Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 2-Volume Set

Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 2-Volume Set

11th Edition - January 9, 2018

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  • Authors: Peter Libby, Douglas Zipes
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323555937
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323462990
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323463423

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Description

Trusted by generations of cardiologists for the latest, most reliable guidance in the field, Braunwald’s Heart Disease, 11th Edition, remains your #1 source of information on rapidly changing clinical science, clinical and translational research, and evidence-based medicine. This award-winning text has been completely updated, providing a superior multimedia reference for every aspect of this fast-changing field, including new material about almost every topic in cardiology.

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgments
  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Preface to the First Edition
  • Video Contents
  • Part I: Fundamentals of Cardiovascular Disease
  • 1: Global Burden of Cardiovascular Disease
  • Shifting Burden
  • Epidemiologic Transitions
  • Current Variations in the Global Burden
  • Risk Factors
  • Economic Burden
  • Cost-Effective Solutions
  • Summary and Conclusion
  • Epidemiologic Transitions
  • Current Variations in the Global Burden
  • Risk Factors
  • Economic Burden
  • Cost-Effective Solutions
  • 2: Ethics in Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Informed Consent and Decision Aids
  • Clinical Ethical Judgments of Futility
  • Conflicts of Interest and Disclosure
  • Public Reporting
  • Social Media and Mobile Health
  • Genetics
  • Transplantation
  • Conclusion
  • Informed Consent and Decision Aids
  • Clinical Ethical Judgments of Futility
  • Conflicts of Interest and Disclosure
  • Public Reporting
  • Social Media and Mobile Health
  • Genetics
  • Transplantation
  • 3: Clinical Decision Making in Cardiology
  • Clinical Reasoning
  • Diagnostic Decisions
  • Therapeutic Decisions
  • Changing Clinical Practice Based on New Findings
  • Shared Decision Making
  • Monitoring the Quality of Clinical Decisions
  • Conclusion
  • Clinical Reasoning
  • Diagnostic Decisions
  • Therapeutic Decisions
  • Changing Clinical Practice Based on New Findings
  • Shared Decision Making
  • 4: Measuring and Improving Quality of Care: Relevance to Cardiovascular Clinical Practice
  • Defining Quality of Care
  • Measuring Health Care Quality and Uses of Quality Measurements
  • Improving Quality of Care
  • Conclusion
  • Defining Quality of Care
  • Relevance of Quality of Care in Cardiovascular Practice
  • Measuring Health Care Quality and Uses of Quality Measurements
  • Improving Quality of Care
  • 5: Critical Evaluation of Clinical Trials
  • Constructing the Research Question
  • Clinical Trial Design
  • Key Issues
  • Measures and Detection of Treatment Effect
  • Future Perspectives
  • Constructing the Research Question
  • Clinical Trial Design
  • Key Issues
  • Measures and Detection of Treatment Effect
  • Future Perspectives
  • Part II: Genetics and Personalized Medicine
  • 6: Personalized and Precision Cardiovascular Medicine
  • The Core Concepts of Personalized and Precision Medicine
  • Genetics
  • Genomics and Functional Genomics
  • Drug Responses and Pharmacogenetics
  • Missing Data: What Is Needed for Precision
  • Integrating Discovery and Care
  • Barriers to Precision Medicine
  • Future Perspectives
  • 7: Principles of Cardiovascular Genetics
  • Abstract
  • Inherited Basis for the Variation in Risk for Cardiovascular Disease
  • A Brief Primer on Molecular Biology
  • Modes of Inheritance
  • Approaches to Discovering the Inherited Basis for Cardiovascular Disease
  • Illustrative Examples
  • Clinical Application of Genetic Findings
  • Future Perspectives
  • Approaches to Genetic Studies
  • Applications of Genetics to Lipid Disorders
  • Risk Prediction Using Genetic Markers
  • Genetic Approaches to Assessing the Causality of Risk Factors
  • Personalized Medicine
  • Novel Therapeutic Approaches
  • 8: Drug Therapeutics and Personalized Medicine
  • Risk Versus Benefit of Drug Therapy
  • Optimizing Drug Doses
  • Future Perspectives
  • Drug Targets
  • Unbiased Approaches, Such as Genome-Wide Association
  • High-Risk Pharmacokinetics
  • Other Important Pharmacogenetic Effects
  • Incorporating Pharmacogenetic Information Into Prescribing
  • 9: Biomarkers and Use in Precision Medicine
  • Overview of Biomarkers
  • Proteomics and Metabolomics
  • Clinical Measures of Biomarker Performance
  • Conclusion
  • Biomarkers: General Considerations
  • Biomarker Discovery
  • Ascending Biomarker Performance
  • Part III: Evaluation of The Patient
  • 10: History and Physical Examination: An Evidence-Based Approach
  • The History
  • The General Physical Examination
  • The Cardiovascular Examination
  • Integrated, Evidence-Based Approach to Specific Cardiac Disorders
  • Future Perspectives
  • Acknowledgments
  • The General Physical Examination
  • The Cardiovascular Examination
  • Integrated, Evidence-Based Approach to Specific Cardiac Disorders
  • Future Perspectives
  • 11: Anesthesia and Noncardiac Surgery in Patients with Heart Disease
  • Assessment of Risk
  • Valvular Heart Disease (see also Part VIII)
  • Congenital Heart Disease in Adults (see alsoChapter 75)
  • Arrhythmias (see Part V)
  • The Decision to Undergo Diagnostic Testing
  • Tests to Improve Identification and Definition of Cardiovascular Disease
