Brain Mapping - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123970251, 9780123973160

Brain Mapping

1st Edition

An Encyclopedic Reference

Editor-in-Chiefs: Arthur W. Toga
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123970251
eBook ISBN: 9780123973160
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 27th February 2015
Page Count: 2658
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Description

Brain Mapping: A Comprehensive Reference offers foundational information for students and researchers across neuroscience. With over 300 articles and a media rich environment, this resource provides exhaustive coverage of the methods and systems involved in brain mapping, fully links the data to disease (presenting side by side maps of healthy and diseased brains for direct comparisons), and offers data sets and fully annotated color images. Each entry is built on a layered approach of the content – basic information for those new to the area and more detailed material for experienced readers. Edited and authored by the leading experts in the field, this work offers the most reputable, easily searchable content with cross referencing across articles, a one-stop reference for students, researchers and teaching faculty.

Key Features

  • Broad overview of neuroimaging concepts with applications across the neurosciences and biomedical research
  • Fully annotated color images and videos for best comprehension of concepts
  • Layered content for readers of different levels of expertise
  • Easily searchable entries for quick access of reputable information
  • Live reference links to ScienceDirect, Scopus and PubMed

Readership

students and experienced researchers

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Editor-in-Chief
  • Section Editors
  • Permission Acknowledgments
  • Volume 1: Acquisition Methods, Methods and Modeling
    • Acquisition Methods
      • Introduction to Acquisition Methods
      • Anatomical MRI for Human Brain Morphometry
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Signal, Noise, and Contrast
        • Practical Sequences for Brain Morphometry
        • Multiecho BW-Matched Imaging
        • Getting to High Resolution
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Obtaining Quantitative Information from fMRI
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • BOLD Contrast
        • Quantitative fMRI Methods
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Contrast Agents in Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Intrinsic Contrast Agents in fMRI
        • Exogenous Contrast Agents in fMRI
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Diffusion MRI
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Introduction
        • Water Diffusion as a Probe of Microstructure
        • Sensitivity of MRI to Water Diffusion Using Pulsed Gradients
        • DW Pulse Sequences
        • DW Encoding
        • Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Mapping
        • Diffusion Tensor Imaging
        • Beyond the DTI Model
        • High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging
        • Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging
        • Q-Space Imaging: DSI and HYDI
        • Model-Based Diffusion Imaging: CHARMED, NODDI, and DBSI
        • Diffusion Time for Probing Restricted Diffusion
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Echo-Planar Imaging
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Historical Development of Echo-Planar Imaging
        • Pulse Sequences
        • EPI Limitations and Caveats
        • Quality Assurance and Temporal Stability
        • Accelerated EPI
        • Appendix
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
      • Basic Principles of Electroencephalography
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Surface (Scalp) EEG
        • Intracranial EEG
        • Quantitative Approaches to EEG
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Functional MRI Dynamics
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Initial Dip
        • Poststimulus Undershoot
        • Other Transients: Onset and Offset Responses and Initial Overshoot and Negative BOLD Signal
        • Summary and Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Evolution of Instrumentation for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Magnetic Field Strength
        • Gradients
        • Receive Coil Arrays
        • Peripheral Hardware
        • Shimming
        • Real-Time fMRI
        • Multimodal Functional Imaging
        • Future Developments
        • See also
        • Bibliography
        • Glossary
      • High-Field Acquisition
        • Abstract
        • Historical Roots
        • Arguments for HF Acquisition of BOLD
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
        • Glossary
      • High-Speed, High-Resolution Acquisitions
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Detecting BOLD Signal Changes
        • Instrumental Spatial Resolution in fMRI
        • Instrumental Temporal Resolution in fMRI
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Basic Principles of Magnetoencephalography
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • From Neuronal Currents to MEG Signals
