Brenner and Rector's The Kidney, 2-Volume Set

Brenner and Rector's The Kidney, 2-Volume Set

11th Edition - September 25, 2019

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  • Authors: Glenn Chertow, Valerie Luyckx, Philip Marsden, Karl Skorecki, Maarten Taal, Alan Yu
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323550857
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323532655

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Description

Put the world’s most well-known kidney reference to work in your practice with the 11th Edition of Brenner & Rector’s The Kidney. This two-volume masterwork provides expert, well-illustrated information on everything from basic science and pathophysiology to clinical best practices. Addressing current issues such as new therapies for cardiorenal syndrome, the increased importance of supportive or palliative care in advanced chronic kidney disease, increasing live kidney donation in transplants, and emerging discoveries in stem cell and kidney regeneration, this revised edition prepares you for any clinical challenge you may encounter.

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title Page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Volume One
  • Section I Normal Structure and Function
  • 1 Embryology of the Kidney
  • Abstract
  • Mammalian Kidney Development
  • Model Systems to Study Kidney Development
  • Genetic Analysis of Mammalian Kidney Development
  • Molecular Genetics of Nephrogenesis
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 2 Anatomy of the Kidney
  • Abstract
  • Gross Features
  • The Nephron
  • Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
  • Proximal Tubule
  • Thin Limbs of the Loop of Henle
  • Distal Tubule
  • Collecting Duct
  • Papillary Surface Epithelium
  • Interstitium
  • Lymphatics
  • Innervation
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 3 The Renal Circulations and Glomerular Filtration
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Renal Blood Flow and Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Paracrine and Endocrine Factors Regulating Renal Hemodynamics and Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Neural Regulation of Renal Circulation
  • Glomerular Hemodynamics in the Aging Kidney
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 4 Glomerular Cell Biology and Podocytopathies
  • Abstract
  • Glomerular Cell Anatomy and Injury Response Patterns
  • Common Mechanisms of Glomerular Diseases
  • Mechanisms of Injury in Common Podocytopathies
  • Effects of Existing Therapies on Podocytes
  • Identification of Candidate Therapeutic Approaches for the Future
  • Summary
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 5 Metabolic Basis of Solute Transport
  • Abstract
  • Thermodynamic Approach to Metabolism and Transport
  • Energy and the Sodium Pump
  • Cell Polarity and Vectorial Transport
  • Metabolic Substrates Fueling Active Transport Along the Nephron
  • Nephron-Region–Specific Metabolic Considerations
  • Control of Renal Oxygenation
  • Renal Oxygenation and Metabolism During Normal Perturbations and Disease
  • Summary
  • References
  • 6 Transport of Sodium, Chloride, and Potassium
  • Introduction to Na, Cl, and K Transport
  • Potassium Transport
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 7 The Regulation of Calcium, Magnesium, and Phosphate Excretion by the Kidney
  • Abstract
  • Calcium Transport in the Kidney
  • Magnesium Transport in the Kidney
  • Phosphorus Transport in the Kidney
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 8 Renal Handling of Organic Solutes
  • Abstract
  • Glucose
  • Organic Cations and Anions
  • Amino Acids
  • References
  • Board Review Question
  • 9 Renal Acidification Mechanisms
  • Bicarbonate Reabsorption
  • Bicarbonate Generation
  • Acid–Base Sensors
  • Diurnal Variation in Acid Excretion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 10 Urine Concentration and Dilution
  • Abstract
  • Independent Regulation of Water and Salt Excretion
  • Organization of Structures in the Kidney Relevant to Urinary Concentrating and Diluting Process
  • Vasopressin and the Type 2 Vasopressin Receptor
  • Vasopressin-Regulated Water Transport
  • Vasopressin-Regulated Urea Transport in the Inner Medulla
  • Urine Concentration and Dilution Processes Along the Mammalian Nephron
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 11 Vasoactive Molecules and the Kidney
  • Abstract
  • Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System
  • Endothelin
  • Natriuretic Peptides
  • Kallikrein–Kinin System
  • Urotensin II
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 12 Aldosterone and Mineralocorticoid Receptors
  • Abstract
  • General Introduction to Aldosterone and Mineralocorticoid Receptors
  • Aldosterone Synthesis
  • Mechanisms of Mineralocorticoid Receptor Function and Gene Regulation
  • Regulation of Sodium Absorption and Potassium Secretion
  • Nonrenal Aldosterone-Responsive Tight Epithelia
  • Role of Serum- and Glucocorticoid-Regulated Kinase in Mediating Aldosterone Effects
  • 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2
