for Interactions Between the Cytoskeleton and Ion Channels

    IV General Conclusions


    Chapter 27. Why are So Many Ion Channels Mechanosensitive?

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III Eukaryotic MS Channels – Bilayer Structure, Bilayer Deformation

    IV Channel Mechanosensitivity – Tuning of Channel Behavior

    V VGCS and the Mechanosensitivity of Discrete Transitions

    VI Bilayer Structure in X, Y and Z – One LPP Here, Another LPP There

    VII Physiology? Read with Caution. Proceed with Caution


    Section IV Ion Channels as Targets for Toxins, Drugs, and Genetic Diseases

    Chapter 28. Ion Channels as Targets for Toxins

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels (VGSCs; NaV1.x)

    IV Voltage-Activated and Ca2+-Activated Potassium Channels

    V Voltage-Dependent Calcium Channels

    VI Other Toxins and Channels


    Chapter 29. Ion Channels as Targets for Drugs

    I Summary

    II Calcium Channels

    III Sodium (Na+) Channels


    Chapter 30. Inherited Diseases of Ion Transport

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III Identifying Heritable Mutations Underlying Diseases of Ion Transport

    IV Familial Hemiplegic Migraine

    V Cystic Fibrosis

    VI Long QT Syndrome

    VII Myotonia and Periodic Paralysis of Skeletal Muscle

    VIII Malignant Hyperthermia

    IX Liddle’s Syndrome

    X Bartter Syndrome


    Section V Synaptic Transmission and Sensory Transduction

    Chapter 31. Ligand-Gated Ion Channels

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III Classes of Ligand-Gated Ion Channels

    IV Basic Physiological Features

    V Molecular Structure

    VI Neuronal Acetylcholine Receptor Channels

    VII γ-Aminobutyric Acid and Glycine Receptor Channels

    VIII Glutamate Receptor Channels


    Chapter 32. Synaptic Transmission

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III Structure and Function of Chemical Synapses: An Overview

    IV Neurotransmission


    Chapter 33. Excitation—Secretion Coupling

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III Cellular Components Involved in Excitation–Secretion Coupling

    IV Cellular and Molecular Events in Chromaffin, Mast Cells and Neuronal Synaptic Vesicles

    V Hormone Release in Endocrine Cells



    Chapter 34. Stimulus—Response Coupling in Metabolic Sensor Cells

    I Introduction

    II Stimulus–Secretion Coupling in the Pancreatic Islet Cells

    III Metabolic Sensing as Protection from Hypometabolic Injury

    IV Stimulus–Secretion Coupling in Carotid Chemoreceptor Cells

    V Stimulus–Contraction Coupling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    VI Coupling of Oxygen Sensing to Red Cell Production by Erythropoietin-Secreting Cells



    Chapter 35. Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Ion Channels

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III Physiological Roles and Locations

    IV Control by Cyclic Nucleotide Enzyme Cascades

    V Functional Properties

    VI Molecular Structure

    VII Functional Modulation


    Chapter 36. Sensory Receptors and Mechanotransduction

    I Introduction

    II Sensory Transduction

    III Sensory Adaptation

    IV Information Transmission by Sensory Receptors

    V Mechanoreceptors

    VI Experimental Mechanoreceptor Preparations

    VII Steps in Mechanoreception

    VIII Efferent Control of Mechanoreceptors

    IX Conclusions


    Chapter 37. Acoustic Transduction

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III Mammalian Inner Ear Structure

    IV Cell Physiology of Endolymph Homeostasis

    V Genetic Basis of Deafness

    VI Cell Physiology of Acoustic Transduction

    VII Concluding Remarks



    Chapter 38. Visual Transduction

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III Photoreceptor Cells

    IV Physiology of Visual Transduction

    V Molecular Mechanisms


    Chapter 39. Gustatory and Olfactory Sensory Transduction

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III Taste Receptor Cells

    IV Olfactory Receptor Cells


    Chapter 40. Infrared Sensory Organs

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III Nature of the Stimulus: What is Infrared (IR) Radiation?

    IV Infrared-Sensitive Pit Organs in Snakes


    Chapter 41. Electroreceptors and Magnetoreceptors

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III Ampullary Electroreceptors

    IV Tuberous Electroreceptors


    Section VI Muscle and Other Contractile Systems

    Chapter 42. Skeletal Muscle Excitability

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III General Overview of Electrogenesis of the Action Potential

    IV Ion Channel Activation and Inactivation

    V Slow Delayed Rectifier K+ Current

    VI Mechanisms of Repolarization

    VII ATP-Dependent K+ Channels

    VIII Electrogenesis of Depolarizing Afterpotentials

    IX Ca2+-Dependent Slow Action Potentials

    X Developmental Changes in Membrane Properties

    XI Electrogenic Na+-K+ Pump Stimulation

    XII Slow Fibers

    XIII Conduction of the Action Potential

    XIV Excitation Delivery to Fiber Interior by Conduction into the T-Tubular System


    AII More Information on KATP Channels

    AIII Further Evidence that the T-Tubules Fire Na+-Dependent APS

    AIV Propagation Velocity in a Passive Cable

    AV Evidence for T-Tubule Communication with the SR across the Triadic Junction under Some Conditions

    AVI Invertebrate Striated Muscle Fibers


    Chapter 43. Cardiac Action Potentials

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III Resting Membrane Potential