  • Overview of Anesthesia for Cardiac Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery
  • Postoperative Management
  • Surveillance and Implications of Perioperative Cardiac Complications
  • Strategies to Reduce the Cardiac Risk Associated With Noncardiac Surgery
  • Conclusion
  • 12: Electrocardiography
  • The Normal Electrocardiogram
  • The Abnormal Electrocardiogram
  • Clinical Issues in Electrocardiographic Interpretation
  • Future Perspectives
  • Guidelines
  • 13: Exercise Electrocardiographic Testing
  • Exercise Physiology
  • Technical Components of Exercise Testing
  • Exercise Testing in Coronary Artery Disease
  • Exercise Testing in Nonatherosclerotic Heart Disease
  • Additional Uses for Exercise Testing
  • Acknowledgment
  • Exercise Physiology and Technical Components of Exercise Testing
  • Exercise Testing in Coronary Artery Disease
  • Exercise Testing in Nonatherosclerotic Heart Disease
  • Additional Uses for Exercise Testing
  • 14: Echocardiography
  • Principles of Ultrasound and Instrumentation
  • The Standard Adult Transthoracic Echocardiographic Examination
  • Transesophageal Echocardiography
  • Three-Dimensional Echocardiography
  • Contrast Echocardiography
  • Myocardial Infarction
  • Cardiomyopathies
  • Stress Echocardiography
  • Valvular Heart Disease (SeeChapters 67 Through 72)
  • Pericardial Disease
  • Diseases of the Aorta
  • Infective Endocarditis
  • Pulmonary Hypertension
  • Cardiac Masses
  • Adult Congenital Heart Disease
  • Cardiac Procedures and Future Directions
  • Appropriate Use Criteria
  • 15: The Chest Radiograph in Cardiovascular Disease
  • Overview
  • Approach to Evaluation of a Chest Radiograph
  • Specific Cardiovascular Diseases
  • Conclusion
  • Overview
  • The Normal Chest Radiograph and Approach to Evaluation
  • Diseases Affecting Heart Size and Morphology
  • Coronary Artery Disease
  • Pericardial Disease
  • Diseases of the Aorta
  • 16: Nuclear Cardiology
  • Technical Aspects of Image Acquisition, Display, and Interpretation
  • Myocardial Blood Flow, Myocardial Metabolism, and Ventricular Function
  • Disease Detection, Risk Stratification, and Clinical Decision Making
  • Molecular Imaging of the Cardiovascular System
  • Technical Aspects of Image Acquisition, Display, and Interpretation
  • Myocardial Blood Flow, Myocardial Metabolism, and Ventricular Function
  • Disease Detection, Risk Stratification, and Clinical Decision Making
  • Acute Coronary Syndromes
  • Molecular Imaging of the Cardiovascular System
  • 17: Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Basic Principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Patient Safety
  • Application in Specific Disorders and Conditions
  • Novel CMR Imaging Techniques
  • Future Perspectives
  • Basic Principles and Imaging Methods
  • Coronary Artery Disease
  • Cardiomyopathies
  • Arrhythmias
  • Pericardial, Congenital and Valvular Heart Disease
  • Cardiac Masses and Systemic Conditions
  • Novel Imaging Methods
  • 18: Cardiac Computed Tomography
  • Basics of Cardiac and Coronary Computed Tomography
  • Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring
  • Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography
  • Assessment of Cardiovascular Structure and Function
  • Appropriate Use Criteria
  • Basics of Cardiac and Coronary Computed Tomography
  • Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring
  • Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography
  • Assessment of Cardiovascular Structure and Function
  • 19: Cardiac Catheterization
  • Operational Aspects of Cardiac Catheterization
  • Catheterization Laboratory Protocol
  • Technical Aspects and Procedural Performance
  • Hemodynamic Measurements
  • Clinical Aspects and Integration Into Patient Care
  • Endomyocardial Biopsy
  • Adjunctive Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques
  • Acknowledgment
  • Operational Aspects of Cardiac Catheterization
  • Catheterization Laboratory Protocol
  • Technical Aspects and Procedural Performance
  • Hemodynamic Measurements
  • Clinical Aspects and Integration Into Patient Care
  • Endomyocardial Biopsy
  • Adjunctive Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques
  • 20: Coronary Angiography and Intravascular Imaging
  • Indications for Coronary Angiography
  • Coronary Arteriography Technique
  • Angiographic Projections
  • Coronary Anatomy
  • Coronary Artery Anomalies
  • Pitfalls of Coronary Angiography
  • Angiogram Evaluation
  • Special Lesion Considerations
  • Fractional Flow Reserve
  • Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio
  • Coronary Intravascular Imaging
  • Indications for Coronary Angiography
  • Coronary Arteriography Technique
  • Coronary Artery Anomalies
  • Pitfalls of Coronary Angiography
  • Angiogram Evaluation
  • Special Lesion Considerations
  • Fractional Flow Reserve and Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio
  • Coronary Intravascular Imaging
  • Part IV: Heart Failure
  • 21: Approach to the Patient with Heart Failure
  • Definition and Epidemiology
  • The Medical History and Physical Examination
  • Routine Laboratory Assessment
  • Risk Scoring for Prognosis
  • Right-Heart Catheterization
  • Endomyocardial Biopsy
  • Detection of Comorbid Conditions
  • Assessment of Quality of Life
  • Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing
  • Imaging Modalities
  • Future Perspectives
  • Guidelines
  • 22: Mechanisms of Cardiac Contraction and Relaxation
  • Microanatomy of Contractile Cells and Proteins
  • Calcium Ion Fluxes in Cardiac Contraction-Relaxation Cycle
  • Sarcolemmal Control of Ca2+ and Na+
  • Adrenergic Signaling Systems
  • Cholinergic and Nitric Oxide Signaling
  • Contractile Performance of Intact Hearts