        • MEG Instrumentation and Noise Rejection
        • Finding the Sources
        • Four Decades of MEG Research
        • Future Prospects
        • See also
        • References
      • Molecular fMRI
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • MRI Contrast Agents
        • T1 and T2 fMRI Probes
        • CEST Agents
        • Heteronuclear Probes
        • Challenges for Molecular fMRI of the Brain
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Pulse Sequence Dependence of the fMRI Signal
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviation
        • Introduction
        • BOLD fMRI Sequences
        • CBV-Weighted fMRI Sequences
        • CBF-Weighted fMRI Sequences
        • More Exotic fMRI Methods
        • See also
        • References
      • Myelin Imaging
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Process of Myelination
        • Effects of Myelination
        • Myelin Mapping Using MRI
        • Applications of Myelin Mapping
        • Discussion and Summary
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Hemodynamic Response Function
        • Instrumentation
        • Array Design
        • Applications
        • Multimodal Applications
        • See also
        • References
      • Perfusion Imaging with Arterial Spin Labeling MRI
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Cerebral Blood Flow
        • ASL Methods
        • Perfusion Quantification
        • Signal-to-Noise Ratio
        • Image Acquisition
        • Mapping of Vascular Territories
        • Use of ASL for Functional Imaging
        • Processing of Functional ASL Data
        • Temporal Resolution and Insensitivity to Low-Frequency Drifts
        • Spatial Localization and Relation to Neural Activity
        • Simultaneous Estimates of CBF and BOLD
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Positron Emission Tomography and Neuroreceptor Mapping In Vivo
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Data Acquisition
        • Imaging Applications
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging and Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Predicting Magnetic Field from a Susceptibility Map
        • Phase as a Function of Local Field and Echo Time
        • Creating a Susceptibility Map
        • Phase Reconstruction, Phase Unwrapping, and Removal of Background Fields
        • Validation of QSM and Complexity of Tissue Susceptibility
        • Sources of Noise
        • Interpretation of the Results in Terms of Absolute Iron Content
        • Clinical Examples
        • Conclusions and Future Applications
        • See also
        • References
      • Temporal Resolution and Spatial Resolution of fMRI
        • Abstract
        • Nomenclature
        • Introduction
        • Spatial Limits
        • Temporal Limits
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Bibliography
        • Glossary
      • MRI and fMRI Optimizations and Applications
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Advances in Morphometry (Structural Imaging)
        • Microstructural Imaging (Diffusion Imaging)
        • Functional Imaging (fMRI)
        • Other Measures of Brain Activity
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
        • Abbreviations
      • fMRI at High Magnetic Field: Spatial Resolution Limits and Applications
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • High-Field High-Resolution fMRI to Map the Human Brain
        • Technical Challenges of Higher-Resolution fMRI
        • The Extension of High-Specificity Submillimeter fMRI to Larger FOVs and beyond V1
        • Cortical Depth-Dependent Spatial Specificity of fMRI Signals
        • Future Avenues for High-Resolution fMRI
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
    • Methods and Modeling
      • Introduction to Methods and Modeling
      • Computerized Tomography Reconstruction Methods
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Data Collection and Preprocessing
        • Reconstruction Algorithms
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Website
      • Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Dynamic PET
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Data Preprocessing
        • PET Pharmacokinetic Models
        • Parameter Estimation Methods
        • Study-Level Analyses
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Optical Image Reconstruction
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Forward Problem: Approximating J
        • The Inverse Problem: Inverting J
        • Dynamic Imaging
        • See also
        • References
      • Image Reconstruction in MRI
        • Abstract
        • Nomenclature
        • Acknowledgments
        • Imaging Equation
        • Basic Reconstruction Methods
        • Constrained Reconstruction
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Glossary
      • Artifacts in Functional MRI and How to Mitigate Them
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgment
        • Introduction
        • Subject Motion and Realignment
        • Slice Timing Errors: Interpolation or Remodeling
        • Image Distortion
        • Noise
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Diffusion Tensor Imaging
