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1. Introduction (G.V. Chilingarian, S.J. Mazzullo, H.H. Rieke). Important, relatively new concepts. Traditional concepts: classification schemes. Reserve analysis of carbonate reservoirs. Reserve calculation methods. Fractured reservoir rocks and fractures. Relative permeability concepts. Prediction of overpressured formations in carbonate reservoirs. Appendices: Material balance equation. Application of petrography and statistics to the study of some petrophysical properties of carbonate reservoir rocks. 2. Carbonate Rock Classifications (S.J. Mazzullo, G.V. Chilingarian, H.J. Bissell). Classification of limestones. Classification of dolomites. Classification of dolomites of marine origin. 3. Depositional Models of Carbonate Reservoirs (S.J. Mazzullo, G.V. Chilingarian). Stratigraphic traps in carbonate rocks: a review. Depositional facies in marine carbonate rock reservoirs. Platform types. 4. Diagenesis and Origin of Porosity (S.J.Mazzullo, G.V. Chilingarian). Overview of concepts. Methods of diagenetic study. Porosity characteristics of carbonate sediments and rocks. Formation of secondary matrix porosity in limestones. Porosity in dolomites. Reservoir examples. 5. Carbonates as Hydrocarbon Source Rocks (R.J. Cordell). Characteristic lithologies of carbonate source beds. Depositional environments. Environmental interpretations from geochemistry. Diagenesis. Source-bed geochemistry. Maturation.Effects of clay minerals. Maturation examples. Migration mechanisms. Matching source with reservoir. 6. Pore Geometry of Carbonate Rocks and Capillary Pressure Curves (Basic Geologic Concepts) (R.L. Jodry). Classification of carbonate porosity. Capillary pressure curve interpretation. Interrelation between pore geometry and rock types. Application of pore geometry characteristics to exploration. Pore geometry of dolomites. 7. Interrelationships among Surface Area, Permeability, Porosity, Pore Size, and Residual Water Saturation (G.V. Chilingarian, J. Torabzadeh, H.H. Rieke, M. Metghalchi, S.J. Mazzullo). Theoretical and empirical equations relating porosity, permeability, and surface area. Statistical technique of determining specific surface area. Interrelationships among surface area, rock granulometric composition, porosity, permeability, and residual water saturation. 8. Permeability and Relative Permeability of Carbonate Reservoirs (M.M. Honarpour, G.V. Chilingarian, S.J. Mazzullo). Relationship between effective and absolute permeability. Permeability parallel to bedding versus permeability perpendicular to bedding. Effects of rock properties on relative permeability. Effects of saturation history on relative permeability. Effects of temperature on relative permeability. Laboratory-measured relative permeability examples. Three-phase relative permeability of carbonate rocks. Empirical correlation. 9.Compressibility (G.V. Chilingarian, J. Torabzadeh, J.O. Robertson, H.H. Rieke, S.J. Mazzullo). Various loading conditions in rock compressibility measurement. Compressibility data for different porous media. Compressibility of clays. Compressibilities of fractured-cavernous carbonates. Compaction of carbonate rocks. 10. Fluid Flow through Carbonate Rock Systems (F. Samaniego, Heber Cinco Ley, G.C. Dominguez). Basic differences between the flow of fluids in carbonate rocks and sandstones. Rock-fluid properties. Basic flow equations for the flow of fluids. Flow through conventional sandstone-type reservoirs. Flow through naturally-fractured reservoirs. Radial flow of a constant-compressibility fluid. General fundamental flow equations for multiphase flow. Special problems on the flow of fluids in carbonate systems. Concluding remarks. Nomenclature. 11. Oil and Gas Reserve Estimation Methods (F. Samaniego, Heber Ginco Ley). Basic methods. Data required. Description of methods of estimation. Recovery factor. Summary. Nomenclature. 12. Simulation of Carbonate Reservoirs (G.C. Dominguez, F. Samaniego, G.V. Chilingarian). Review of fractured reservoir simulation models. Mathematical models. Remarks on numerical solutions. Data required in order to use a fractured reservoir simulator. Future of naturally fractured reservoir simulation. Nomenclature. 13. Stimulation of Carbonate Reservoirs (A.R. Hendrikson, R.L. Thomas, M.J. Economides). Acidizing chemicals and reactions. Types of acid. Acid reaction rates. Additives in acidizing. Testing methods. Acidizing techniques and treatment design. Acidizing techniques. Acid treatment design. References and Bibliography.
This book integrates those critical geologic aspects of reservoir formation and occurrence with engineering aspects of reservoirs, and presents a comprehensive treatment of the geometry, porosity and permeability evolution, and producing characteristics of carbonate reservoirs. The three major themes discussed are:
• the geometry of carbonate reservoirs and relationship to original depositional facies distributions
• the origin and types of porosity and permeability systems in carbonate reservoirs and their relationship to post-depositional diagenesis
• the relationship between depositional and diagenetic facies and producing characteristics of carbonate reservoirs, and the synergistic geologic-engineering approach to the exploitation of carbonate reservoirs.
The intention of the volume is to fully aquaint professional petroleum geologists and engineers with an integrated geologic and engineering approach to the subject. As such, it presents a unique critical appraisal of the complex parameters that affect the recovery of hydrocarbon resources from carbonate rocks. The book may also be used as a text in petroleum geology and engineering courses at the advanced undergraduate and graduate levels.
- No. of pages:
- © Elsevier Science 1992
- 17th January 1992
- Elsevier Science
- eBook ISBN:
@qu:In summary, this book contains a wealth of valuable engineering information on carbonate reservoirs and will be generally understandable to reservoir geologists working with carbonate reservoirs and has an excellent bibliography. @source:American Association of Petroleum Geologists @qu:This unique book with its comprehensive treatment of geologic and engineering data on carbonate reservoirs is an important and first-rate contribution which both geologists and reservoir engineers can easily follow and understand. It fills an important niche and, given the quality of the contributions, it should be in the library of all those concerned with carbonate reservoirs. @source:Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering "Professionals and students of petroleum engineering, petroleum geology, petrophysics, and geophysics will find that the two-volume book gives them easy access to the broad literature base of carbonate reservoirs. Moreover, petroleum engineers and geologists should welcome this book as it encompasses complete references to the multitude of properties of carbonate reservoir rocks from 'sandy limestone' to fractured-fissured vuggy formation." Fakhry A. Assaad in Environmental Geology, 2005
Wichita State University, Wichita, KA, USA
Lafayette, LA, USA
School of Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-2531, USA