  • Nongenomic Effects of Aldosterone
  • Disease States
  • Nonepithelial Actions of Aldosterone
  • Recent Advances in Nonrenal Mineralocorticoid Receptor−Mediated Disease Pathology
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 13 Arachidonic Acid Metabolites and the Kidney
  • Abstract
  • Cellular Origin of Eicosanoids
  • The Cyclooxygenase Pathway
  • Renal COX-1 and COX-2 Expression
  • Renal Complications of Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs
  • Cardiovascular Effects of COX-2 Inhibitors
  • Prostanoids
  • Prostaglandins
  • Involvement of Cyclooxygenase Metabolites in Renal Pathophysiology
  • The Lipoxygenase Pathway
  • The Cytochrome P450 Pathway
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • Section II Disorders of Body Fluid Volume and Composition
  • 14 Disorders of Sodium Balance
  • Physiology
  • Sodium Balance Disorders
  • Specific Treatments Based on the Pathophysiology of Heart Failure
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter-2 Inhibitors
  • Specific Treatments Based on the Pathophysiology of Sodium Retention in Cirrhosis
  • References
  • 15 Disorders of Water Balance
  • Body Fluids: Compartmentalization, Composition, and Turnover
  • Water Metabolism
  • Disorders of Insufficient Vasopressin or Vasopressin Effect
  • Disorders of Excess Vasopressin or Vasopressin Effect
  • Pathogenesis and Causes of Hyponatremia
  • Hyponatremia: Symptoms, Morbidity, and Mortality
  • Hyponatremia Treatment
  • References
  • 16 Disorders of Acid-Base Balance
  • Acid-Base Homeostasis
  • Renal Regulation
  • Systemic Response to Respiratory Acidosis or Alkalosis
  • Systemic Response to Addition of Metabolic Acids
  • Systemic Response to Gain of Alkali
  • Stepwise Approach to the Diagnosis of Acid-Base Disorders
  • Respiratory Disorders
  • Metabolic Disorders
  • References
  • 17 Disorders of Potassium Balance
  • Potassium Disorders
  • Normal Potassium Balance
  • Renal Potassium Excretion
  • Consequences of Hyperkalemia and Hypokalemia
  • Hypokalemia
  • Hyperkalemia
  • References
  • 18 Disorders of Calcium, Magnesium, and Phosphate Balance
  • Abstract
  • Disorders of Calcium Homeostasis
  • Disorders of Magnesium Homeostasis
  • Disorders of Phosphate Homeostasis
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • Section III Epidemiology and Risk Factors in Kidney Disease
  • 19 Epidemiology of Kidney Disease
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Chronic Kidney Disease
  • End-Stage Kidney Disease
  • Kidney Transplantation
  • Acute Kidney Injury
  • Evidence Gaps and Limitations of the Literature
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 20 Risk Prediction in Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Abstract
  • Definition of a Risk Factor
  • Risk Factors and Mechanisms of Chronic Kidney Disease Progression
  • Demographic Variables
  • Hereditary Factors
  • Hemodynamic Factors
  • Multisystem Disorders
  • Primary Renal Disease
  • Cardiorenal Syndrome
  • Conventional Biomarkers
  • Novel Biomarkers
  • Environmental Risk Factors
  • Renal Risk Scores
  • Models Predicting Incident Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Models Predicting Kidney Failure
  • Kidney Failure Risk Equations
  • Models Predicting Death and Cardiovascular Disease
  • Models Predicting Chronic Kidney Disease After Acute Kidney Injury
  • Clinical Implementation of Risk Models
  • Future Considerations
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 21 Developmental Programming of Blood Pressure and Renal Function Through the Life Course
  • Abstract
  • Developmental Programming
  • Developmental Programming in the Kidney
  • Evidence for Programming in the Kidney
  • Programming of Renal Function and Disease
  • Proposed Mechanisms of Developmental Programming in the Kidney
  • Maternal Health and Intergenerational Effects of Programming
  • Impact of Nephron Endowment in Transplantation
  • Global Health Relevance of Renal Programming
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 22 The Physiology and Pathophysiology of the Kidneys in Aging
  • Abstract
  • General Overview of the Biology of Aging
  • Healthy Aging and Age-Related Comorbidity
  • Differences Between Humans and Other Animals
  • Anatomic Changes of the Kidneys With Aging
  • Functional Changes of the Kidneys With Aging
  • Contribution of Comorbidities to Renal Aging
  • Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Homeostasis in Aging
  • Implications of Normal Physiology on Renal Function
  • Acute Kidney Injury and Diseases of the Kidney and Urinary Tract in Aging
  • Can Renal Aging Be Modified?
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • Section IV Evaluation of the Patient with Kidney Disease
  • 23 Laboratory Assessment of Kidney Disease: Glomerular Filtration Rate, Urinalysis, and Proteinuria
  • Abstract
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Urinalysis
  • Proteinuria
  • Urine Microscopy
  • Summary
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 24 Interpretation of Electrolyte and Acid-Base Parameters in Blood and Urine
  • Abstract
  • Water and Sodium
  • Potassium
