Catecholamine Research in the 21st Century - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128000441, 9780128000731

Catecholamine Research in the 21st Century

1st Edition

Abstracts and Graphical Abstracts, 10th International Catecholamine Symposium, 2012

Editors: Lee Eiden
eBook ISBN: 9780128000731
Paperback ISBN: 9780128000441
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 15th December 2013
Page Count: 328
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Description

Through the use of extended graphical abstracts and some traditional text-only abstracts this collection provides, a record of and roadmap to, the research presented at The Tenth International Catecholamine Symposium (XICS) held in September of 2012. Organized around ten general themes, each is introduced by a short overview identifying interesting research programs, results and potential areas of growth. The collection is a roadmap to key research and future opportunities for new catecholamine research programs and will be of interest to neuroscientists and clinical neurologists interested in understanding the current and future state of catecholamine research.

Key Features

  • Details the leading research efforts and focus on catecholamines
  • Provides a guide to the diverse catecholamine research efforts across key themes including, Synthesis and Storage, Release and Re-uptake, Metabolism, Catecholamine Receptors and Catecholaminergic Signaling
  • Includes impact on clinical neurology, drug abuse and addiction and issues in psychiatry and psychology

Table of Contents

Preface

Theme A: Catecholamine Biosynthesis and Storage

Theme A Catecholamine Biosynthesis and Storage

Genetic Manipulation of Catecholamine Signaling in the Mouse

AADC Deficiency: Occurring in Humans; Modeled in Rodents; Treated in Patients

Tyrosine Hydrolylase and Dopamine Beta-Hydroxylase: Role of Common Genetic Variation in Adrenergic Responses to Stress and in Hypertension

Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Properties of Etamicastat, a New DBH Inhibitor: Comparison to Nepicastat

Estradiol-Mediated Regulation of Gene Expression of Catecholamine Biosynthetic Enzymes: The Role of Membrane-Initiated Signaling with Erα

Structural Basis for Regulation of Tyrosine Hydroxlyase by the Catecholamines

Unique Regulation of TH Gene Expression in Midbrain Dopamine Neurons

Intracellular Stability of Tyrosine Hydroxylase: Phosphorylation and Proteasomal Digestion of the Enzyme

The Peripheral Interaction of Tyrosine Hydroxylase and 14-3-3γ with Negatively Charged Phospholipidic Membranes

References

Dynamic Regulation of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Gene Expression by Key Fate-Determining Transcription Factors during Dopaminergic Neuronal Development in Vivo and in Vitro

Analysis of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Isoforms and Phosphorylation in Parkinson’s Disease

Non-dopaminergic Neurons Partly Expressing Dopaminergic Phenotype: Functional Significance and Regulation

Developing Brain as an Endocrine Organ: Catecholamines Secretion and Endocrine Action

Brainstem DOPAergic System

Imaging Norepinephrine Transporters in Humans; Translational Research with PET

Imaging the Vesicular Monoamine Transporter (VMAT2) in Neurodegenerative Diseases

GTP Cyclohydrolase Regulation: Implications for Brain Development and Function

Neonatal Diagnosis of Menkes Disease by a Pattern of Plasma Catechols

Catecholamine Metabolites Affected by the Copper-Dependent Enzyme Dopamine-Beta-Hydroxylase Provide Sensitive Blood and Csf Biomarkers for Viral Gene Therapy in Menkes Disease

Are the Enzymes of the Catecholamine Biosynthetic Pathway Locally Synthesized in the Axon?