    IV Currents During the Action Potential Phases

    V Additional Currents Contributing to the Action Potential

    VI Regional Differences in Action Potentials

    VII Automaticity

    VIII Channelopathies


    Chapter 44. Smooth Muscle Excitability

    I Introduction

    II Determination of Resting Membrane Potential in SMCS

    III Potassium Channels

    IV Voltage-Dependent Calcium Channels

    V Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Channels

    VI Excitation of Gastrointestinal SMCS

    VII Airway Smooth Muscle

    VIII Concluding Remarks



    Chapter 45. Excitation—Contraction Coupling in Skeletal Muscle

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III Overview of EC Coupling

    IV Speed of Skeletal Muscle Activation

    V Membrane Architecture of EC Coupling

    VI The DHPR Protein

    VII The Ryanodine Receptor

    VIII Physiological Interactions Between the DHPR and RyR1



    Chapter 46. Contraction of Muscles

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III The Mechanisms of Force Production and Shortening: Muscle Mechanics

    IV Muscle Energetics

    V Muscle Metabolism

    VI Comparative Mechanochemical Function


    Chapter 47. Flagella, Cilia, Actin- and Centrin-based Movement

    I Introduction

    II Bacterial flagella

    III Cilia

    IV Non-Muscle Actin

    V Biological Springs

    VI Cannons

    VII A Few Lessons Learned


    Chapter 48. Electrocytes of Electric Fish

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III Anatomy of Electrophorus and Mechanism of the Electrical Discharge

    IV Electrocyte Membrane Electrophysiology

    V Comparative Physiology of Electrophorus and Torpedo – Models for Mammalian Excitable Cells


    Section VII Protozoa and Bacteria

    Chapter 49. Physiological Adaptations of Protists

    I Introduction: Terminology and Phylogeny

    II Biophysical Constraints of Scale: the Example of Filter-Feeding

    III Nutrition and Excretion

    IV Energetic Adaptations: Mitochondria and their Relatives

    V Sensory Adaptations, Membrane Potentials and Ion Channels

    VI Incorporation of Physiological Units from Other Cells

    VII Structures with Unknown Functions

    VIII Coordinated Protistan Responses to Gravity and to Gradients of Oxygen and Light: an Example from Physiological Ecology

    IX Summary: Protistan Diversity



    Chapter 50. Physiology of Prokaryotic Cells

    I The Diversity of Prokaryotic Organisms

    II Prokaryotic Cytology

    III Energetics of Bacterial Cells

    IV Solute Transport

    V Metabolic Strategies

    VI Responding to the Environment

    VII The Physiology of Pathogenesis

    VIII Prokaryotes Living in Extreme Environments

    IX Conclusions


    Section VIII Specialized Processes: Photosynthesis and Bioluminescence

    Chapter 51. Photosynthesis

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III Chloroplasts

    IV Biochemistry of Carbon Assimilation

    V Formation of ATP

    VI Photosynthetic Electron Transport

    VII Regulation of Photosynthesis


    Chapter 52. Bioluminescence

    I Summary

    II Introduction

    III What is Bioluminescence? Physical and Chemical Mechanisms

    IV Luminous Organisms: Abundance, Diversity and Distribution

    V Functions of Bioluminescence

    VI Bacterial Luminescence

    VII Dinoflagellate Luminescence

    VIII Coelenterates and Ctenophores

    IX Firefly Luminescence

    X Other Organisms: Other Chemistries

    XI Applications of Bioluminescence

    XII Concluding Remarks


    Appendix: Excitability of Smooth Muscles: Some Basic Facts

    I Fast Na+ Channels in Smooth Muscle Cells

    II Propagation of Overshooting Action Potentials in Intestinal Smooth Muscle

    III Vascular Smooth Muscle: Part 1

    IV Vascular Smooth Muscle: Part 2

    V High Input Resistance and Short Length Constant

    VI Induction of APs by Ba2+ and TEA+

    VII Enhancement of the TEA-Induced APS

    VIII Excitatory Junction Potentials Sometimes Give Rise to APS: Analogy with Slow Fibers of Skeletal Muscle

    IX Electrical Equivalent Circuit for VSM Cells


Product details

  • No. of pages: 996
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2011
  • Published: November 29, 2011
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123877574
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123877383

About the Editor

Nicholas Sperelakis

Professor Sperelakis currently is Professor and Chairman Emeritus of Physiology and Biophysics at the College of Medicine at the University of Cincinnati. He is a cell physiologist specializing in cellular electrophysiology. Dr Sperelakis received a B.S. in Chemistry, M.S. in Physiology in 1955, and a Ph.D. in Physiology in 1957, all from the University of Illinois, Urbana. He was also trained in electronics, receiving a certificate from the U.S. Navy & Marine Corps Electronics School in Treasure Island, San Francisco. He served in the U.S. Marine Corps during the Korean War. Dr. Sperelakis is the author/co-author of over 550 scientific articles in journals and books. He has lectured at numerous universities worldwide and at international conferences/symposia. He has also trained many postdoctoral fellows and graduate students, and has been a visiting professor at several foreign universities. Professor Sperelakis has served on a number of journal editorial boards. He is a member of numerous professional societies and has served on the Council for several of them. He has served on the science program advisory committees for various international conferences and has organized several conferences. Dr. Sperelakis was an Established Investigator of the American Heart Association (AHA), Fellow at the Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole), and elected Fellow of the American College of Cardiology (FACC). He received Awards for research excellence from Ohio AHA in 1995 and SW Ohio in 1996. His listings include Who's Who in the World, in America, in Science and Engineering, in Medicine and Healthcare, and in American Education.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.A.

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