  • Metabolic Alkalosis
  • Metabolic Acidosis
  • References
  • 25 Diagnostic Kidney Imaging
  • Abstract
  • Imaging Techniques
  • Imaging in Clinical Nephrology
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 26 The Renal Biopsy
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Safety and Complications of Biopsies
  • Biopsy Handling
  • Light Microscopy
  • Staining for Light Microscopy
  • Examination of the Biopsy by Light Microscopy
  • Terminology in Description of Glomerular Disease
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Electron Microscopy
  • Other Studies on the Renal Biopsy
  • Biopsies of Transplanted Kidneys
  • The Size of the Biopsy
  • The Biopsy Report
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 27 Biomarkers in Acute and Chronic Kidney Diseases
  • Abstract
  • Biomarker Definition
  • Process of Biomarker Discovery, Assay Validation, and Qualification in a Clinical Context
  • Analysis of Biomarker Performance
  • Characteristics of an Ideal Biomarker for Kidney Disease
  • Critical Path Initiative: A Need for Better Biomarkers
  • Kidney Health Initiative
  • Future of Biomarkers
  • Acknowledgments
  • Disclosure
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • Section V Disorders of Kidney Structure and Function
  • 28 Pathophysiology of Acute Kidney Injury
  • Abstract
  • Pathophysiology of Clinical Acute Kidney Injury
  • Pathophysiology of Acute Kidney Injury
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 29 Prevention and Management of Acute Kidney Injury
  • Abstract
  • Definition of Acute Kidney Injury
  • Incidence of Acute Kidney Injury
  • Categorization of Acute Kidney Injury
  • Evaluation of Acute Kidney Injury
  • Causes of Acute Kidney Injury in Specific Clinical Settings
  • Complications of Acute Kidney Injury
  • Management of Acute Kidney Injury
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 30 Pathophysiology of Proteinuria
  • Mechanisms of Proteinuria
  • Renal Consequences of Proteinuria
  • Systemic Consequences of Nephrotic-Range Proteinuria
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 31 Primary Glomerular Disease
  • Abstract
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 32 Secondary Glomerular Disease
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome
  • Mixed Connective Tissue Disease
  • Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody–Associated Vasculitis
  • Glomerular Involvement in Other Vasculitides
  • Henoch–Schönlein Purpura
  • Antiglomerular Basement Membrane Disease and Goodpasture Syndrome
  • Sjögren Syndrome
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Amyloidosis
  • Fibrillary Glomerulonephritis and Immunotactoid Glomerulonephritis
  • Other Glomerular Diseases and Dysproteinemia
  • Waldenström Macroglobulinemia
  • Alport Syndrome
  • Thin Basement Membrane Nephropathy
  • Differential Diagnosis of Familial Hematurias
  • Nail–Patella Syndrome (Hereditary Osteo-Onychodysplasia)
  • Fabry Disease (Angiokeratoma Corporis Diffusum Universale)
  • Sickle Cell Nephropathy
  • Lipodystrophy
  • Lecithin-Cholesterol Acyltransferase Deficiency
  • Lipoprotein Glomerulopathy
  • Glomerular Involvement With Bacterial Infections
  • Glomerular Involvement With Parasitic Diseases
  • Glomerular Involvement With Viral Infections
  • Glomerular Manifestations of Liver Disease
  • Glomerular Lesions Associated With Neoplasia
  • Glomerular Disease Associated With Drugs
  • Miscellaneous Diseases Associated With Glomerular Lesions
  • References
  • 33 Treatment of Glomerulonephritis
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • The Global Impact and Challenges
  • Personalizing Therapy: Balancing Risks and Benefits
  • Personalizing Treatment: Disease-Specific Risks and Goals
  • Timing of Response
  • Individualizing Therapy: Mitigating Toxicities of Therapy
  • Corticosteroids
  • Calcineurin Inhibitors
  • Alkylating Agents
  • Azathioprine
  • Mycophenolic Acid
  • Rituximab and Ocrelizumab
  • Eculizumab
  • Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone
  • Treatment Algorithms and Considerations
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 34 Thrombotic Microangiopathies
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Classification
  • Clinical and Laboratory Features
  • Thrombotic Microangiopathy Pathology
  • Primary Thrombotic Microangiopathies
  • Inherited Complement-Mediated Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
  • Acquired Primary Complement-Mediated Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
  • Complement Screening in Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
  • Clinical Features of Complement-Mediated Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
  • Treatment of Complement-Mediated Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
  • DGKE Thrombotic Microangiopathy
  • Methylmalonic Aciduria and Homocystinuria, Cobalamin C (Cblc)-Type Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
  • Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
  • Infection-Associated Thrombotic Microangiopathies
  • Pneumococcal Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Associated Thrombotic Microangiopathies