Effects of Missense Mutations in Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) Found in Patients with Neurological Disorders Attributed to TH Deficiency

Tetrahydrobiopterin Deficiency Impairs Postnatal Increase of TH Protein via Insufficient Dopamine Biosynthesis

Selective Ablation of Dopamine Beta-Hydroxylase Neurons (Subpopulation of TH Neurons) in the Brain: New Insights into Brain Catecholaminergic Circuitry and Catecholamine-Related Diseases

Neural Circuit Mechanism for Learning Dependent on Dopamine Transmission: Roles of Striatal Direct and Indirect Pathways in Sensory Discrimination

Regulation of Tyrosine Hydroxylase by Ser19-Phosphorylation-Dependent Binding to 14-3-3γ

Modeling the Dynamics of Dopamine Biosynthesis and its Regulation by Tyrosine Hydroxylase

Reference

Reassessment of Intrinsic Dopaminergic Innervation in the Human Enteric Nervous System – Clinical Implications

Midbrain Dopamine Neurons are Divided into Different Functional Groups

Cell-, Region- and Species-Specific Expression of VMAT2: Implications for Medical Imaging With High-Affinity Transporter Ligands

Theme B: Catecholamine Release and Re-uptake

Theme B Catecholamine Release and Re-uptake

Detecting Catecholamines – A Journey from Beaker to the Behaving Brain

Functional Disturbances in DA Homeostasis and Signaling Revealed Through the Study of Rare Dopamine Transporter Coding Variants

Norepinephrine Transporter A457P Knockin Mice Display Tachycardia and Anxiety-Like Behavior

In Vivo Mutations in the Trafficking Domain of the Drosophila Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Disrupt Specific Amine-Dependent Behaviors

Fate of the Chromaffin Granule Membrane and its Protein Constituents after Fusion

Acknowledgements

Catestatin (Human Chromogranin A352-372) Induces Lipolysis and Fatty Acid Oxidation through Regulation of Adrenergic and Leptin Signaling

Introduction: From Mystery Matrix Proteins to Precise Molecular Actions in Human Disease

Acknowledgements

A New Take on Uptake: Dopamine Transporters & the Cellular Mechanisms of Amphetamine Action

A Retrospective on PET and the Amphetamine Paradigm: Validation and Paradoxes

References

The Corelease of Glutamate by Dopamine Neurons

Psychostimulant-Induced Alterations of Monoaminergic Transporters: Implications for Neurotoxicity and Neuroprotection

Trace Amine Associated Receptor 1 is a Catecholamine Receptor that Differentially Controls DAT and NET Internalization

VGF-Derived Peptide TLQP-21: Structure, Function, and Biomedical Implications

Acknowledgements

References

Chromogranins the Key Proteins for the Storage and Regulation of Exocytosis in Chromaffin Cells

Chromogranin A in the Storage and Exocytosis of Catecholamines

References

The Involvement of Vesicular ATP in the Storage and Exocytosis of Catecholamines of Bovine Chromaffin Cells

References

The Role of Ca2+ Release from the Endoplasmic Reticulum in the Catecholamine Hypersecretion of Adrenal Chromaffin Cells from Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

PACAP as a Primary Effector of the Acute Sympatho-Adrenal Stress Response

Amphetamine Induced Dopamine Release in Macaque Monkeys: Striking Differences Between Prefrontal Cortex and Caudate Nucleus

Attenuated Amphetamine-Induced Dopamine Release in Subjects at Ultra-High Risk for Substance Dependence

The Membrane-Raft Protein Flotillin-1 is Essential in Dopamine Neurons for Amphetamine-Induced Behavior in Drosophila

Plant Flavonoids Affecting Adrenal Medullary Catecholamine Biosynthesis and Release

A Protein Complex for Dopamine Synthesis and Vesicular Storage: Target for Cellular Oxidative Damage

Overexpression of Parkin in The Nigrostriatal System Might Protect Dopaminergic Terminals From Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity Via Regulation of Dopamine Transporter

Increased Catecholamine Toxicity in Mice with Low Expression of VMAT2

Theme C: Metabolism

Theme C Metabolism

Renalase: A New Player in Catecholamine Metabolism

Abnormal Monoamine Oxidase A VT in the Prefrontal and Anterior Cingulate Cortex During Major Depressive Episodes and High Risk States for Major Depressive Episodes

CNS Catecholamine Metabolism – Emerging Concepts

Catestatin (Human Chromogranin A352-372) Induces Lipolysis and Fatty Acid Oxidation through Regulation of Adrenergic and Leptin Signaling

Triple Deuteration Modifies Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Dopamine in PD Models

