Carbon Isotope Techniques

Carbon Isotope Techniques

1st Edition - June 28, 1991

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  • Editor: David C. Coleman
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323157674

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Description

Carbon Isotope Techniques deals with the use of carbon isotopes in studies of plant, soil, and aquatic biology. Topics covered include photosynthesis/translocation studies in terrestrial ecosystems; carbon relationships of plant-microbial symbioses; microbe/plant/soil interactions; and environmental and aquatic toxicology. Stable carbon isotope ratios of natural materials are also considered. Comprised of 15 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to radiation-counting instruments used in measuring the radioactivity in soil and plant samples containing carbon-14. The discussion then turns to the basic methods of 14C use in plant science, highlighted by three examples of applications in the field of plant physiology and ecology. Subsequent chapters explore the use of carbon isotope techniques for analyzing the carbon relationships of plant-microbial symbioses; the interactions of microbes, plants, and soils; and the degradation of herbicides and organic xenobiotics. Carbon dating and bomb carbon are also described. The final section is devoted to the uses and procedures for 13C and 11C. This monograph is intended for advanced undergraduate or graduate students, as well as generalist scientists who have not previously used radioisotopes or stable isotopes in their research.

Table of Contents


  • Contributors

    Preface

    I Uses and Procedures for 14C

    1 Introduction and Ordinary Counting as Currently Used

    I. Introduction

    II. Safety Precautions

    III. Waste Disposal

    References

    2 Photosynthesis/Translocation Studies in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    I. Introduction

    II. Materials Required

    III. Description of Procedures

    IV. General Comments

    References

    3 Techniques for Examining the Carbon Relationships of Plant-Microbial Symbioses

    I. Introduction

    II. Materials and Procedures

    III. Comments

    References

    4 Photosynthesis/Translocation: Aquatic

    I. Introduction

    II. Sources of 14C for Production Measurements

    III· Sample Protocol for Measuring Phytoplankton Production

    IV· Modification of the Protocol for Other Producers

    V. Translocation Studies

    VI. Comments

    References

    5 Microbe/Plant/Soil Interactions

    I. Introduction

    II. Materials Required

    III. Analytical Procedures

    IV. Amount of 14C Required

    V. Use of 14C to Estimate Pool Sizes

    References

    6 Environmental Toxicology: Degradation of Herbicides

    I. Introduction

    II. Liquid Scintillation Counters

    III. Imaging Proportional Counters

    References

    7 Aquatic Toxicology: Degradation of Organic Xenobiotics

    I. Introduction

    II. Materials Required

    III. Description of Procedures

    IV. Comments

    References

    8 Carbon Dating

    I. Introduction

    II. Requirements of Carbon Dating

    III. Sources of Error, Correction Factors, and Pretreatments

    IV. Materials for Carbon Dating

    V. Pretreatment Procedures and Carbon Dating Measurements

    VI. Calculating, Reporting, and Interpreting 14C Age

    References

    9 Bomb Carbon

    I. Introduction

    II. General and Specific Requirements

    III. Suitability of Materials

    IV. Field and Laboratory Procedures

    V. Computations of Bomb 14C Results

    References

    II Uses and Procedures for 13C

    10 Stable Carbon Isotope Ratios of Natural Materials: I. Sample Preparation and Mass Spectrometric Analysis

    I. Introduction

    II. Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    III. Units of Measurement and Their Relationships

    IV. Stable Carbon Isotope Standards

    V. Sample Preparation Techniques

    VI. Prospects for the Future

    References

    11 Stable Carbon Isotope Ratios of Natural Materials: II. Atmospheric, Terrestrial, Marine, and Freshwater Environments

    I. Introduction

    II. Atmospheric Environment

    III. Terrestrial Environment

    IV. Marine Environment

    V. Freshwater Environment

    VI. Concluding Remarks

    References

    12 13C/12C Fractionation and Its Utility in Terrestrial Plant Studies

    I. Introduction

    II. Approaches and Methods—Sample Collection

    III. Procedure

    References

    13 The Study of Diet and Trophic Relationships through Natural Abundance 13C

    I. Introduction

    II. Sources of Variability

    III. Procedures

    References

    14 Tracer Studies with 13C-Enriched Substrates: Humans and Large Animals

    I. Introduction

    II. Materials Required

    III. Procedures

    IV. Comments

    References

    III Uses and Procedures for 11C

    15 Intact Organism, Short-Term Studies Using 11C

    I. Introduction

    II. 11C Production and Use

    III. Experimental Results Obtained by the 11C Technique

    IV. Discussion

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 286
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1991
  • Published: June 28, 1991
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323157674

About the Editor

David C. Coleman

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