  • Future Perspectives
  • Microanatomy of Contractile Cells and Proteins
  • Calcium Fluxes in Cardiac Contraction-Relaxation Cycle
  • Sarcolemmal Control of Ca2+ and Na+
  • Adrenergic Signaling Systems
  • Cholinergic and Nitric Oxide Signaling
  • Contractile Performance of Intact Hearts
  • 23: Pathophysiology of Heart Failure
  • Overview
  • Pathogenesis
  • Heart Failure as a Progressive Model
  • Future Perspectives
  • Heart Failure as a Progressive Model: Neurohormonal Mechanisms
  • Heart Failure as a Progressive Model: Left Ventricular Remodeling
  • 24: Diagnosis and Management of Acute Heart Failure
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Evaluation of the Patient With Acute Heart Failure
  • Management of the Patient With Acute Heart Failure
  • Future Perspectives
  • Guidelines
  • 25: Management of Heart Failure Patients with Reduced Ejection Fraction
  • Etiology
  • Prognosis
  • Approach to the Patient
  • Management of Fluid Retention
  • Prevention of Disease Progression
  • Management of Patients Who Remain Symptomatic
  • Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
  • Management of Atherosclerotic Disease
  • Special Populations
  • Anticoagulation and Antiplatelet Therapy
  • Management of Cardiac Arrhythmias
  • Device Therapy
  • Sleep-Disordered Breathing
  • Disease Management Approach to Heart Failure
  • Patients With Refractory End-Stage Heart Failure (Stage D)
  • Future Perspectives
  • Guidelines
  • Etiology and Prognosis
  • Management of Patients With Heart Failure
  • Pharmacogenomics in Heart Failure
  • Digoxin
  • 26: Heart Failure with a Preserved Ejection Fraction
  • Overview
  • Terminology
  • Natural History
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Features
  • Therapy
  • Future Perspectives
  • Guidelines
  • 27: Devices for Monitoring and Managing Heart Failure
  • Ventricular Dyssynchrony: the Target of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy
  • Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure
  • Implantable Devices to Monitor Heart Failure
  • Conclusion
  • Guidelines
  • 28: Surgical Management of Heart Failure
  • Coronary Artery Revascularization
  • Valve Surgery in Patients With Left Ventricular Dysfunction
  • Left Ventricular Reconstruction
  • Cardiac Transplantation
  • Future Perspectives
  • Coronary Artery Revascularization
  • Valve Surgery in Patients with Left Ventricular Dysfunction
  • Left Ventricular Reconstruction
  • Cardiac Transplantation
  • Mitral Valve Repair for Mitral Regurgitation in Ischemic Cardiomyopathy
  • Passive Cardiac Support Devices
  • 29: Mechanical Circulatory Support
  • Indications and Device Selection
  • Design of Ventricular Assist Devices
  • Patient Selection, Comorbidity, and Timing of Intervention
  • Patient Outcomes
  • Interagency Registry of Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support
  • Future Perspectives
  • Indications and Device Selection
  • Design of Ventricular Assist Devices
  • Patient Selection, Comorbidity, and Timing of Intervention
  • Patient Outcomes
  • Interagency Registry of Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support
  • Future Perspectives
  • Engineering Designs of Ventricular Assist Devices (VADs)
  • Important Medical Conditions in Instituting Mechanical Circulatory Support (MCS)
  • Clinical Trials with the HeartMate II Device
  • 30: Cardiovascular Regeneration and Repair
  • Regeneration
  • Disease Modeling
  • Future Perspectives and Prospects for Cardiac Repair
  • Acknowledgments
  • Regeneration
  • Disease Modeling
  • Future Perspectives and Prospects for Cardiac Repair
  • 31: Management of Patients with Cardiovascular Disease Approaching End of Life
  • Integration of Palliative Care Into Cardiovascular Care
  • Having Difficult Conversations
  • Medical Decision Making Near the End of Life
  • Treatment of Symptoms Approaching End of Life
  • Psychosocial Support
  • The Site for the End of Life
  • Future Perspectives
  • Integration of Palliative Care into Cardiovascular Care
  • Having Difficult Conversations
  • Medical Decision Making Near the End of Life
  • Treatment of Symptoms Approaching End of Life
  • Psychosocial Support and the Site for the End of Life
  • Removing Therapies and Futility
  • Complex Treatment Decisions
  • Changing the Culture of Palliative Care
  • Part V: Arrhythmias, Sudden Death, and Syncope
  • 32: Approach to the Patient with Cardiac Arrhythmias
  • Signs and Symptoms
  • Physical Findings
  • Clinical and Laboratory Testing
  • Approach to Specific Symptoms/Conditions
  • 33: Genetics of Cardiac Arrhythmias
  • The QT-Opathies
  • The Other Channelopathies
  • Future Perspectives
  • Long-QT Syndrome
  • Triadin Knockout Syndrome
  • Andersen-Tawil Syndrome
  • Timothy Syndrome
  • Short-QT Syndrome
  • Drug-Induced Torsade de Pointes
  • Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia
  • Brugada Syndrome
  • Early Repolarization Syndrome
  • Idiopathic Ventricular Fibrillation
  • Progressive Cardiac Conduction Disease
  • Sick Sinus Syndrome
  • “Ankyrin-B Syndrome”
  • Familial Atrial Fibrillation
  • Future Perspectives
  • 34: Mechanisms of Cardiac Arrhythmias
  • Foundations of Cardiac Electrophysiology
  • Structure and Function of the Cardiac Electrical Network
  • Mechanisms of Arrhythmogenesis
  • Physiology of Ion Channels
  • Phases of the Cardiac Action Potential
  • Molecular Structure of Ion Channels
  • Gap Junction Channels and Intercalated Discs
  • Structure and Function of the Cardiac Electrical Network
  • Disorders of Impulse Formation
  • Disorders of Impulse Conduction
  • 35: Diagnosis of Cardiac Arrhythmias
  • Patient History
  • Physical Examination
  • Electrocardiogram