Understanding Catecholamine Metabolism as a Guide for Assessment of Sympathoadrenal Function and Dysfunction in Health and Disease

Multiplex Immunoassay for Catecholamines

Modifiers of Neurofibromatosis-Associated Tumors and the Potential Role for Catecholamines and Sex Differences

Catecholamine Metabolism in Chromogranins Knock-Out Mice

Translation Research in Autism and Cancer: Novel Roles of MAO

COMT is a Major Contributor to Pain Perception: from Humans to Rats and Back to Humans

Novel COMT Inhibitors in Parkinson Disease

Effect of Opicapone, a New Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Inhibitor, in Levodopa Pharmakokinetics in the Cynomolgous Monkey

Reference

Does Impaired Aldehyde Detoxification Play a Role in Parkinson’s Disease?

The Role of Aldehyde Detoxification in Parkinson’s Disease

Pharmacological Profile of Opicapone in Wistar rat

References

Theme D: Catecholamine Receptors and Catecholaminergic Signaling

Theme D Catecholamine Receptors and Catecholaminergic Signaling

How Drugs Bind and Control their Targets: Characterizing GPCR Signaling through Long-Timescale Simulation

Structural basis of Subtype Selectivity in Dopamine D3 and D2 Receptors

References

Hormone-Mediated Activation of G Proteins by GPCRs: Insights from the Crystal Structure of a GPCR-G Protein Complex

Towards Better Understanding of G(s) Coupling in Catecholamine Receptors

Receptor Heteromerization: Understanding the Functional and Pathological Role of the Dopamine D4 Receptor

Trace Amines and Their Receptors: New Opportunities for Modulation of Brain Dopaminergic Functions

Cross-Talk between G Protein-Coupled Receptors: Challenges of Distinguishing Upstream from Downstream Mechanisms

Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor (GHSR1a, aka Ghrelin Receptor) is an Allosteric Modulator of Dopamine Signaling in the Brain via Formation of GHSR1a:DRD2 and GHSR1a:DRD1 Heteromers

Regulation of β2Adrenergic Receptor Trafficking and Signaling by Ubiquitination and Deubiquitination

Sorting NEXIN-25 Interacts with D1 and D2Dopamine Receptors to Regulate Receptor Expression and Signaling

Trafficking of the D2 Dopamine Receptor Promotes Drug-Induced Changes in Neuronal and Behavioral Plasticity

D2 Receptors Control of Dopamine Levels

Integrated Approaches to Understand the Actions of GPCRs: The b-Arrestin-Dependent D2R Mediated Signaling Through Akt/GSK3

Hyperdopaminergic Modulation of Inhibitory Transmission is Dependent on GSK-3β Signaling-Mediated Trafficking of GABAA Receptors

Simultaneous, Massively Parallel and Genome-Wide Interrogation of GPCR b-arrestin-ergic Signaling: Implications for GPCR Drug Discovery and Catecholamine Biology

Backwards and Forwards with Molecular and Classical Pharmacology

Targeting Beta-Arrestin Dependent Signaling in the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease

D2 Functionally Selective Ligands: novel Therapeutics?

Investigation of the D1-D2 heteromer: pharmacology, subunit composition, and mechanisms of signaling

β-Adrenergic Receptors, Caveolae and Caveolins: Receptor Localization and Function

Protein Kinase C β and the Dopamine Transporter Influence Surface D2-Like Dopamine Receptor Localization

Role of Adrenaline on the Maturation of β2-Adrenoceptors

Deciphering the Functionally Selective Properties of D2R Ligands

Chronic loss of Noradrenergic Tone Produces β-Arrestin2-Mediated Cocaine Hypersensitivity and a GαI to Gαs switch in D2 Receptor Coupling in the Nucleus Accumbens

Probing the Functional Selectivity of β-adrenergic Receptors Reveals New Signaling Modes and Potential Therapeutic Applications

References

Identification of Substituted Benzazepines as Functionally Selective Ligands of the D1 Dopamine Receptor

Novel cAMP Sensor Links GPCR-Gs Signaling to ERK in Neuroscreen-1 Cells

High-Throughput Screening for Modulators of the D2 Dopamine Receptor Yields Unique and Selective Pharmacological Chemotypes

