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Carbon Dioxide Utilisation: Closing the Carbon Cycle explores areas of application such as conversion to fuels, mineralization, conversion to polymers, and artificial photosynthesis as well as assesses the potential industrial suitability of the various processes. After an introduction to the thermodynamics, basic reactions, and physical chemistry of carbon dioxide, the book proceeds to examine current commercial and industrial processes, and the potential for carbon dioxide as a green and sustainable resource.
While carbon dioxide is generally portrayed as a "bad" gas, a waste product, and a major contributor to global warming, a new branch of science is developing to convert this "bad" gas into useful products. This book explores the science behind converting CO2 into fuels for our cars and planes, and for use in plastics and foams for our homes and cars, pharmaceuticals, building materials, and many more useful products.
Carbon dioxide utilization is a rapidly expanding area of research that holds a potential key to sustainable, petrochemical-free chemical production and energy integration.
- Accessible and balanced between chemistry, engineering, and industrial applications
- Informed by blue-sky thinking and realistic possibilities for future technology and applications
- Encompasses supply chain sustainability and economics, processes, and energy integration
Chemists and chemical engineers, material scientists, policymakers and environmental scientists
Part 1. Introductory Concepts
Chapter 1. What is CO2? Thermodynamics, Basic Reactions and Physical Chemistry
- 1.1. Introduction
- 1.2. Spectroscopy and its role in climate change
- 1.3. Phase behaviour and solvent properties
- 1.4. Kinetics and thermodynamics
- 1.5. Commercially important reactions of carbon dioxide
Chapter 2. Carbon Dioxide Capture Agents and Processes
- 2.1. Carbon dioxide sources
- 2.2. Capture processes
- 2.3. Carbon dioxide capture agents
- 2.4. Future perspectives
- 2.5. Concluding remarks
Chapter 3. CO2-Derived Fuels for Energy Storage
- 3.1. Introduction
- 3.2. The decarbonisation of electrical generation
- 3.3. The decarbonisation of transport
- 3.4. The decarbonisation of heat
- 3.5. Conclusion
Chapter 4. Environmental Assessment of CO2 Capture and Utilisation
- 4.1. Introduction: Why do we need a reliable environmental assessment of CO2 utilisation?
- 4.2. Green chemistry and environmental assessment tools
- 4.3. Life cycle assessment
- 4.4. ISO standardisation of LCA
- 4.5. How to conduct an LCA for CO2 capture and utilisation?
- 4.6. Conclusions for LCA of CCU
Part 2. Contribution to Materials
Chapter 5. Polymers from CO2—An Industrial Perspective
- 5.1. Introduction
- 5.2. Challenges in CO2 utilisation
- 5.3. Polymers based on CO2
- 5.4. Polymers based on CO2—direct approach
- 5.5. Polymers based on CO2—indirect approach
- 5.6. Industrial example: direct epoxide/CO2 copolymerization
- 5.7. Summary and outlook
Chapter 6. CO2-based Solvents
- 6.1. Introduction
- 6.2. CO2 as a solvent
- 6.3. CO2-expanded liquids
- 6.4. CO2-responsive switchable solvents
- 6.5. Conclusions
Chapter 7. Organic Carbonates
- 7.1. Introduction
- 7.2. Carbonates from cyclic ethers
- 7.3. Linear carbonates from alcohols
- 7.4. Cyclic carbonate from diols
- 7.5. Effect of drying agents
- 7.6. Oxidative carboxylation of alkenes
- 7.7. Industrial potential
Chapter 8. Accelerated Carbonation of Ca- and Mg-Bearing Minerals and Industrial Wastes Using CO2
- 8.1. Introduction
- 8.2. Engineered weathering of silicate minerals
- 8.3. Carbonation of alkaline industrial wastes
Part 3. Energy and Fuels
Chapter 9. Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Oxygenated Organics
- 9.1. Introduction
- 9.2. Methanol production
- 9.3. Dimethyl ether
- 9.4. Other oxygenates
- 9.5. Concluding remarks
Chapter 10. The Indirect and Direct Conversion of CO2 into Higher Carbon Fuels
- 10.1. The (inevitable) coupled nature of our energy and CO2 emission challenges
- 10.2. The concept of carbon-neutral liquid hydrocarbon fuels
- 10.3. The conversion or utilisation of CO2
Chapter 11. High Temperature Electrolysis
- 11.1. Introduction
- 11.2. High temperature operation
- 11.3. Cell and stack configurations and balance of plant
- 11.4. Cell materials
- 11.5. Electrochemistry
- 11.6. SOC diagnostics
- 11.7. Electrolysis of carbon dioxide and co-electrolysis of carbon dioxide and steam
- 11.8. Conclusions
Chapter 12. Photoelectrocatalytic Reduction of Carbon Dioxide
- 12.1. Introduction
- 12.2. Organizing principles of photoelectrochemical CO2 reduction
- 12.3. Photovoltaic/electrolyser duel module systems: Metal electrodes for CO2 conversion
- 12.4. Group III–V: GaP, InP, GaAs as photocathode for CO2 reduction
- 12.5. Group II–VI: CdTe, and Group IV: Si, SiC photoelectrodes
- 12.6. Titanium oxide photoelectrodes
- 12.7. Other oxides photoelectrode: Cu2O, CuFeO2, etc
- 12.8. Semiconductor with a molecular co-catalyst
- 12.9. Semiconductors decorated with metal electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction
- 12.10. Summary, conclusion and prospect
Part 4. Perspectives and Conclusions
Chapter 13. Emerging Industrial Applications
- 13.1. Introduction
- 13.2. Scaleup
- 13.3. Technology readiness
- 13.4. Methanol pilot plants
- 13.5. CO2 reduction on a pilot scale
- 13.6. Reforming reactions on a pilot scale
- 13.7. Polymer pilot plants
- 13.8. Mineralization pilot plants
- 13.9. Summary
Chapter 14. Integrated Capture and Conversion
- 14.1. Introduction
- 14.2. Routes to CDU
- 14.3. Integrated CO2 utilisation processes
Chapter 15. Understanding and Assessing Public Perceptions of Carbon Dioxide Utilisation (CDU) Technologies
- 15.1. Introduction
- 15.2. What will the public think of CDU?