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Anisotropic Diffusion and the Diffusion Tensor Model
        • Estimation of the Diffusion Tensor
        • Properties of the Diffusion Tensor
        • Strategies for Optimal DTI Acquisitions
        • Applications of DTI
        • See also
        • References
      • Probability Distribution Functions in Diffusion MRI
        • Abstract
        • The Diffusion Propagator
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Q-Space Modeling in Diffusion-Weighted MRI
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Diffusion Spectrum Imaging
        • Multishell Sampling
        • Compressed Sensing
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Fiber Tracking with DWI
        • Abstract
        • How Does Fiber Tracking Work?
        • Challenges in Fiber Tracking
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Abbreviations
      • Tract Clustering, Labeling, and Quantitative Analysis
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Acknowledgment
        • Introduction
        • Challenges in Clustering and Labeling of Fiber Trajectories
        • Clustering Methods for Fiber Trajectories
        • Tract Labeling and Integration of Anatomical Knowledge
        • Quantitative Analysis
        • See also
        • References
      • Tissue Microstructure Imaging with Diffusion MRI
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Brain Tissue Microstructure
        • Microstructure Imaging Techniques
        • Perspectives
        • See also
        • References
      • Tissue Properties from Quantitative MRI
        • Abstract
        • Nomenclature
        • Principle of qMRI
        • Dynamic Field Effects: Relaxation
        • Static Field Effects: Magnetic Susceptibility
        • Diffusion-Weighted Imaging
        • Perfusion Imaging with Contrast Agents
        • Mobile Proteins and pH
        • Summary and Outlook
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Intensity Nonuniformity Correction
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Sources of Intensity Nonuniformity
        • Intensity Nonuniformity Correction Methods
        • Conclusions and Future Directions
        • See also
        • References
      • Rigid-Body Registration
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Rigid-Body and Other Affine Transformations
        • How to Find the Best Transformation?
        • Software and Evaluations
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Nonlinear Registration Via Displacement Fields
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Data Model
        • Distance Measures
        • Regularization
        • Constrained Image Registration
        • Conclusions
        • References
      • Diffeomorphic Image Registration
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Small Displacement Approximation
        • ‘Viscous Fluid’ Methods
        • Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping
        • Geodesic Shooting
        • Outlook
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Lesion Segmentation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Expert and Interactive Segmentation
        • Variability in Lesion Segmentation
        • Lesion Segmentation Validation
        • Intensity Artifact Compensation, Normalization, and Matching
        • Automated Lesion Segmentation Algorithms
        • Model of Population and Subject Intensities
        • Illustrative Applications of Segmentation with the MOPS Intensities
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
        • Glossary
      • Manual Morphometry
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Volume Estimation by the Cavalieri Method
        • Surface Area Estimation by the Exhaustive Vertical Sections Method
        • Discussion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Voxel-Based Morphometry
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • VBM: An Overview
        • Tissue Classification
        • Spatial Normalization
        • Spatial Smoothing
        • Statistical Analysis
        • See also
        • References
      • Cortical Thickness Mapping
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Anatomy of the Cerebral Cortex
        • Cortical Thickness Mapping
        • The Methods
        • A Brief Survey of Applications
        • Development and Aging
        • Disease
        • Networks
        • Validation and Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Automatic Labeling of the Human Cerebral Cortex
        • Abstract
        • Organization of the Cerebral Cortex
        • Registration-Based Labeling
        • Mixture Models
        • Fusion of Registration-Based Labeling and Mixture Models
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Sulcus Identification and Labeling
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • The Need for Computational Anatomy
        • Bottom-Up Representations of the Folding Pattern
        • Sulcus Recognition
        • Inference of New Models of the Folding Pattern?
        • See also
        • References
      • Tissue Classification
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Generative Modeling Framework
        • Gaussian Mixture Model