Discovery and Characterization of TAAR1 Agonists, Modulators of Dopaminergic and Serotonergic Neurotransmission with Therapeutic Potential in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

Theme E: Neurology

Theme E Neurology

Modeling Parkinson’s Disease in a Mouse Model Overexpressing Astrocytic Monoamine Oxidase B (MAO-B): Towards Exploring Novel Therapeutics

3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde is an Autotoxic and Protein-Reactive Intermediate of Dopamine Catabolism

Dopamine Oxidation and Quinone Modification of Proteins: Mechanisms of Toxicity and Implications for Parkinson’s Disease

Insights into LRRK2-Mutation Related PD from PET Imaging Studies

References

Norepinephrine Deficiency in Parkinson Disease

Progressive Noradrenergic Degeneration in Mice with Reduced Expression of the Vesicular Monoamine Transporter (VMAT2)

LRRK2 and Risk of PD

Synuclein-Mitochondrial Interactions in Substantia Nigra Dopamine Neurons

Mitochondria-Targeted Cholesterol Oximes Increase Dopamine-Related Gene Expression and Behavior in Mice Over-Expressing Alpha-Synuclein, a Model of Pre-Manifest Parkinson’s Disease

Induction of Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy as a Means to Attenuate Alpha-Synuclein-Mediated Neurotoxicity

The Link between Neuronal Phenotype and Vulnerability in Parkinson’s Disease

Willie Sutton’s Getaway Car and the Pathogenesis of Parkinson Disease

Contributions of Dopamine in the Dorsal Striatum to Behaviors Corresponding to Cognitive Dysfunction in Parkinson’s Disease

Cardiac Sympathetic Denervation: A Biomarker of Lewy Body Diseases

Reference

Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers of Central Catecholamine Deficiency in Parkinson Disease and Other Synucleinopathies

Reference

Comparison Between Myocardial Sympathetic and Striatal Dopaminergic Imaging in Lewy Body Diseases: “Union is strength!”

A Role For Neuronal MHC-I Display in Parkinson’s Disease?

Modeling of Preclinical and Clinical Stages of Parkinsonism in MPTP-treated Mice with Focus on Tyrosine Hydroxylase in Survived Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Neurons

Role of Multiple Factors in Susceptibility of Neurons in Parkinson’s Disease

Modeling of Presymptomatic and Symptomatic Stages of Parkinsonism in MPTP-treated Mice: Extra-nigrostriatal Manifestations

Reference

Basal and Graded 6-OHDA –induced Differences in Striatal Dopamine and its Metabolites in two Mouse Lines with A30P–Mutated Alpha-Synuclein

Rasagiline Reduces Striatal Dopamine Release and Extracellular Oxidative Stress in a Rat Model of Early Parkinson’s Disease

Approach Towards Development of Multifunctional Drugs As an Effective Strategy for Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease

Acknowledgements

Triple Deuteration Modifies Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Dopamine in PD Models

Theme F: Psychiatry and Psychology

Theme F Psychiatry and Psychology

Rewarding Dopamine

Modulating Local Circuit Dynamics versus Long-Range Inputs

Midbrain Dopamine Neurons are Divided into Different Functional Groups

Dopamine System Dysregulation by the Hippocampus and the Pathophysiology of Schizophrenia

The Enduring Centrality of Dopamine in the Pathophysiology of Schizophrenia: In Vivo Evidence from the Prodrome to the First Psychotic Episode

Striatal Dopamine Release in Schizophrenia Comorbis with Substance Dependence

Neuroimaging Studies of Central Catecholaminergic Function in Depression

Central and Peripheral Norepinephrine Secretion in Major Depression is Activated, as Assessed by 24 hour CSF and Plasma Sampling

Norepinephrine: A Broken Spoke on the Wheel of Depression

PET Imaging of Serotonin Transmission in Monkeys: Effects of Maternal Separation and Long-Term Fluoxetine Treatment during Adolescence

Opposing Regulation of Norepinephrine and Dopamine in Rat Limbic Brain Regions in Response to Aversive Stimuli