  • Other Infections
  • Secondary Thrombotic Microangiopathies
  • Drug-Mediated Thrombotic Microangiopathy
  • Malignancy-Associated Thrombotic Microangiopathy
  • De Novo Thrombotic Microangiopathy After Solid Organ Transplant
  • Thrombotic Microangiopathy After Bone Marrow Transplant
  • Autoimmune and Glomerular Disease–Associated Thrombotic Microangiopathies
  • Severe Hypertension-Associated Thrombotic Microangiopathy
  • Summary
  • References
  • 35 Tubulointerstitial Diseases
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Primary Versus Secondary Tubulointerstitial Disease
  • Mechanisms of Tubulointerstitial Injury
  • Genetic Causes of Tubulointerstitial Diseases
  • Acute Tubulointerstitial Nephritis
  • Chronic Tubulointerstitial Diseases
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 36 Urinary Tract Infection in Adults
  • Definitions
  • General Concepts
  • Usual Presentations of Urinary Tract Infection
  • Urinary Tract Infection in Unique Patient Populations
  • Other Infections of the Urinary Tract
  • Uncommon Organisms
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 37 Urinary Tract Obstruction
  • Abstract
  • Prevalence and Incidence
  • Classification
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Aspects
  • Diagnosis
  • Pathophysiology of Obstructive Nephropathy
  • Pathophysiology of Recovery of Tubular Epithelial Cells From Obstruction or of Tubulointerstitial Fibrosis
  • Treatment of Urinary Tract Obstruction and Recovery of Renal Function
  • Postobstructive Diuresis
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 38 Urolithiasis
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Epidemiology
  • Histopathology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Genetics
  • Nephrolithiasis as a Systemic Disorder
  • Evaluation
  • Management of Stones
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 39 Epidemiology of Diabetic Kidney Disease
  • Abstract
  • Definition, Measurement, and Classification
  • Clinical Course
  • Pathology of the Kidney in Diabetes
  • Pathophysiology
  • Treatment
  • End-Stage Kidney Disease
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 40 Cardiorenal Syndromes
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Terminology of Cardiorenal Syndrome
  • Epidemiology and Prognosis
  • Pathophysiology of Concomitant Heart Failure and Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Worsening Renal Function and Change in Renal Function
  • Albuminuria
  • Tubulointerstitial Damage in Heart Failure
  • Treatment of Heart Failure in Patients With Concomitant Renal Dysfunction
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 41 Kidney Cancer
  • Abstract
  • Biology of Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • Cystic Diseases and Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • Prognosis of Renal Cell Carcinoma in the End-Stage Renal Disease Population
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma Risk and Kidney Function
  • Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease, Renal Cell Carcinoma, and Renal Transplantation
  • Evaluation and Prognostic Assessment of Renal Masses
  • Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma and Systemic Therapy
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 42 Onconephrology
  • Abstract
  • Acute Kidney Injury in Patients With Cancer
  • Chronic Kidney Disease in Patients With Cancer
  • Glomerular Diseases Associated With Cancer
  • Fluid and Electrolyte Abnormalities Associated With Malignancies
  • Kidney Disease Associated With Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
  • Anticancer Drugs and Kidney Disease
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • Volume Two
  • Section VI Genetics of Kidney Disease
  • 43 Inherited Disorders of the Glomerulus
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Disorders of the Podocyte
  • Mendelian Diseases of the Podocyte
  • Common Genetic Factors
  • Pierson Syndrome
  • Genetic Testing Considerations
  • References
  • 44 Inherited Disorders of the Renal Tubule
  • Abstract
  • Inherited Disorders Associated With Generalized Dysfunction of the Proximal Tubule (Renal Fanconi Syndrome)
  • Inherited Disorders of Renal Amino Acid Transport
  • Inherited Disorders of Renal Phosphate Transport
  • Inherited Disorder of Urate Transport
  • Inherited Disorders of Renal Glucose Transport
  • Inherited Disorders of Acid–Base Transporters
  • Bartter and Gitelman Syndromes
  • Inherited Disorders With Hypertension and Hypokalemia
  • Pseudohypoaldosteronism
  • Inherited Disorders of Renal Magnesium Processing
  • Diabetes Insipidus
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 45 Cystic Diseases of the Kidney
  • Abstract
  • Classification of Renal Cystic Diseases
  • Development of Renal Epithelial Cysts
  • Hereditary Cystic Kidney Disorders
  • Polycystic Kidney and/or Liver Diseases Associated With Altered Maturation of PKD Proteins in the Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Autosomal Recessive Ciliopathies With Interstitial Nephritis and Renal Cystic Disease
  • Renal Cystic Dysplasia