  • Additional Tests
  • Invasive Electrophysiologic Studies
  • Guidelines
  • 36: Therapy for Cardiac Arrhythmias
  • Pharmacologic Therapy
  • Electrotherapy for Cardiac Arrhythmias
  • Surgical Therapy for Tachyarrhythmias
  • Pharmacologic Therapy
  • Electrotherapy for Cardiac Arrhythmias
  • 37: Supraventricular Arrhythmias
  • Normal Sinus Rhythm
  • Tachyarrhythmias
  • Supraventricular Tachycardias
  • 38: Atrial Fibrillation: Clinical Features, Mechanisms, and Management
  • Electrocardiographic Features
  • Classification of Atrial Fibrillation
  • Epidemiology of Atrial Fibrillation
  • Mechanisms of Atrial Fibrillation
  • Genetic Factors
  • Causes of Atrial Fibrillation
  • Clinical Features
  • Diagnostic Evaluation
  • Prevention of Thromboembolic Complications
  • Acute Management of Atrial Fibrillation
  • Long-Term Management of Atrial Fibrillation
  • Nonpharmacologic Management of Atrial Fibrillation
  • Specific Clinical Syndromes
  • Future Perspectives
  • Guidelines
  • 39: Ventricular Arrhythmias
  • Premature Ventricular Complexes
  • Ventricular Tachycardia
  • Ventricular Flutter and Fibrillation
  • Premature Ventricular Complexes
  • Ventricular Tachycardia
  • Ventricular Arrhythmias in Patients with Cardiomyopathies
  • Inherited Arrhythmia Syndromes
  • J Wave Syndromes
  • Idiopathic Ventricular Tachycardias
  • 40: Bradyarrhythmias and Atrioventricular Block
  • Bradyarrhythmias
  • Atrioventricular Block (Heart Block)
  • Atrioventricular Dissociation
  • Atrioventricular Dissociation
  • 41: Pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators
  • Pacemakers
  • Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators
  • Complications
  • Follow-Up
  • Guidelines
  • 42: Cardiac Arrest and Sudden Cardiac Death
  • Perspective
  • Definitions
  • Epidemiology
  • Causes of Sudden Cardiac Death
  • Clinical Features of Patients With Cardiac Arrest
  • Management of Cardiac Arrest
  • Prevention of Cardiac Arrest and Sudden Cardiac Death
  • Sudden Death and Public Safety
  • Perspective
  • Definitions
  • Epidemiology
  • Causes of Sudden Cardiac Death
  • Pathology and Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Features of the Patient with Cardiac Arrest
  • Management of Cardiac Arrest
  • Prevention of Cardiac Arrest and Sudden Cardiac Death
  • Sudden Death and Public Safety
  • 43: Hypotension and Syncope
  • Definition
  • Classification
  • Vascular Causes of Syncope
  • Cardiac Causes of Syncope
  • Neurologic Causes of Transient Loss of Consciousness
  • Metabolic Causes of Transient Loss of Consciousness
  • Diagnostic Tests
  • Approach to the Evaluation of Patients With Syncope
  • Management of Patients With Syncope
  • Future Perspectives
  • Part VI: Preventive Cardiology
  • 44: The Vascular Biology of Atherosclerosis
  • Overview and Background
  • Structure of the Normal Artery
  • Atherosclerosis Initiation
  • Evolution of Atheroma
  • Complication of Atherosclerosis
  • Special Cases of Arteriosclerosis
  • Overview and Background
  • Structure of the Normal Artery
  • Atherosclerosis Initiation
  • Evolution of Atheroma
  • Complications of Atherosclerosis
  • Special Cases of Arteriosclerosis
  • 45: Risk Markers and the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease
  • Rethinking Core Approaches to Primary Prevention
  • What Works and in Whom? A Simple Evidence-Based Alternative to the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease
  • Merging Epidemiology and Randomized Trial Evidence_ Why Measure Risk Factors?
  • Conventional Risk Markers and Associated Interventions
  • Nonconventional Risk Markers and Associated Interventions
  • Environmental Exposures and Associated Interventions
  • Core Approaches to Primary Prevention
  • Smoking
  • Hypertension
  • Lipid Disorders
  • Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome
  • Aspirin in Primary Prevention
  • The “Polypill” Concept
  • Emerging Risk Factors
  • Physical Activity
  • Obesity and Weight Loss
  • Diet, Dietary Supplements, and Alcohol
  • Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy
  • Community-Based and Multiple–Risk Factor Interventions
  • 46: Systemic Hypertension: Mechanisms and Diagnosis
  • Overview of Hypertension
  • Mechanisms of Primary (Essential) Hypertension
  • Initial Evaluation of the Hypertensive Patient
  • Adrenal and Other Causes of Hypertension
  • Other Causes of Hypertension
  • Future Perspectives
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Neural Mechanisms
  • Dietary and Renal Mechanisms
  • Diagnosis and Evaluation
  • 47: Systemic Hypertension: Management
  • Lifestyle Modification
  • Antihypertensive Drugs
  • Percutaneous Interventions for Management of Blood Pressure
  • Evidence-Based Approach to Hypertension Management
  • Special Considerations in Management
  • Management of Hypertensive Crises
  • Practical Clinical Approach to Evaluation and Management of Ambulatory Hypertensive Patients
  • Future Perspectives
  • Acknowledgment
  • Guidelines
  • Overview of Hypertension Management
  • Lifestyle Modification
  • Antihypertensive Drugs
  • Investigational Percutaneous Intervention
  • Evidence-Based Approach to Hypertension Management
  • Special Considerations in Management
  • Management of Hypertensive Crises
  • Practical Clinical Approach to Ambulatory Hypertensive Patients
  • 48: Lipoprotein Disorders and Cardiovascular Disease
  • Lipoprotein Disorders
  • Pharmacologic Management of Lipid Risk (Tables 48.8 and 48.9)46,47
  • Clinical Approach to Treatment of Lipoprotein Disorders
  • Future Perspectives
  • Guidelines
  • 49: Nutrition and Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases
  • Foods
  • Beverages
