Catalytic Hydrogenation over Platinum Metals

Catalytic Hydrogenation over Platinum Metals

1st Edition - January 1, 1967

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  • Author: Paul Rylander
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323145862

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Description

Catalytic Hydrogenation over Platinum Metals focuses on catalytic hydrogenation as an effective process in attaining controlled transformations of organic compounds. Composed of contributions of various authors, the book first provides information on catalysts, equipment, and conditions. Catalyst stability and reuse; types of catalyst; platinum metals; and synergism are covered. The text proceeds with discussions on hydrogenation reactors. Topics include atmospheric pressure reactors; low pressure reactors; microreactors; and high pressure reactors. The book also covers hydrogenation of carbon-carbon unsaturation. Catalytic metal; modified catalyst systems; stereochemistry; diacetylenes; and hydrogenolysis are discussed. The text also looks at the hydrogenation of aromatics, nitrogen and carbonyl compounds, and hydrogenolysis. Numerical representations and analysis, diagrams, and reactions of compounds when exposed to different laboratory conditions are considered. The selection is a great source of data for readers interested in studying the process of catalytic hydrogenation.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Part I Catalysts, Equipment, and Conditions

    1 Platinum Metal Catalysts

    I. Platinum Metals

    II. Types of Catalyst

    III. Synergism

    IV. Catalyst Stability

    V. Safety

    VI. Catalyst Reuse

    VII. Induction Periods

    VIII. Reproducibility of Catalysts

    IX. Inhibitors and Poisons

    X. Promoters

    XI. Preparation of Catalysts

    References

    2 Hydrogenation Reactors

    I. Atmospheric Pressure Reactors

    II. Low Pressure Reactors

    III. Microreactors

    IV. High Pressure Reactors

    References

    3 Reaction Conditions

    I. Temperature

    II. Amount of Catalyst

    III. Pressure

    IV. Agitation

    V. Mode of Addition

    VI. Solvents

    References

    Part II Hydrogenation of Carbon-Carbon Unsaturation

    4 Acetylenes

    I. Catalytic Metal

    II. Modified Catalyst Systems

    III. Stereochemistry

    IV. Diacetylenes

    V. Vinylacetylenes

    VI. Hydrogenolysis

    References

    5 Olefins

    I. Catalysts

    II. Effect of Solvent

    III. Effect of Olefin Structure

    IV. Double-Bond Migration

    V. Stereochemistry

    VI. Olefin Saturation in Polyfunctional Molecules

    References

    Part III Hydrogenation of Nitrogen Compounds

    6 Imines

    I. Acidic Media

    II. Neutral or Basic Media

    III. Effect of Structure

    References

    7 Azines

    I. Solvents

    II. Preparation of Azo Compounds

    References

    8 Hydrazones

    I. Hydrogenolysis

    II. Disproportionation

    III. Hydrazines by Reductive Alkylation

    References

    9 Oximes

    I. Catalysts

    II. Substrate

    III. Solvent

    IV. Products of Partial Reduction

    V. Oximino Ketones

    VI. Products of Interaction with Other Functions

    VII. Stereochemistry

    References

    10 Nitroso Compounds

    I. Hydroxylamine

    II. N-Nitrosoamines

    III. C-Nitroso Compounds

    References

    11 Nitro Compounds

    I. Catalysts

    II. Solvents

    III. Reduction of the Aromatic Nitro Group to the Amine

    IV. Reduction of Aliphatic Nitro Groups to the Amine

    V. Difunctional Compounds

    VI. Rearrangements

    VII. Loss of Nitrogen by Hydrogenolysis

    VIII. Products of Partial Reduction

    References

    12 Nitriles

    I. Coupling Reactions: Secondary and Tertiary Amines

    II. Products of Reductive Hydrolysis

    III. Nitriles with Other Functional Groups

    References

    Part IV Carbonyl Compounds

    13 Hydrogenation of Acids, Esters, and Anhydrides

    I. Acids

    II. Esters

    III. Anhydrides

    References

    14 Hydrogenation of Aldehydes

    I. Saturated Aliphatic Aldehydes

    II. Aromatic Aldehydes

    III. Unsaturated Aldehydes

    References

    15 Hydrogenation of Ketones

    I. Aliphatic Ketones

    II. Aromatic Ketones

    III. Stereochemistry

    References

    16 Reductive Alkylation-Preparation of Amines

    I. Substrates

    II. Catalysts

    III. Stereochemistry

    IV. Incipient Amine and Carbonyl Compounds

    References

    17 Reductive Alkylation-Alkylidene Derivatives

    Text

    References

    Part V Hydrogenation of Aromatics

    18 Carbocyclic Aromatics

    I. Comparison of Catalysts

    II. Partial Reduction of Aromatic Rings

    III. Strained Rings

    IV. Selective Hydrogenation

    V. Reduction of Benzyl Compounds

    VI. Fused Rings

    VII. Stereochemistry

    References

    19 Phenols and Phenyl Ethers

    I. Platinum Metals

    II. Effect of Catalyst and Temperature on Stereochemistry

    III. Hydrogenolysis without Ring Reduction

    IV. Partial Ring Reduction

    V. Ring Saturation without Hydrogenolysis

    VI. Ring Reduction with Hydrogenolysis

    References

    20 Anilines

    I. Reduction to the Saturated Amine

    II. Secondary Amines

    III. Hydrogenolysis

    IV. Hydrolysis

    References

    21 Furans

    I. Hydrogenation of the Furan Nucleus

    II. Hydrogenolysis of Furans

    References

    22 Nitrogen Heterocyclic Compounds

    I. Pyrroles

    II. Indoles

    III. Pyridines

    IV. Quinolines and Isoquinolines

    V. Imidazoles

    VI. Pyridazines

    VII. Pyrazines

    VIII. Pyrimidines

    References

    Part VI Hydrogenolysis

    23 Hydrogenation of Acid Chlorides—Rosenmund Reduction

    I. Catalyst Regulators

    II. Side-Reactions

    III. Procedure

    IV. Selective Hydrogenation

    References

    24 Catalytic Dehalogenation

    I. Catalysts

    II. Dehalogenation in Basic Media

    III. Choice of Base

    IV. Halogen Compounds with Other Functions

    V. Selective Hydrogenation of Polyhalo Compounds

    VI. Rearrangements

    VII. Coupling Reactions

    VIII. Dehalogenation with Hydrazine

    References

    25 Miscellaneous Hydrogenolyses

    I. Allylic Oxygen

    II. Allylic Nitrogen

    III. Vinyl Functions

    IV. Debenzylation

    V. Hydrogenolysis of the Carbon-Carbon Bond

    VI. Hydrogenolysis of the Carbon-Oxygen Bond

    VII. Hydrogenolysis of the Carbon-Nitrogen Bond

    VIII. Hydrogenolysis of the Nitrogen-Oxygen Bond

    IX. Hydrogenolysis of the Oxygen-Oxygen Bond

    X. Hydrogenolysis of the Nitrogen-Nitrogen Bond

    References

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 564
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1967
  • Published: January 1, 1967
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323145862

About the Author

Paul Rylander

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