Part 1 Structure-function relationship of carbohydrate-active enzymes: Biosynthesis of polysaccharides; a-amylase. Interaction with polysaccharides substrates, proteinaceous inhibitors and regulatory protein; Why could isopullulanase, an odd pullulan-hydrolyzing enzyme, be discovered? Sequence fingerprints in the evolution of the ?-amylase family; Molecular mechanism of ?-glucosidase; Structure, function and applications of microbial a-galactosidase (lactase); Structural feature of the archeal glycogen debranching enzyme from Sulfolobus solfataricus; Molecular cloning of the amylosucrase gene from a moderate thermophilic bacterium Deinococcus geothermalis and analysis of its dual enzyme activity; Substrate specificity, kinetic mechanism and oligomeric states of cyclomaltodextrinase from alkalophillic Bacillus sp. I-5. Part 2 Functions and applications of carbohydrate-active enzymes: Enzymatic modification of starch for food industry; Glycosylation of carboxylic group: A new reaction of sucrose phosphorylases; Strategy for converting an inverting glycoside hydrolase into a glycosynthase; Characterization of novel glycosides using the glucansucrase; Microbial exo- and endo-arabinosyl hydrolases: Structure, function, and application in L-arabinose production; Enzymatic synthesis and properties of trehalose analogues as disaccharide and trisaccharide; Glycosidases and their mutants as useful tools for glycoside synthesis; Enzymes for grain processing: Review of recent development in glucose production; Characteristics of archaeal maltogenic amylases.