  • Other Cystic Kidney Disorders
  • Renal Cystic Neoplasms
  • Renal Cysts of Nontubular Origin
  • References
  • Section VII Hypertension and the Kidney
  • 46 Primary and Secondary Hypertension
  • Abstract
  • Hypertension Definitions
  • Epidemiology
  • Economics of Hypertension
  • Pathophysiology
  • Gut Microbiome
  • Clinical Evaluation
  • Secondary Hypertension
  • Hypertensive Urgency and Emergency
  • Goals of Antihypertensive Therapy
  • Management of Hypertension in Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Resistant Hypertension
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 47 Renovascular Hypertension and Ischemic Nephropathy
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology of Renovascular Hypertension and Ischemic Nephropathy
  • Phases of Development of Renovascular Hypertension
  • Epidemiology of Renal Artery Stenosis and Renovascular Hypertension
  • Clinical Features
  • Changing Population Demographics
  • Diagnostic Testing for Renovascular Hypertension and Ischemic Nephropathy
  • Management of Renal Artery Stenosis and Ischemic Nephropathy
  • Predictors of Likely Benefit Regarding Renal Revascularization
  • Summary
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 48 Pregnancy and Kidney Disease
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Physiologic Changes of Pregnancy
  • Preeclampsia and HELLP Syndrome
  • Chronic Hypertension and Gestational Hypertension
  • Acute Kidney Injury in Pregnancy
  • Chronic Kidney Disease in Pregnancy
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 49 Antihypertensive Therapy
  • Abstract
  • Pharmacology of the Nondiuretic Antihypertensive Drugs
  • Selection of Antihypertensive Drug Therapy
  • Drug Treatment of Hypertensive Urgencies and Emergencies
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 50 Diuretics
  • Individual Classes of Diuretics
  • Adaptation to Diuretic Therapy
  • Clinical Uses of Diuretics
  • Adverse Effects of Diuretics
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • Section VIII Consequences of Chronic Kidney Disease
  • 51 Mechanisms of Progression in Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Structural and Functional Adaptation of the Kidney to Nephron Loss
  • Adaptation of Specific Tubule Functions in Response to Nephron Loss
  • Long-Term Adverse Consequences of Adaptations to Nephron Loss
  • Insights From Modifiers of Chronic Kidney Disease Progression
  • Future Directions
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 52 The Pathophysiology of Uremia
  • Abstract
  • Solutes Cleared by the Kidney and Retained in Uremia
  • Metabolic Effects of Uremia
  • Signs and Symptoms of Uremia
  • References
  • 53 Chronic Kidney Disease–Mineral Bone Disorder
  • Abstract
  • Pathophysiology of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder
  • Diagnosis of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder
  • Clinical Consequences of the Abnormalities in Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder
  • Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder in Kidney Transplant Recipients
  • Summary
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 54 Cardiovascular Aspects of Kidney Disease
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Spectrum of Cardiovascular Pathology in Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Disease in Cardiovascular Disease
  • Kidney Disease as a Cause of Cardiovascular Disease
  • Indirect Risk Factors: Causes of Kidney and Cardiovascular Disease
  • Cardiovascular Risk Prediction
  • Cardiovascular Risk Prevention
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 55 Hematologic Aspects of Kidney Disease
  • Abstract
  • Anemia of Kidney Disease
  • Disorders of Hemostasis in Chronic Kidney Disease
  • White Cell Function in Chronic Kidney Disease
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 56 Endocrine Aspects of Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Pancreatic Hormonal Disorders: Insulin Resistance
  • Hypothalamopituitary Axis
  • Prolactin
  • Vitamin D, Parathyroid Hormone, and Kidney Disease
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 57 Neurologic Aspects of Kidney Disease
  • Stroke
  • Disorders of Cognitive Function
  • Seizures
  • Neuropathy
  • Sleep Disorders
  • References
  • 58 Dermatologic Conditions in Kidney Disease
  • Abstract
  • Skin Manifestations Secondary to Kidney Dysfunction
  • Nail Changes Associated With Kidney Disease
  • Selected Conditions With Skin and Renal Involvement
  • Genodermatoses
  • Dermatologic Conditions That May Later Involve the Kidneys
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • Section IX Management of Chronic Kidney Disease
  • 59 Classification and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Classification of Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Mechanisms of Disease Progression and the Rationale for Interventions to Achieve Renoprotection
  • Interventions for Slowing Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Interventions to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk Associated With Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Interventions to Manage Complications of Chronic Kidney Disease
  • A Stepped Care Approach to Chronic Kidney Disease
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 60 Dietary Approaches to Kidney Diseases
  • Abstract
  • Introductory Points
  • Dietary Contributions to the Main Syndromes Which Cause CKD: Diabetes and Hypertension
  • Dietary Contributions to CKD Incidence and Progression
  • Component Considerations in the Dietary Management of CKD
  • Overall Diet Considerations in the Management of CKD
  • Considerations for Enabling CKD Patients to Eat a More Plant-Based Diet
  • Future Research Directions
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 61 Drug Dosing Considerations in Patients With Acute Kidney Injury and Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Abstract
  • Effects of AKI and CKD on Drug Disposition
  • Pharmacogenomics
  • Pharmacodynamics
  • Assessment of Kidney Function
  • Drug Dosing Considerations
  • Clinical Bottom Line
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 62 Supportive Care in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Abstract
  • Defining Kidney Supportive Care
  • Key Components of Kidney Supportive Care
  • Culturally Competent Shared Decision Making
  • Prognostication
  • Symptom Assessment and Management
  • Chronic Pain Management
  • Special Considerations at the End of Life
  • Advance Care Planning
  • Conservative Kidney Management
  • Palliative Dialysis
  • Withdrawal of Dialysis
  • Early Identification of Patients Most Likely to Benefit From Supportive Care Services
  • Summary
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • Section X Dialysis and Extracorporeal Therapies
  • 63 Hemodialysis
  • Abstract
  • The Hemodialysis Population
  • Vascular Access
  • General Principles of Hemodialysis: Physiology and Biomechanics
  • Components of the Extracorporeal Circuit
  • Hemodialysis Adequacy
  • The Dialysis Prescription
  • Management of Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis
  • Complications for Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis
  • References
  • 64 Peritoneal Dialysis
  • Abstract
  • Peritoneal Membrane Anatomy and Structure
  • Peritoneal Transport Physiology
  • Evaluation of Peritoneal Solute and Water Transfer Rate
  • The Peritoneal Catheter and Access
  • Catheter-Related Complications
  • Peritoneal Dialysis Solutions
  • Peritoneal Dialysis Modalities
  • Dialysis Adequacy
  • Clearance Targets and Clinical Outcomes
  • Nutrition and Peritoneal Dialysis
  • Inflammation and Peritoneal Dialysis
  • Residual Kidney Function and Peritoneal Dialysis
  • Cardiovascular Disease in Peritoneal Dialysis
  • Peritonitis
  • Noninfectious Complications of Peritoneal Dialysis
  • Patient Outcomes With Peritoneal Dialysis
  • Economics and Cost Effectiveness of Peritoneal Dialysis
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 65 Critical Care Nephrology
  • Abstract
  • Acute Kidney Injury in the Context of Critical Illness
  • RENAL Replacement Therapy in the Intensive Care Unit
  • Indications for Commencing RENAL Replacement Therapy
  • RENAL Replacement Therapy Modality
  • Mode of Clearance
  • Intensity of RENAL Replacement Therapy
  • Anticoagulation
  • Fluid Balance, Ultrafiltration, and Maintenance of Hemodynamic Stability
  • Vascular Access Considerations
  • Drug Dosing Considerations
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 66 Plasmapheresis
  • Clinical Relevance
  • Historical Perspective
  • General Principles of Therapeutic Plasma Exchange
  • Plasmapheresis Use in Renal Disease
  • Therapeutic Plasma Exchange and Nonrenal Disease
  • Pregnancy and Therapeutic Plasma Exchange
  • Technical Aspects
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 67 Enhanced Elimination of Poisons
  • Abstract
  • Overview of Corporeal Treatments for Enhanced Elimination of Poisons
  • Principles and Factors Influencing Poison Removal During Extracorporeal Treatments
  • Available Extracorporeal Treatments to Enhance Elimination of Poisons
  • General Indications for Extracorporeal Removal of Poisons
  • Poisons Amenable to Extracorporeal Elimination
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 68 Interventional Nephrology
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Overview of Vascular Access for Dialysis
  • Interventional Nephrology in Maintenance of Hemodialysis Vascular Access
  • Biology and Pathogenesis of Vascular Access Stenosis in AV Fistulas and AV Grafts
  • Preoperative Vascular Mapping
  • Procedures Involving AV Grafts
  • Procedures Involving AV Fistulas
  • Central Vein Stenosis
  • Access-Induced Hand Ischemia
  • Indwelling Hemodialysis Catheters
  • Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter Procedures
  • Percutaneous Kidney Biopsy (see also Chapter 26)
  • Radiation and Personal Safety
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • Section XI Kidney Transplantation
  • 69 The Immunobiology of Transplantation
  • Abstract
  • Mechanisms Involved in Allorecognition
  • Antigen Presentation Pathways
  • T-Cell Cosignaling Pathways
  • T-Cell Phenotypes
  • B Cells and Antibody Production