  • Macronutrients
  • Micronutrients
  • Energy Balance
  • Dietary Patterns
  • Changing Behavior
  • Foods and Cardiovascular Risk
  • Health Effects of Food Additives or Contaminants
  • Food Groups and Cardiometabolic Risk
  • Beverages and Cardiometabolic Diseases
  • Diet and Cardiometabolic Risk
  • Sodium and Potassium Consumption and Cardiovascular Disease
  • Vitamins and Minerals and Cardiovascular Health
  • Diet and Obesity
  • Intervention Strategies
  • 50: Obesity and Cardiometabolic Disease
  • Epidemiology
  • Visceral Obesity
  • Clinical Management
  • Severe Obesity and Bariatric Surgery
  • Summary and Perspectives
  • Epidemiology
  • Visceral Obesity
  • Clinical Management
  • Severe Obesity and Bariatric Surgery
  • Summary and Perspectives
  • 51: Diabetes and the Cardiovascular System
  • Scope of the Problem
  • Coronary Heart Disease in the Patient With Diabetes
  • Heart Failure in the Patient With Diabetes
  • Summary and Future Perspectives
  • Guidelines
  • 52: Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease
  • Composition of Air Pollution
  • Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Mortality
  • Cardiovascular Effects of Air Pollution
  • Pathophysiology
  • Occupational Exposures
  • Management and Intervention
  • 53: Exercise and Sports Cardiology
  • Historical Perspective
  • Cardiovascular Response to Exercise and Exercise Training
  • Effects of Habitual Physical Activity on Cardiovascular Risk
  • Cardiovascular Risks of Exercise
  • Approach to Common Clinical Problems in Sports Cardiology
  • Determining Athletic Eligibility
  • Emerging Issues in the Cardiac Care of Athletes
  • Conclusion
  • Historical Perspective
  • Cardiovascular Response to Exercise and Exercise Training
  • Effects of Habitual Physical Activity on Cardiovascular Risk
  • Cardiovascular Risks of Exercise
  • Abnormalities Found on Screening
  • Cardiovascular Complaints in Athletes
  • Determining Athletic Eligibility
  • Emerging Issues in the Cardiac Care of Athletes
  • 54: Exercise-Based, Comprehensive Cardiac Rehabilitation
  • Historical Perspective
  • Basic Principles of Exercise Physiology and Training
  • Effects of Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Training on Morbidity and Mortality
  • Practical Aspects of Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs
  • Other Components of Comprehensive Cardiac Rehabilitation
  • Insurance Coverage
  • Current Challenges
  • Future Perspectives
  • 55: Integrative Approaches to the Management of Patients with Heart Disease
  • Integrative Cardiology
  • Integrative Strategies for Specific Cardiac Conditions
  • Conclusion
  • Integrative Cardiology
  • Ischemic Heart Disease
  • Hypertension
  • Dyslipidemia
  • Congestive Heart Failure
  • Arrhythmias
  • Part VII: Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease
  • 56: Approach to the Patient with Chest Pain
  • Causes of Acute Chest Pain
  • Diagnostic Considerations
  • Immediate Management
  • Emergency Triage
  • Causes of Acute Chest Pain
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Biomarkers in Evaluation of Chest Discomfort
  • Decision Aids
  • Immediate Management
  • 57: Coronary Blood Flow and Myocardial Ischemia
  • Control of Coronary Blood Flow
  • Physiologic Assessment of Coronary Artery Stenoses
  • Coronary Collateral Circulation
  • Metabolic and Functional Consequences of Ischemia
  • Future Perspectives
  • Control of Coronary Blood Flow
  • Physiologic Assessment of Coronary Artery Stenosis
  • Coronary Collateral Circulation
  • Metabolic and Functional Consequences of Ischemia
  • 58: ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Pathophysiology and Clinical Evolution
  • Changing Patterns in Incidence and Care
  • Improvements in Outcome
  • Pathologic Findings
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Features
  • Future Perspectives
  • Changing Patterns in Incidence and Care
  • Improvements in Outcomes
  • Limitations of Current Therapy
  • Pathologic Findings
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Features
  • Laboratory Findings
  • 59: ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Management
  • Prehospital Management
  • Management in the Emergency Department
  • Reperfusion Therapy
  • Hospital Management
  • Hemodynamic Disturbances
  • Arrhythmias
  • Other Complications
  • Convalescence, Discharge, and Post–Myocardial Infarction Care
  • Future Perspectives and Emerging Therapies
  • Acknowledgment
  • Guidelines
  • 60: Non–ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Assessment
  • Management
  • Subgroups of Special Interest
  • Future Perspectives
  • Guidelines
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Assessment
  • Laboratory Testing: Biomarkers
  • Noninvasive and Invasive Testing
  • Risk Assessment
  • Management
  • Lipid-Lowering Therapy
  • Subgroups of Special Interest
  • Emerging Therapies
  • 61: Stable Ischemic Heart Disease
  • Magnitude of the Problem
  • Stable Angina Pectoris
  • Evaluation and Management
  • Other Manifestations of Coronary Artery Disease
  • Future Perspectives
  • Guidelines
  • Stable Coronary Artery Disease
  • Biochemical Tests
  • Noninvasive Tests
  • Catheterization, Angiography, and Coronary Arteriography
  • Natural History and Risk Stratification
  • Medical Management
  • Pharmacologic Management of Angina
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
  • Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting
  • Comparisons Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention and Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery
  • Other Manifestations of Coronary Artery Disease
  • 62: Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
