Carcinoma gallbladder is the third most common GI malignancy and the most common biliary tract malignancy in North India. Of all the known risk factors, gallstones are most commonly associated with GBC. Bile stasis and chronic inflammation along with occupational exposure to heavy metals, dietary carcinogens, and radiation exposure have been found to be responsible for the increased incidence of GB neoplasms. Infections with S. typhii and S. paratyphii along with Helicobacter sp. have also been associated with GBC. p 53 and ras gene mutations are strongly associated with GBC. Early diagnosis of GBC still remains a challenge and is often diagnosed as a part of investigations of any other disease. Most GBCs are at advanced stage at presentation. USG and CT scan are the common modes for the preliminary diagnosis of GBC. Surgery remains the key treatment modality and the only hope for long-term survival. A large number of patients present at the unresectable stage of the tumor, and palliation remains the only alternative to ensure better quality of life.
Gallbladder Carcinoma: Epidemiology and Pathogenesis
Etiopathogenesis and Diagnosis of Gallbladder Cancer
Surgery in Gallbladder Cancer
Carcinoma Gallbladder: Role of Endoscopy
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- © Elsevier India 2009
- 5th December 2008
- Elsevier India
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- Paperback ISBN:
Professor and Head, Department of Gastroenterology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow.