Coined in 1992, the phrase "Carbon Alloys" can be applied to those materials mainly composed of carbon materials in multi-component systems. The carbon atoms of each component have a physical and/or chemical interactive relationship with other atoms or compounds. The carbon atoms of the components may have different hybrid bonding orbitals to create quite different carbon components.
Eiichi Yasuda and his team consider the definition of Carbon Alloys, present the results of the Carbon Alloys projects, describe typical Carbon Alloys and their uses, discuss recent techniques for their characterization, and finally, illustrate potential applications and future developments for Carbon Alloy science. The book contains over thirty chapters on these studies from as many researchers.
The most modern of techniques, particularly in the area of spectroscopy, were used as diagnostic tools, and many of these are applicable to pure carbons also. Porosity in carbons received considerable attention.
Space Control in Carbon Alloys. Hybrid orbital control in carbon alloys (R. Saito). Structural design and functions of carbon materials by alloying in atomic and molecular scales (M. Endo et al.). Surface and hidden surface-controlled carbon alloys (K. Kaneko). Control of interface and microstructure in carbon alloys (Y. Tanabe, E. Yasuda).
Typical Carbon Alloys and their Processing. Intercalation compounds (N. Akuzawa). Porous carbon (T. Kyotani). Polymer blend for designing of carbon materials (A. Oya).
The Latest Characterization Techniques. Computer simulation (S Tsuneyuki). Crystallite size and lattice constant measurements of carbon materials by X-ray diffraction (M. Shiraishi, M. Inagaki). Studies on pore structure of carbon materials by small-angle X-ray scattering (K. Nishikawa). XAFS analysis and application to carbon related materials and catalysts (H. Yamashita). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and its application to carbon (N. Suzuki). Transmission electron microscopy (H. Saka). Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and its applications to characterization of carbon materials (H. Hirai). Visualization of the atomic-scale structure and reactivity of metal carbide surfaces by scanning tunneling microscopy K. Fukui et al.). Infra red (IR) spectra, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and proton magnetic thermal analysis (PMRTA)(O. Ito et al.). Raman spectroscopy as a characterization tool for carbon materials (M. Kakihana, M. Osada). Basics of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and its application to carbon alloys (T. Nishizawa). Gas adsorption (Y. Hanzawa, K. Kaneko). Electrochemical characterization of carbons and carbon alloys (T. Nakajima).