  • Indications
  • Vascular Access
  • Coronary Devices
  • Antiplatelet Agents
  • Antithrombin Agents
  • Outcomes After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
  • Future Perspectives
  • Acknowledgment
  • Guidelines
  • 63: Diseases of the Aorta
  • The Normal Aorta
  • Aortic Aneurysms
  • Aortic Dissection
  • Aortic Dissection Variants
  • Aortoarteritis Syndromes
  • Primary Tumors of the Aorta
  • Future Perspectives
  • Guidelines
  • 64: Peripheral Artery Diseases
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Features
  • Testing for Peripheral Artery Disease
  • Prognosis
  • Treatment
  • Treatment of Symptoms and Prevention of Limb Vascular Events
  • Vasculitis
  • Thromboangiitis Obliterans
  • Takayasu Arteritis and Giant Cell Arteritis
  • Fibromuscular Dysplasia
  • Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome
  • Acute Limb Ischemia
  • Atheroembolism
  • Guidelines
  • 65: Prevention and Management of Ischemic Stroke
  • Medical Therapy for Prevention of Stroke
  • Management of Acute Ischemic Stroke
  • Future Perspectives
  • 66: Treatment of Noncoronary Obstructive Vascular Disease
  • Approach to the Patient With Peripheral Artery Disease
  • Endovascular Technologies
  • Planning an Intervention
  • Endovascular Treatment of Arterial Disease
  • Endovascular Treatment of Venous Disease
  • Future Perspectives
  • Approach to the Patient with Peripheral Artery Disease
  • Endovascular Technologies
  • Planning an Intervention
  • Endovascular Treatment of Arterial Disease
  • Endovascular Treatment of Venous Disease
  • Part VIII: Diseases of the Heart Valves
  • 67: Approach to the Patient with Valvular Heart Disease
  • The Heart Valve Clinic
  • Physical Examination
  • Diagnostic Testing
  • 68: Aortic Valve Disease
  • Aortic Stenosis
  • Aortic Regurgitation
  • Bicuspid Aortic Valve Disease
  • Aortic Stenosis: Epidemiology and Pathology
  • Aortic Stenosis: Pathophysiology
  • Aortic Stenosis: Clinical Presentation and Diagnostic Testing
  • Aortic Stenosis: Disease Course
  • Aortic Stenosis: Treatment
  • Aortic Regurgitation: Causes, Pathophysiology, and Diagnosis
  • Aortic Regurgitation: Disease Course and Treatment
  • Bicuspid Aortic Valve Disease
  • 69: Mitral Valve Disease
  • Mitral Stenosis
  • Mitral Regurgitation
  • Mitral Stenosis
  • Mitral Regurgitation: Causes and Pathology
  • Chronic Primary Mitral Regurgitation
  • Chronic Secondary Mitral Regurgitation
  • Acute Mitral Regurgitation
  • 70: Tricuspid, Pulmonic, and Multivalvular Disease
  • Tricuspid Stenosis
  • Tricuspid Regurgitation
  • Pulmonic Stenosis
  • Pulmonic Regurgitation
  • Multivalvular Disease
  • Tricuspid Stenosis
  • Tricuspid Regurgitation
  • Pulmonic Stenosis and Pulmonic Regurgitation
  • Multivalvular Disease
  • 71: Prosthetic Heart Valves
  • Types of Prosthetic Heart Valves
  • Choice of Valve Replacement Procedure and Prosthesis
  • Medical Management and Surveillance After Valve Replacement
  • Evaluation and Treatment of Prosthetic Valve Dysfunction and Complications
  • 72: Transcatheter Therapies for Valvular Heart Disease
  • Aortic Stenosis (See Chapter 68)
  • Mitral Stenosis (See Chapter 69)
  • Mitral Regurgitation
  • Tricuspid Regurgitation
  • Conclusion
  • Guidelines
  • 73: Cardiovascular Infections
  • Infective Endocarditis
  • Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device Infections
  • Guidelines
  • 74: Rheumatic Fever
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Features
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Future Perspectives
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Features
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Prevention
  • Future Perspectives
  • Part IX: Diseases of the Myocardium, Pericardium, and Pulmonary Vasculature Bed
  • 75: Congenital Heart Disease in the Adult and Pediatric Patient
  • General Considerations
  • Anatomy
  • Pathologic Consequences of Congenital Cardiac Lesions
  • Evaluation of the Patient With Congenital Heart Disease
  • Specific Cardiac Defects
  • Cyanosis
  • Pulmonry Hypertension
  • Evaluation of Patients With Congenital Heart Disease
  • Left-to-Right Shunts
  • Cyanotic Heart Disease
  • Other
  • 76: Catheter-Based Treatment of Congenital Heart Disease in Adults
  • Valvular Interventions
  • Arterial Interventions
  • Septal Interventions
  • Future Perspectives
  • Acknowledgment
  • Valvular Interventions
  • Arterial Interventions
  • Septal Interventions
  • 77: The Dilated, Restrictive, and Infiltrative Cardiomyopathies
  • The Dilated Cardiomyopathies
  • Restrictive and Infiltrative Cardiomyopathies
  • Future Perspectives
  • The Dilated Cardiomyopathies
  • Restrictive and Infiltrative Cardiomyopathies
  • 78: Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
  • Definition, Prevalence, and Nomenclature
  • Morphologic Findings and the Role of Cardiac Imaging
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Features
  • Clinical Course
  • Management
  • Athlete's Heart
  • Future Perspectives
  • Definition, Prevalence, and Nomenclature
  • Gender, Race, and Genetic Basis and Testing
  • Morphologic Findings and the Role of Cardiac Imaging
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Features, Family Screening Strategies, and Clinical Course
  • Management
  • Athlete's Heart and Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
  • 79: Myocarditis
  • Overview and Definition
  • Epidemiology
  • Specific Etiologic Agents
  • Additional Physical Agents That Cause Myocarditis
  • Pathogenesis
  • Micro RNAs in Myocarditis
  • The Role of Innate Immunity in Myocarditis
  • Clinical Syndromes
  • Specific Clinical Presentations of Myocarditis