- 15.3. Assessing public opinions of CDU
- 15.4. Conclusion
Chapter 16. Potential CO2 Utilisation Contributions to a More Carbon-Sober Future: A 2050 Vision
- 16.1. Context elements
- 16.2. Efficiency and new materials to complement CCS efforts
- 16.3. The massive attention on renewable energy injection
- 16.4. Bridges among CO2-to-fuel and specialty chemicals productions
- 16.5. When CO2 supply becomes the issue
- 16.6. Local solutions to global issues
- 16.7. Timescales to deployment
- No. of pages:
- © Elsevier 2015
- 12th September 2014
- Hardcover ISBN:
- eBook ISBN:
Peter Styring is Professor of Chemical Engineering & Chemistry at the University of Sheffield where his research sits at the interface between the two disciplines. He is interested in carbon capture agents that not only achieve high levels of activity and selectivity, but which also act as catalysts or catalyst supports for the in situ conversion of CO2 into valuable products. Peter also works across disciplines with experts in other fields to take into account social and economic factors such as energy integration, public perception and supply chain economics.
Peter is Chair of the CO2Chem Network (www.co2chem.com), an EPSRC Grand Challenge Network bringing together collaborators interested in CCU. Together with Katy Armstrong and collaborators at ECN in the Netherlands he has co-authored the policy document “Carbon Capture and Utilisation in the Green Economy” (ISBN 978-0-9572588-1-5 for eBook) which has received considerable global attention. A recent paper has been published in Chimica Oggi that reviews some of the catalytic approaches to CCU. Peter is a former EPSRC Senior Media Fellow working to make science and engineering more accessible to the public so is experienced at writing to attract all levels. In 2007 he was awarded the IChemE Hanson Medal for a paper on ski engineering, written to appeal to a wide audience.
UK Centre for Carbon Dioxide Utilization, The University of Sheffield, UK
Alessandra Quadrelli is the chairwoman of the Sustanability Chair of Chemical, Physics and Electronic Engineering School CPE Lyon since 2009. She is a CNRS researcher in the field of catalysis and organometallic chemistry and teaches undergraduate inorganic and organometallic chemistry courses and the graduate course “Sustainable development and homogeneous catalysis” at CPE Lyon.
Her research interests at the Laboratoire de Chimie Organométallique de Surface, now part of the C2P2 unit, under triple tutelage CNRS CPE and Université de Lyon 1, have focused on gaining molecular understanding of the interaction between organometallic precursors and solid surfaces, such as silica and more recently, metal organic frameworks, in route to heterogeneous catalysts. With Jean-Marie Basset, Mostafa Taoufik and coworkers she has uncovered a unique system capable of achieving dinitrogen splitting with diydrogen on an isolated metal atom.
After her bachelor studies at Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, and her PhD studies at University of Maryland awarded with the Pelczar Award in 1998, Alessandra Quadrelli has been postdoctoral fellow at the Chemical laboratories of Cambridge University and Dipartimento di Chimica of Università of Pisa. In 2002, she integrated the French National Centre for Scientific Research, CNRS, and joined the Laboratoire de Chimie Organométallique de Surface. She has coauthored over 35 papers, among which 2 reviews and 2 book chapters. She serves as referee to numerous international journals and as evaluator in French and European proposal evaluations. She has contributed to the European Network of Excellence “IDECAT- Integrated design on Catalytic nanomaterials for sustainable production” and has co-founded with Silvia Bordiga the “NANOCAT- International Summer School on Molecular and Supramolecular Approach to Nano-Designed Catalysts”.
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique , CNRS, France and Physics and Electronic Engineering School, CPE Lyon, France
Katy Armstrong is Manager of the CO2Chem Network (www.co2chem.com) based at the UK Centre for Carbon Dioxide Utilization (CDUUK) at the University of Sheffield, UK. CO2Chem is the largest international network bring together academics, researchers and industrialists focused on CO2 utilisation. Started in 2010, CO2Chem is a grand challenge network funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). Katy has overseen the CO2Chem’s growth from 100 to nearly 1000 members and develops strategy for the network along with organizing and facilitating network events. Katy has a B.Eng. (Hons) in Chemical and Process Engineering from the University of Sheffield (2000) and is studying part-time for a PhD in life cycle and techno-economic assessment of carbon dioxide utilisation processes; her research interests lie in life cycle and techno economic analysis of CDU processes and public perception and understanding of CDU technologies. Along with Peter Styring and collaborators at ECN in the Netherlands she co-authored the policy document “Carbon Capture and Utilisation in the Green Economy” (ISBN 978-0-9572588-1-5 for eBook) which has been widely used in the UK government for background information on CDU. Katy’s most recent paper is on the public perception of CDU technologies with Chris Jones and Styring (both authors in this book), this is believed to be the first paper in this area of CDU and the research has raised many interesting issues surrounding how CDU is communicated. Alongside her work at CO2Chem Katy is also a part of the European SCOT (Smart CO2 Transformations) project, looking at the techno-economic viability of CDU and creating a Joint Action Plan for the implementation of CDU across member states.
UK Centre for Carbon Dioxide Utilization, University of Sheffield, UK
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