  • Histocompability Testing for the Kidney Transplant Candidate and Recipient
  • Human Leukocyte Antigen Typing
  • Human Leukocyte Antigen Antibody Screening and Identification
  • Interpreting Solid-Phase Human Leukocyte Antigen Antibody Tests
  • The Evolving Role of Histocompatibility Consultation
  • Kidney Allograft Rejection
  • Mechanisms of Action of Immunosuppressive Drugs
  • Induction Agents
  • Monoclonal Antibodies
  • Maintenance Immunosuppressive Drugs
  • Other Immunosuppressive Agents Used in the Field of Kidney Transplantation
  • Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 70 Clinical Management of the Adult Kidney Transplant Recipient
  • Abstract
  • The Transplant Surgery Procedure
  • Currently Used Immunosuppressive Agents in Kidney Transplantation
  • Maintenance Immunosuppressive Agents
  • Evaluation of the Recipient Immediately Before the Transplant
  • Evaluation of the Recipient Immediately After the Transplant
  • Management of Allograft Dysfunction
  • Assessing Outcomes in Kidney Transplantation
  • Medical Management of the Transplant Recipient
  • Transplant Issues in Specific Patient Groups
  • Transplantation/Immunosuppression: the Future
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 71 Considerations in Living Kidney Donation
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Considerations for the Kidney Transplant Recipient
  • Evaluation and Selection of the Living Kidney Donor Candidate
  • Kidney Paired Donation and Incompatible Living Donor Transplants
  • Donor Nephrectomy Approaches
  • Living Kidney Donor Follow-Up
  • Risks and Outcomes of Living Kidney Donation
  • Ethical, Legal, and Policy Considerations
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • Section XII Pediatric Nephrology
  • 72 Diseases of the Kidney and Upper Urinary Tract in Children
  • Abstract
  • The Spectrum of Kidney and Urinary Tract Disorders in Children
  • Evaluation of Kidney Function in Children
  • Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract
  • Clinical Classification of Kidney Malformation
  • Epidemiology of Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract
  • Pathogenesis of Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract
  • Molecular Pathogenesis
  • The Environment in Utero and Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract
  • Functional Consequences of Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract
  • Clinical Presentation of Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract
  • Clinical Management of Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract
  • Glomerular Diseases
  • Thin Basement Membrane Nephropathy
  • Nephrotic Syndrome
  • Treatment of Nephrotic Syndrome
  • Complement-Associated Kidney Diseases
  • Immune Complex Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis and C3 Glomerulopathy
  • Postinfectious (Poststreptococcal) Glomerulonephritis
  • Membranous Nephropathy
  • Thrombotic Microangiopathy
  • Infectious Forms of Thrombotic Microangiopathy
  • Noninfectious, Noncomplement-Mediated Forms of Thrombotic Microangiopathy
  • Noninfectious, Complement-Mediated Thrombotic Microangiopathy
  • Secondary Forms of Thrombotic Microangiopathy With Possible Complement Contribution
  • Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
  • Systemic Diseases With Renal Involvement
  • Renal Diseases With Vasculitis
  • Tubular Disorders
  • Urolithiasis and Nephrocalcinosis in Children
  • Genetics of Pediatric Urolithiasis and Nephrocalcinosis
  • Pediatric Aspects of Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Prevention and Treatment of Growth Failure in Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Progression of Chronic Renal Failure in Children
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 73 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Disorders in Children
  • Abstract
  • Sodium and Water Disorders
  • Potassium Disorders
  • Hydrogen Ion Disorders
  • Magnesium Disorders
  • Calcium and Phosphate Disorders
  • Summary and Conclusion
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 74 Renal Replacement Therapy (Dialysis and Transplantation) in Pediatric End-Stage Kidney Disease
  • Abstract
  • Epidemiology of End-Stage Kidney Disease
  • Etiology
  • Clinical Consequences of Pediatric End-Stage Kidney Disease
  • Mortality
  • Medications
  • Renal Replacement Therapy
  • Advantages of Renal Transplantation Over Chronic Dialysis in Children
  • Comparing Hemodialysis With Peritoneal Dialysis
  • Hemodialysis
  • Peritoneal Dialysis
  • Renal Replacement Therapy for Children With Inborn Errors of Metabolism
  • Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy
  • Pediatric Kidney Transplantation
  • Preparation of the Recipient for Transplantation
  • Transplant Immunology
  • Immunosuppression
  • Perioperative Management
  • Immediate Postoperative Period
  • Early Complications of Kidney Transplantation
  • Chronic Allograft Nephropathy
  • Patient Survival
  • Graft Survival
  • Long-Term Follow-Up of Children With Kidney Transplant
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • Section XIII Global Considerations in Kidney Disease