The Locus Coeruleus, Stress, Opioids and Behavioral Flexibility

Measurements of Dopaminergic Function in the Rat Brain Using [18F]FDOPA PET and Microdialysis

Evaluation of [11C]ORM-13070 as a PET tracer for α2C-adrenoceptors in the human brain

Theme G: Drug Abuse and Addiction

Theme G Drug Abuse and Addiction

Addiction: Story of an Unbalanced Brain

Essential Catecholamine Influences on Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortical Cognitive Function: Molecular Signaling Pathways

Neural Mechanisms Underlying the Cognition-Enhancing Actions of Pyschostimulants: Relevance to ADHD

Frontostriatal Systems and Differential Roles of Dopamine D1- and D2-Like Receptors in Impulsivity and Response Inhibition

References

Catecholamine Strategies for Remediating Fronto-Executive Deficits in Stimulant Addiction and Related Disorders

References

Ultrastructural and Optogenetic Evidence for Dual Neuronal Signaling by Dopamine Neurons of the Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA)

Seeking reward: Upstream modulation of VTA dopamine neurons by orexin/hypocretin inputs

Striatal Dopamine, Self-control and Decision-Making: Identifying Therapeutic Targets for Addiction through Brain Imaging

Imaging Neurochemical Transmission in Substance Abuse: Commonalities and Differences Across Addictions

Dopamine Transmission in Cocaine Addiction: Linking the Animal and Human Studies

Growth Associated Protein-43, Amphetamine and Dopamine Transporter Activity

The Role of Ion Binding in Transporter Conformational Transition

References

Evidence for the Contribution of D4 Receptors to Cocaine Self-Administration in Monkeys

Drug Design for Addiction – Molecular Determinants of Selectivity and Efficacy at the Dopamine D3 Receptor

Cue-Induced Dopamine Release in Striatal and Extra-striatal Regions in Cocaine Dependent Users: A High Resolution PET [18F]Fallypride Study

β-arrestin Regulation of Ghrelin Signaling in modulating Addictive Behavior

Dopamine D3 and D4 Receptors as Therapeutic Targets for Nicotine Addiction

References

Long-Term Cocaine Exposure Affects Dopamine D3 Receptor Function

Theme H: Catecholamines in the Periphery

Theme H Catecholamines in the Periphery

Recurrent Hypoglycemic Stress Differentially Regulates Catecholamine Release and Transmitter Gene Expression

Sympathetic Mechanism of Hypertension

References

Harnessing the Autonomic System for Therapeutic Intervention

Norepinephrine Transporter Function and Human Cardiovascular Regulation

Role of Common Genetic Variation in Control of Human Adrenergic Function and Blood Pressure: Focus on the Chromogranins

What is the Optimal Biochemical Diagnostic Strategy for Pheochromocytoma?

SDHx-Related Pheochromocytoms: New Advances in Genetics and Functional Imaging

Novel Methods Peripheral Autonomic Assessment

Identification and Functional Characterization of Genetic Variants of the Catecholamine Release-Inhibitory Peptide Catestatin in an Indian Population

The Osmopressor Response in Human Physiology

References

Adrenergic Derived Myocardium: Anatomic Substrate for Stress Induced Cardiomyopathies

The Relationship of Norepinephrine to Stress Induced Hypertension

Regulation of Adrenal Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase Gene Expression and Adrenaline Synthesis in a Fetal Programming Model of Hypertension

Chronic Unpredictable Stress Induces Catecholaminergic System Changes in Mouse Adrenal Gland

Reference

Effect of Daidzein on Mean Arterial Pressure and Vascular Dysfunction in CLP-Induced Septic Mice

Adrenal-Specific G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase (GRK)-2 Deficiency Reduces Circulating Catecholamine Levels and Improves Cardiac Function after Myocardial Infarction

Serotonin and Catecholamines In Regulation of Myocardium Functions in Children with Congenital Heart Diseases

“Genetic and Acquired Determinants of Postural Tachycardia Syndrome”