        • Parameter Optimization Using the EM Algorithm
        • Modeling MR Bias Fields
        • Further Model Extensions
        • See also
        • References
      • Tensor-Based Morphometry
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Statistical Analysis
        • Feature Representations
        • Outlook
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Surface-Based Morphometry
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Preprocessing for Surface-Based Morphometry
        • Brain Surface Conformal Parameterization
        • Brain Surface Registration
        • Surface-Based Morphology Statistics
        • Statistical Inference and Applications of Surface-Based Morphometry
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
        • Glossary
      • Bayesian Multiple Atlas Deformable Templates
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgements
        • Introduction
        • The Algebraic Orbit Model of Deformable Templates
        • The Random Observation Model
        • Multimodal Multi-Atlas Interpretation
        • Disease Estimation from Multiple Groups
        • Multiple Atlas Segmentation
        • Template Generation
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Computing Brain Change over Time
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Clinical and Neuroscientific Applications
        • Overview of Methods
        • Statistical Modeling
        • Confounds and Pitfalls
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
        • Glossary
      • Modeling Brain Growth and Development
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Brain Growth as Observed in Anatomical MRI
        • Early White Matter Maturation
        • Objectives of Longitudinal Neuroimaging Studies
        • Longitudinal Pediatric Neuroimaging Studies
        • Growth Models
        • Nonlinear Mixed Effects Model
        • Regional Characterization
        • Brain Maturation Differences: Singletons Versus Twins
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
        • Glossary
      • Tract-Based Spatial Statistics and Other Approaches for Cross-Subject Comparison of Local Diffusion MRI Parameters
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Cross-Subject Registration (Image Alignment)
        • VBM – Overview and Application to Diffusion Data
        • Problems of Interpretability in VBM-Style Analyses
        • ROI and Tractography-Based Strategies for Localizing Change
        • Tract-Based Spatial Statistics
        • Other Skeleton-Based Work
        • Statistical Modeling, Thresholding, and Multivariate Approaches
        • Alternative Diffusion Measures to Test
        • Interpretation Issues: Partial Volume Effects and Complex Tract Structure
        • Standard Space Templates and Atlases
        • Empirical Studies of Gaussianity and Repeatability in Diffusion MRI Data
        • Example Multi-Subject Studies
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • The General Linear Model
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Matrix Formulation
        • Parameter Estimation
        • Statistical Inference
        • F-statistics
        • Examples
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Contrasts and Inferences
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Setting Up the Design Matrix
        • Parameter and Contrast Estimation
        • Other Considerations
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Example 1 × 4 Between-Subject ANOVA
        • Significance and F-Contrasts
        • Example 2 × 2 Within-Subject ANOVA
        • Nonsphericity
        • Pooled and Partitioned Errors
        • Error Covariance Modeling
        • Generalization to K-Way ANOVAs
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Convolution Models for FMRI
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • LTI Models
        • Nonlinearities and Other Variations of the BOLD Response
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
        • Glossary
      • Design Efficiency
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Acknowledgments
        • Formal Definition of Efficiency
        • HRF Convolution
        • Filtering
        • Parameterizing Experimental Designs
        • Randomized Designs
        • Blocked Designs
        • Unique Effects
        • Optimizing Designs
        • Nonlinearities and Assumptions
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Topological Inference
        • Abstract
        • Topological Inference
        • Geometry of Random Fields
        • Levels of Inference
        • Final Remarks
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
        • Glossary
      • False Discovery Rate Control
        • Abstract
        • The Multiple-Testing Problem
        • Traditional Error-Control Methods
        • The FDR and the Benjamini–Hochberg Algorithm
        • Extensions of False Discovery Control
        • Alternative Approaches to the Multiple-Testing Problem
        • Conclusions
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Bayesian Model Inversion
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Generative Models
        • Bayes' Inference
        • Grid Enumeration
        • Practical Bayesian Inference
        • Priors
