Canal and River Levées - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444997265, 9780444600509

Canal and River Levées

1st Edition

Authors: P. Peter
eBook ISBN: 9780444600509
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 1st January 1982
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Table of Contents




Chapter 1 General Problems of Dam Design and Construction

1.1 The Distinction Between Dams and Levées

1.2 The Situation of Embankments and Related Problems

1.3 Loading Conditions and the Influence of Water

1.4 Construction Materials

1.5 Sealing Materials

1.6 Choice of Material and Placement

1.7 Laboratory Tests, Field Trials and Control

1.8 Hydraulic Fill Dams

1.9 Particular Problems in Canal Embankments and Levées

Chapter 2 Seepage

2.1 Basic Characteristics and Relations

2.1.1 Pressures and Forces within the Soil

2.2 A Homogeneous Embankment on an Impermeable Subsoil

2.2.1 Calculation of Seepage Flow with Regard to the Capillary Action of Soil

2.3 Embankments with Sealing Elements and those on a Permeable Subsoil

2.4 Seepage from Channels

2.4.1 Geometric Forms of Channels and their Effect on Seepage

2.4.2 The Effect of Capillary Action in the Soil

2.5 Collection and Removal of Seepage Water

2.5.1 Types and Uses of Drainage and Relief Structures

2.5.2 The Seepage Duct

2.5.3 A Horizontal Drain in a Thin Water-Bearing Layer

2.6 Basic Problems of Unsteady Seepage

2.6.1 The Simplest Solutions and Equations

2.7 Determination of Seepage Through Experimental Methods

2.7.1 Methods of Electrical Analogy

2.7.2 Methods of Hydraulic Analogy

2.8 Some Precise and Particular Seepage Calculations

2.9 Problems and Practical Calculations of Pressures and Seepage Out of Canals

2.9.1 The Effect of the Position and Shape of a Canal and Soil Suitability

2.9.2 Problems of Emptying in Hydroelectric Canals

Chapter 3 Stability Calculations and Embankment Settlement

3.1 Stress, Deformation and Soil Failure

3.1.1 Stress and Deformation

3.2 Calculation of Slope Stability

3.3 Calculating the Stability of Protecting Layers and Covers

3.3.1 The Dynamic Action of Waves and the Stability of Pavement and Strengthening Elements

3.3.2 The Stability of a Humus Covering

3.4 Stability with Changing Pore Water Pressures

3.4.1 Pore-Pressure Changes During Embankment Construction

3.5 Assessing Stability Using Deformations and Stresses Across the Whole Embankment Profile

3.6 The Stability of Embankment Foundations

3.7 Settlement and Bearing Capacity of Soil Beneath Embankments

3.8 Programming for Computers and New Design Procedures

Chapter 4 Construction of Embankments and Their Various Concrete Structures

4.1 Cross-Section and Structural Details of Canal Embankments

4.1.1 Embankment Dimensions

4.1.2 Typical Embankment Sections

4.1.3 Embankment Slopes and Details

4.1.4 Heterogeneous Embankments

4.1.5 Homogeneous but Permeable Embankments with Sealing Aprons

4.1.6 Some Peculiarities of Irrigation Canal Embankments

4.1.7 A Technical Comparison and Economic Assessment of Profiles

4.2 Typical Sections of Levées

4.2.1 Slopes and Dimensions

4.2.2 Homogeneous Levées

4.2.3 Heterogeneous Levées

4.2.4 Examples of Different Levée Cross-sections

4.3 Subsidiary Structures on Canal Embankments and Levées

4.3.1 Structures Concerned with the Operation of a Canal

4.3.2 Power Stations

4.3.3 Shipping Locks and Waterway

4.3.4 Intake Structures of Irrigation Canals

4.3.5 Objects for Distributing and Directing Flow

4.4 Structures Allowing the Crossing of Flows and Communication Linkage

4.4.1 Bridges and Foot Bridges

4.4.2 Syphons

4.4.3 Aqueducts

4.4.4 Other Crossings

4.5 The Line Taken by Embankments

Chapter 5 Power- and Irrigation-Canal Sealing

5.1 Requirements of Sealing

5.2 Earth Sealing

5.3 Concrete Sealing

5.4 Reinforced and Prefabricated Sealing

5.5 Asphalt-Concrete Sealing

5.6 Sealings with Foils from Synthetic Materials

5.7 Evaluation and Construction of Canal Sealing

Chapter 6 The Sealing and Subsoil Protection of Levées

6.1 Design

6.1.1 Heterogeneous River Deposits and Wave Propagation

6.2 Active Subsoil Protection

6.3 Vertical Sealing and Passive Protection Elements

6.3.1 The Position of Vertical Sealing Elements

6.3.2 Watertight Walls

6.4 Horizontal Sealing Elements

6.5 Drain Operation and its Influence

6.6 Structure of Drains, Filters and Casing of Wells

6.7 Computation of Seepage and Allowable Gradients According to Classical Theories of Water Flow

6.7.1 General Considerations and Calculation of Seepage

6.7.2 The Use of Classical Stability Criteria

6.7.3 Dynamics of the Upstream Motion of Particles, Attendant Phenomena and Levée-Subsoil Stability

6.8 Stability of Soil and its Resistance Characteristics

6.8.1 Resistance Constant Kand Drag Coefficient CD

6.8.2 Reynolds Number (Re) and Archimedean Number (Ar)

6.8.3 Dimensionless Characteristics

6.8.4 Total Pressure Pt

6.8.5 Microscopic Level of Transport Phenomena

6.9 Filtration Deformations and their Origin

6.9.1 Theoretical Aspects and Laboratory Experiments

6.9.2 Observations in the Field

6.9.3 Underseepage and Boils Theory

6.9.4 Soil Stability — Laboratory Tests

6.9.5 Dam-Failure Analysis

6.9.6 Soil Characteristics and Water Stream Resistance

6.10. Remarks Concerning Antiseepage Elements and Protection of the Sub-Base

6.10.1 Elements of Passive Protection

6.10.2 Elements of Active Protection

6.10.3 Protection of Earth Against Mechanical Load

Chapter 7 Measurements and Observation of Dams and Levées

7.1 General Requirements and Methods

7.2 Measurement of Displacements of the Soil and Earthworks

7.3 Measurements of Stresses and Pore Pressures

7.4 Hydraulic Measurements and Special Types of Observation

7.5 Stable Instrumentation and Telecontrol of Instruments

7.6 Soil Testing and Control

7.7 Water-Resource Information in a River Basin and the Location of Instruments

7.8 Inspection and Measurement De Vices on Canal Embankments and Levées



Author Index

Subject Index


Canal and River Levées covers the fundamental principles of canal embankments and levées calculation and design. Canal embankments and levées are amongst the world's oldest hydroengineering structures. This book is divided into seven chapters that focus on solving the problems of protecting control levees, which sometimes called anti-flood or anti-inundation dykes.

The opening chapter surveys the general problems of dam design and construction. The next chapters deal with the basic characteristics, determination, experimental methods, and calculations of seepage, as well as the stability calculations and embankment settlement. These topics are followed by discussions of the local conditions and demands relating to the construction of embankments and their various concrete structures. Other chapters explore the requirements of power- and irrigation-canal sealing and the subsoil protection of levees. The last chapter looks into the measurements, general requirements, and observation of dams and levees.

This book is intended primarily for civil engineering designers.


© Elsevier Science 1982
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:


@qu:Practising engineers and advanced students will find this an invaluable guide to developments in the design of canal and river levées... @source: Engineering Societies Library

About the Authors

P. Peter Author