  • Diagnostic Approaches
  • Prognosis
  • Treatment
  • Future Perspectives
  • Overview and Definition
  • Epidemiology
  • Specific Etiologic Agents
  • Pathogenesis
  • Clinical Syndromes
  • Diagnostic Approaches
  • Prognosis and Treatment
  • 80: Cardiomyopathies Induced by Drugs or Toxins
  • Ethanol
  • Cocaine
  • Amphetamines
  • Cathinones
  • Synthetic Cannabinoids
  • Ma Huang (Ephedra)
  • Catecholamines and Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists
  • Inhalants
  • Antiretroviral Agents
  • Serotonin Agonists
  • Chemotherapeutic Agents
  • Environmental Exposures
  • Future Directions
  • Alcohol
  • Cocaine
  • Amphetamines
  • Cathinones
  • Synthetic Cannabinoids, Antiretroviral Agents, and Serotonin Antagonists
  • Environmental Exposure
  • 81: Cardio-Oncology
  • Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Pathophysiology of Cancer Therapy Cardiotoxicity
  • Targeted Therapies
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Cardiovascular Care of the Cancer Patient
  • Future Perspectives
  • Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Pathophysiology
  • Targeted Therapies
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Cardiovascular Care of the Cancer Patient
  • Sunitinib Cardiotoxicity
  • Care of Cancer Survivors
  • 82: Cardiovascular Abnormalities in HIV-Infected Individuals
  • Cardiovascular Risk Factors in HIV Patients
  • Atherosclerosis in HIV Patients
  • Coronary Disease in HIV Patients
  • Screening for Coronary Risk Factors in HIV Patients
  • Other Cardiovascular Conditions in HIV Patients
  • Future Perspectives
  • Cardiovascular Risk Factors in HIV Patients
  • Atherosclerosis in HIV Patients
  • Coronary Disease in HIV Patients
  • Other Cardiovascular Conditions in HIV Patients
  • 83: Pericardial Diseases
  • Anatomy and Physiology of the Pericardium
  • Acute Pericarditis
  • Pericardial Effusion and Cardiac Tamponade
  • Constrictive Pericarditis
  • Effusive-Constrictive Pericarditis
  • Specific Etiologies of Pericardial Disease
  • Introduction
  • Acute Pericarditis
  • Pericardial Effusion and Cardiac Tamponade
  • Constrictive Pericarditis
  • Specific Etiologies of Pericardial Disease
  • 84: Pulmonary Embolism
  • State-of-the-Art Findings in Pulmonary Embolism
  • Molecular Pathophysiology
  • Cardiopulmonary Dynamics
  • Classification of Pulmonary Embolism
  • Classification of Deep Vein Thrombosis
  • Epidemiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Anticoagulation Therapy for Acute Pulmonary Embolism
  • Optimal Duration of Anticoagulation Therapy and Selection of an Optimal Anticoagulant
  • Advanced Therapy (in Addition to Anticoagulation) for Acute Pulmonary Embolism
  • Prevention
  • Future Perspectives
  • State-of-the-Art Findings in Pulmonary Embolism
  • Classification of Pulmonary Embolism
  • Epidemiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Anticoagulation Therapy
  • Advanced Therapy
  • Prevention
  • 85: Pulmonary Hypertension
  • Definition
  • Genetics
  • Hemodynamics
  • Classification of Pulmonary Hypertension
  • Pulmonary Hypertension Registries
  • Future Perspectives
  • Acknowledgments
  • Collaborative Care of the Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Patient
  • Targeted Medical Therapy After Pulmonary Endarterectomy
  • Systemic Disorders Causing Type 5 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
  • 86: Chronic Lung Diseases and Cardiovascular Disease
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
  • Interstitial Lung Disease
  • Bronchial Asthma
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Lung Transplantation
  • Future Perspectives
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
  • Interstitial Lung Disease
  • Bronchial Asthma
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Lung Transplantation
  • 87: Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Cardiac Disease
  • Definitions
  • Pathophysiology
  • Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Hypertension
  • Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Coronary Heart Disease
  • Sleep-Disordered Breathing, Cardiac Function, and Heart Failure
  • Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Cardiac Arrhythmias
  • Future Perspectives
  • Overview of Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Cardiovascular Disease
  • Part X: Cardiovascular Disease in Special Populations
  • 88: Cardiovascular Disease in the Elderly
  • What Is Aging?
  • Age-Associated Changes in Cardiovascular Structure and Function
  • Geriatric Domains Pertinent to Cardiovascular CARE
  • Aging and Specific Cardiovascular Conditions
  • Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Older Persons
  • Noncardiac Surgery and Perioperative Management Considerations in Older Adults
  • Distinctive Precepts of Patient-Centered CARE in Relation to Old Age
  • Geroscience_ Stopping the Aging Clock
  • 89: Cardiovascular Disease in Women
  • Sex, Gender, and Genetic Differences in Cardiovascular Disease
  • Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Women (See alsoChapter 45)
  • Assessment of Risks for Cardiovascular Disease in Women (See alsoChapter 45)
  • Specific Cardiovascular Diseases in Women
  • Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Women (See also Part VI)
  • Acknowledgments
  • 90: Pregnancy and Heart Disease
  • Hemodynamic Changes of Pregnancy
  • Preconception Counseling
  • Evaluation and Testing During Pregnancy
  • General Management Principles During Pregnancy
  • Specific Cardiac Conditions in Pregnancy
  • Contraception
  • Future Perspectives
  • Guidelines
  • 91: Cardiovascular Disease in Heterogeneous Populations
  • Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Disease in Heterogeneous Populations