Neurotransmitter dopamine regulates tumor growth

Extra Virgin Olive Oil Increases Uncoupling Protein 1 Content in Brown Adipose Tissue and Enhances Noradrenaline and Adrenaline Secretions in Rats

Neurovisceral Integration and Regulation of Peripheral Indices of ANS Function

Theme I: Catecholamines in Integrative Function

Theme I Catecholamines in Integrative Function

Neuropeptide Y Infusion to Rats Attenuates Development of PTSD-Like Symptoms to Traumatic Stress

PTSD and the Locus Coeeurleus

Systems Biology and the Stress Response: From Pythagoras and the Epicureans to Modern Medicine

Reactive Oxygen Species and Neuropeptide Y Signaling in Altered Catecholamine Synthesis during Intermittent Hypoxia

Stress, HIF1a, and Adrenergic Function

Characterization of Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) and Plasma NPY Levels in Normal Volunteers over a 24-h Timeframe

NPY: Low Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Levels in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Comparison to Combat and Civilian, non-combat Control Subjects

Developmental Neuroendocrinology of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents after Motor Vehicle Accidents

References

Repeated and Novel Stress-triggered Changes in Adipocyte Catecholamine System

Jekyll and Hyde: Noradrenergic Modulation in Acute and Chronic Stress

Early Life Stress Increases Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine Signaling

Modulation of Inflammatory Cytokine Release by Hypoxia Mediated Tyrosine Hydroxylase Induction in Mixed Synovial Cells of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoarthritis

Theme J: Catecholamine Interactions with Other Transmitters

Theme J Catecholamine Interactions with Other Transmitters

Catecholamine Release Modulation by Adenosine through A2AReceptors in Mouse Chromaffin Cell Culture

Morphological and Functional Significance of Coexistence of PACAP with Catecholamine in Nerve Terminals Innervating Hypothalamic Neuroendocrine Cells

Interactions of Neuropeptide Y, Catecholamines and Angiotensin at the Vascular Neuroeffector Junction

Overview: Neuropeptide-Catecholamine Interactions in Stress

Neuropeptide Regulation of the Locus Coeruleus (LC) in the Mediation of Stress Responses

Breaking Down Monoamine “Silos”: We’re all in this Together

Orexin/hypocretin in the Ventral Tegmental Area is Necessary for Morphine-Induced Synaptic Plasticity of Dopamine Neurons

The Adrenomedullary Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor: Stress-Triggered Regulation and Role in Catecholamine Biosynthesis

Angiotensin AT1 Receptor Blockade Prevents Excessive Brain and Peripheral Sympathetic Stimulation During Stress

Catecholamine Release Modulation by Adenosine Through A2a Receptors in Mouse Chromaffin Cells in Culture

References

Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP), A Master Regulator in Central and Peripheral Stress Responses

Novel Catecholamine Mechanisms in Memory Consolidation and Retrieval During Stress

Catecholaminergic Regulation of Peptide Synthesis and Release Programs in Paraventricular CRH Neurons

Control of Dopamine Neurotransmission in the Prefrontal Cortex: Focus on Serotonin and Norepinephrine Systems

Unfaithful Neurotransmitter Transporters: Focus on Biogenic Amine Reuptake and Implications for Antidepressant Efficacy

L-DOPA and the Brain Pattern of Dopamine Extracellular Levels: a New Deal Imposed by Serotonergic and Noradrenergic Fibres

Individual Differences in Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Modulation of Dopamine Signals in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell

Insulin Induces Long-term Depression in VTA DA Neurons via an Endocannabinoid-mediated Mechanism

Details

No. of pages:
328
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2013
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128000731
Paperback ISBN:
9780128000441

About the Editor

Lee Eiden

Affiliations and Expertise

Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Regulation, National Institutes of Health, MD, USA

Reviews

"The symposium is documented by abstracts…of 206 of the papers delivered…They cover catecholamine biosynthesis and storage, catecholamine release and re-uptake, metabolism, catecholamine receptors and catecholaminergic signaling, neurology, psychiatry and psychology, drug abuse and addiction, catecholamines in the periphery…" --ProtoView.com, April 2014