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Cell and Tissue Destruction - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128163887, 9780128167359

Cell and Tissue Destruction

1st Edition

Mechanisms, Protection, Disorders

Author: Jurgen Arnhold
Paperback ISBN: 9780128163887
eBook ISBN: 9780128167359
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 14th August 2019
Page Count: 342
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Cell and Tissue Destruction: Mechanisms, Protection, and Disorders provides an overview of the main mechanisms responsible for degradation in human beings and summarizes important strategies to counter these mechanisms. This book details the properties and limits of protective mechanisms, along with disturbances to systematic physiological functions. It provides examples of disease states resulting from the limits of protective systems. Three sections consider the physical and chemical reasons for destruction in living systems, protection against cytotoxic components, and the development of pathologic states.

This book provides neuroscientists, cancer researchers and physicians with robust, overall coverage of the interrelated processes involved in cell and tissue destruction in living structures, and concomitant protective mechanisms and their limitations.

Key Features

  • Describes the destruction of biological material as a consequence of the highly ordered nature of living structures
  • Specifies the main strategies used by cells to overcome destruction, including antioxidative systems, self-repair and growth
  • Highlights basic mechanisms of immune regulation
  • Considers the development of selected disease scenarios, from the perspective of destructive processes in cells and tissues
  • Details organ damage by cytotoxic components as well as septic conditions and multiple organ failure


Clinical researchers including neuroscientists, cancer researchers, histologists; Physicians, biologists, chemists, and scientists from related fields interested in the interrelationship between destruction of biological material and protective mechanisms ensuring the homeostasis in cells and tissues, including systems biologists, developmental biologists, microbiologists, and specialists in cell science. Pharmaceutical industry scientists, graduate students and academic researchers in pharmaceutical science

Table of Contents

1. Cells and Organisms as Open Systems
1.1 Main Properties of Cells
1.2 Thermodynamic Basis of Life
1.3 Functioning of Life as Open System
1.4 High Order of Biological Material Versus Destruction
1.5 Destructions and Their Prevention in Complex Organisms
1.6 On the Structure of This Book
1.7 Summary

2. Role of Reactive Species in Destructions
2.1 Short Characterization of Reactive Species
2.2 Dioxygen-Derived Reactive Species
2.3 Nitrogen-Based Reactive Species
2.4 Transition Metal Ion-Based Species
2.5 (Pseudo)Halogen-Based Reactive Species
2.6 Reactive Species in Cell and Tissue Destruction
2.7 Instead of a Summary: Reactive Species Versus General Protective Mechanisms

3. Oxidation and Reduction of Biological Material
3.1 Unwanted Destruction of Biological Material
3.2 Oxidation of Lipids
3.3 Destructions in Carbohydrates
3.4 Oxidations in Proteins
3.5 Destructions in Nucleic Acids
3.6 Antioxidative Defense by Small Molecules
3.7 Redox Homeostasis
3.8 Repair Mechanisms of Nucleic Acids
3.9 Summary and Outlook

4. Disturbances in Energy Supply
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Transport of Dioxygen by Red Blood Cells
4.3 Dioxygen in Muscle Cells and Other Tissues
4.4 Cytotoxic Effects of Dioxygen-Binding Heme Proteins and Their Components
4.5 Utilization of Glucose and Dioxygen in Cells and Mitochondria
4.6 Dioxygen in Tissues Under Normal and Pathological Conditions
4.7 Glucose as an Energy Substrate
4.8 Summary

5. Mechanisms of Cell Death
5.1 Overview
5.2 Apoptosis: Mitochondrial Pathway
5.3 Apoptosis: Death Receptor Pathway
5.4 Necrosis
5.5 Special Forms of Programmed Cell Death
5.6 Degradation of Dysfunctional Components and Waste
5.7 Red Blood Cells
5.8 Neutrophils
5.9 Summary

6. Immune Response and Tissue Damage
6.1 Short Characterization of Immune Cells as Key Players of Immunity
6.2 Regulation of Immune Processes
6.3 Inflammatory Response
6.4 Important properties of polymorphonuclear leukocytes
6.5 Macrophages as Main Phagocytes
6.6 Special Aspects of Acquired Immune Response
6.7 Dysregulation of Immune Responses
6.8 Summary

7. Acute-Phase Proteins and Additional Protective Systems
7.1 Acute-Phase Response
7.2 Control of Inflammatory Response by Acute-Phase Proteins
7.3 Complement System
7.4 Coagulation System
7.5 Links Between Complement, Coagulation, and Inflammation
7.6 Summary

8. Aging in Complex Multicellular Organisms
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Genes and Aging
8.3 Neuroendocrine Theories of Aging
8.4 Damage Accumulation Theories
8.5 Aging as a Consequence of Growth Limitation
8.6 Concluding Remark

9. Cell and Tissue Destruction in Selected Disorders
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Disturbances of the CardioVascular System
9.3 Diabetes Mellitus and Complications
9.4 Neurodegenerative Disorders
9.5 Autoimmune Disorders
9.6 Diseases of the Respiratory Tract
9.7 Diseases of the Digestive System
9.8 Cancer
9.9 Concluding Remarks

10. Organ Damage and Failure
10.1 Elimination of Wastes and Xenobiotics from the Organism
10.2 Kidney Dysfunctions
10.3 Liver Damage
10.4 Spleen Damage
10.5 Sepsis
10.6 Devastating Consequences of Sepsis
10.7 Concluding Remarks

11. Conclusions
11.1 The Alliance of High Complexity and Destructions in Living Systems
11.2 Disturbances of Homeostasis
11.3 Peculiarities of Defense Mechanisms
11.4 What Can We Do to Avoid Dreadful Effects of Damaging Reactions?

Appendix: Some Basics About Redox Reactions in Living Systems Product Formation


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© Academic Press 2020
14th August 2019
Academic Press
Paperback ISBN:
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About the Author

Jurgen Arnhold

Jürgen Arnhold was an Associate Professor in the Institute for Medical Physics and Biophysics at Leipzig University in Germany. He currently researches the underlying chemical processes during oxidative stress response in biological systems and investigates adaptive mechanisms against stress.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor, Institute for Medical Physics and Biophysics, Leipzig University, Germany

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