  • Cardiovascular Disease Management
  • Potential for Emerging Scientific Research to Address Group Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease
  • Acknowledgments
  • Racial and Ethnic Disparities
  • Hypertension
  • Diabetes
  • Various Population Groups
  • Hypertension Managment
  • Coronary Heart Disease Management
  • Severity of Heart Failure
  • Reimagining Challenges
  • Part XI: Cardiovascular Disease and Disorders of other Organs
  • 92: Endocrine Disorders and Cardiovascular Disease
  • Pituitary Hormones and Cardiovascular Disease
  • Adrenal Hormones and Cardiovascular Disease
  • Parathyroid Hormones and Cardiovascular Disease
  • Thyroid Hormones and Cardiovascular Disease
  • Future Perspectives
  • Pituitary Function and Cardiovascular Disease
  • Adrenal Function and Cardiovascular Disease
  • Pheochromocytoma
  • Parathyroid Function, Calcium Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Disease
  • Thyroid Involvement in Cardiovascular Disease
  • 93: Hemostasis, Thrombosis, Fibrinolysis, and Cardiovascular Disease
  • Hemostatic System
  • Thrombosis
  • Treatment of Thrombosis
  • Future Perspectives
  • Basic Mechanisms of Thrombosis and Hemostasis
  • Antiplatelet Agents
  • Anticoagulants
  • 94: Rheumatic Diseases and the Cardiovascular System
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Vasculitides
  • Pericarditis and Myocarditis
  • Valvular Heart Disease
  • Cardiac Conduction Disturbances
  • Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
  • Thrombosis in Rheumatic Diseases
  • Antirheumatic Drugs and Cardiovascular Disease
  • Future Perspectives
  • 95: Tumors Affecting the Cardiovascular System
  • Clinical Manifestations of Cardiac Tumors
  • Benign Primary Cardiac Tumors
  • Malignant Primary Cardiac Tumors
  • Secondary Cardiac Tumors
  • Direct and Indirect Complications of Neoplasia
  • Future Perspectives
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Benign Primary Cardiac Tumors
  • Malignant Primary Cardiac Tumors
  • Secondary Cardiac Tumors
  • Direct and Indirect Complications of Neoplasia
  • 96: Psychiatric and Behavioral Aspects of Cardiovascular Disease
  • Acute Stress
  • Chronic Stress
  • Mental Health and Psychiatric Disorders
  • Personality Traits
  • Evaluation and Management of Mental Health in the Cardiac Patient (See AlsoChapter 58)
  • Acute Stress
  • Chronic Stress
  • Mental Health and Psychiatric Diagnoses
  • Personality Traits
  • Evaluation and Management of Mental Health in the Cardiac Patient
  • 97: Neurologic Disorders and Cardiovascular Disease
  • The Muscular Dystrophies
  • Friedreich Ataxia
  • Less Common Neuromuscular Diseases Associated With Cardiac Manifestations
  • Epilepsy
  • Acute Cerebrovascular Disease
  • Future Perspectives
  • The Muscular Dystrophies and Friedreich Ataxia
  • Less Common Neuromuscular Diseases Associated with Cardiac Manifestations
  • Epilepsy
  • Acute Cerebrovascular Disease
  • 98: Interface Between Renal Disease and Cardiovascular Illness
  • The Cardiorenal Intersection
  • Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury
  • Cardiac Surgery and Acute Kidney Injury
  • Acceleration of Vascular Calcification
  • Renal Disease and Hypertension
  • Diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Cardiorenal Syndromes
  • Chronic Kidney Disease and Valvular Heart Disease
  • Renal Function and Arrhythmias
  • Consultative Approach to Severe Kidney Disease and Hemodialysis Patients
  • Evaluation and Management of the Renal Transplant Recipient
  • Future Perspectives
  • 99: Cardiovascular Manifestations of Autonomic Disorders
  • Overview of Autonomic Circulatory Control
  • Autonomic Testing
  • Autonomic Disorders
  • Disorders of Increased Sympathetic Outflow
  • Future Perspectives
  • Acknowledgments
  • Disclosure Index
  • Relationship Codes
  • Institution and Company Codes
  • Contributors
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 2128
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2018
  • Published: January 9, 2018
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323555937
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323462990
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323463423

About the Authors

Peter Libby

Peter Libby, MD, will assume the role of lead editor on the 12th edition. Dr Libby previously edited the 8th edition. He is Senior Advisor at the Center for Interdisciplinary Cardiovascular Sciences and Mallinckrodt Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School. He is also Senior Physician at Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. He is a world-renowned leader in cardiology

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Advisor, Center for Interdisciplinary Cardiovascular Sciences, Mallinckrodt Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Senior Physician, Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts

Douglas Zipes

Affiliations and Expertise

Distinguished Professor, Division of Cardiology and the Krannert Institute of Cardiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana

About the Editors

Robert Bonow

Affiliations and Expertise

Goldberg Distinguished Professor of Cardiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois

Douglas Mann

Affiliations and Expertise

Lewin Chair and Professor of Medicine and Professor of Cell Biology and Physiology at Washington University in St Louis, Missouri

Gordon Tomaselli

Affiliations and Expertise

Executive Vice President; Chief Academic Officer; Dean Montefiore Medicine; Professor, Department of Medicine Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York

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