  • 75 Global Challenges and Initiatives in Kidney Health
  • Abstract
  • Global Challenges in Kidney Health
  • Global Initiatives for Kidney Health
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 76 Latin America
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Tropical Diseases and Kidney Injury
  • Nephrotoxicity Due to Venoms
  • Chronic Kidney Disease in Latin America
  • End-Stage Kidney Disease in Latin America
  • Transplantation
  • Trends and the Future
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 77 Global Considerations in Kidney Disease
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Human Resources for Nephrology
  • Acute Kidney Injury
  • Chronic Kidney Disease
  • End-Stage Renal Disease and Renal Replacement Therapy
  • Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 78 Near and Middle East
  • Abstract
  • Acute Kidney Injury
  • Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Management of End-Stage Kidney Disease in the Middle East
  • Summary
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 79 Indian Subcontinent
  • Abstract
  • Acute Kidney Injury
  • Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Summary
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 80 The Far East
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Acute Kidney Injury and Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Specific Kidney Diseases
  • Kidney Injury Related to Infections
  • Dialysis in Asia
  • Kidney Transplantation—Special Issues in Asia
  • Concluding Statements
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 81 Oceania Region
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Australia
  • New Zealand
  • Samoa
  • Papua New Guinea
  • Pacific Islands
  • Fiji
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • Section XIV Challenges in Nephrology
  • 82 Ethical Dilemmas Facing Nephrology
  • Abstract
  • Past: the Evolution of Dialysis and Transplant Ethics in the United States
  • Present
  • Future
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 83 Health Disparities in Nephrology
  • Abstract
  • Disparity
  • Health Justice
  • Social Origins of Disparities in Nephrology
  • Biologic Origins of Disparities in Nephrology
  • Health System and Disparities in Nephrology
  • Disparities in the Treatment of Chronic Kidney Diseases
  • Disparities in the Treatment of End-Stage Kidney Disease
  • Moving Toward More Equitable Care
  • Initiatives to Reduce Disparities
  • Summary and Challenges
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 84 Care of the Older Adult With Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Chronic Kidney Disease and Age-Related Changes in Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Comorbidities and Geriatric Syndromes Among Older Individuals With Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Controversies and Complexity in the Management of Older Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Care for Older Adults With End-Stage Renal Disease
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • 85 Stem Cells, Kidney Regeneration, and Gene and Cell Therapy in Nephrology
  • Abstract
  • Kidney Stem Cells
  • Kidney Regeneration
  • Gene Therapy
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Board Review Questions
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 2793
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2019
  • Published: September 25, 2019
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323550857
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323532655

About the Authors

Glenn Chertow

Affiliations and Expertise

Norman S. Coplon/ Satellite Healthcare, Professor of Medicine, Chief, Division of Nephrology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, Palo Alto, California, USA

Valerie Luyckx

Affiliations and Expertise

Affiliate Lecturer, Renal Division, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, Institute of Biomedical Ethics and the History of Medicine University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

Philip Marsden

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Medicine, Elisabeth Hofmann Chair in Translational Research, Oreopoulos-Baxter Division Director of Nephrology; Vice Chair Research, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Karl Skorecki

Affiliations and Expertise

Annie Chutick Professor and Chair in Medicine (Nephrology), Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Director of Medical and Research Development, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel

Maarten Taal

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Medicine, Division of Medical Sciences and Graduate Entry Medicine, University of Nottingham; Honorary Consultant Nephrologist, Department of Renal Medicine, Royal Derby Hospital, Derby, United Kingdom

Alan Yu

Affiliations and Expertise

Harry Statland and Solon Summerfield Professor of Medicine, Director, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension and the Kidney Institute, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas

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