        • Hierarchical Bayes
        • Model Selection and Averaging
        • See also
        • Appendix: Function Definitions
        • References
        • Further Reading
      • Posterior Probability Maps
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Bayesian Inference
        • Empirical Bayes Approach
        • PPMs: Empirical Demonstration
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
        • Glossary
      • Variational Bayes
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Variational Bayes
        • A Simple Example: Inferring a Single Gaussian
        • VB Updates for the GLM
        • VB Updates for Nonlinear Forward Models
        • Further Applications of VB in Brain Mapping
        • See also
        • Appendix Function Definitions
        • References
        • Further Reading
        • Relevant Websites
        • Glossary
      • Bayesian Model Inference
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Probabilistic Setup for Model Uncertainty
        • Bayesian Model Inference
        • Bayesian Model Selection
        • Bayesian Model Averaging
        • Posterior Odds and Bayes Factors
        • Bayes Factor Approximations
        • Applications to Neuroimaging
        • See also
        • References
      • Models of fMRI Signal Changes
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviation
        • Modeling the BOLD Response
        • Origins of the BOLD Effect
        • The Linear Hemodynamic Response Function
        • Nonlinearities of the BOLD Response
        • Physical Models of the BOLD Response
        • Physiological Models of the BOLD Response
        • Limitations and Challenges
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Forward Models for EEG/MEG
        • Abstract
        • The Origin of EEG and MEG Signals
        • The Main Forward Model Assumptions
        • Empirical Evaluation of Forward Model Assumptions
        • See also
        • References
      • Distributed Bayesian Inversion of MEG/EEG Models
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Introduction
        • The MEG/EEG Inverse Problem
        • Fixed Bayesian Inversion Approaches
        • MSP Algorithm
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Neural Mass Models
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • A Neural Mass Model of a Cortical Area
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • The Emergence of Spontaneous and Evoked Functional Connectivity in a Large-Scale Model of the Brain
        • Abstract
        • Introduction: Spontaneous and Evoked Brain Activity and Anatomical Connectivity
        • Neural Dynamics: The Missing Link
        • Reduced Brain Model: Dynamic Mean-Field Approximation
        • Empirical FC Versus Model FC
        • Structure–Function Relation
        • FC Emerges from Structurally Shaped and Dynamically Slowdown Linear Fluctuations
        • Dynamic Changes of Effective Connectivity
        • Effect of Effective Connectivity on Coding Accuracy
        • Conclusions and Outlook
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Resting-State Functional Connectivity
        • Introduction
        • Task Activation Design
      • Effective Connectivity
        • Abstract
        • Network Analysis and Effective Connectivity
        • Structural Equation Models
        • Dynamic Causal Modeling
        • Granger Causality
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Granger Causality
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Introduction
        • Implementation Using Autoregressive Models
        • Limitations, Invariances, and Extensions of the AR Formulation
        • Formal Definitions and Generalization
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
        • Glossary
      • Information Theoretical Approaches
        • Abstract
        • Nomenclature
        • Information, Meaning, and Neuroscience
        • Information Theoretical Preliminaries
        • Analyzing Neural Coding
        • Analyzing Distributed Computation in Neural Systems
        • Conclusion and Outlook
        • See also
        • References
      • Dynamic Causal Models for fMRI
        • Abstract
        • Neuronal State Equations
        • From Hidden Neuronal Dynamics to BOLD Data: The Hemodynamic Model
        • Model Inversion
        • Extensions of the Neuronal State Equation
        • Bayesian Model Selection
        • Model Validation
        • Application to Clinical Applications
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Dynamic Causal Models for Human Electrophysiology: EEG, MEG, and LFPs
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Neural Mass Models
        • Forward Models, Model Comparison, and Hypothesis Testing
        • DCMs for ERPs and CSDs
        • DCM for IRs and DCM for Phase Coupling
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
        • Glossary
      • Graph-Theoretical Analysis of Brain Networks
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgment
        • Introduction
        • Defining Brain Networks
        • Measures of Network Topology
        • Measures of Centrality
        • Community Detection
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
        • Glossary
      • Crossvalidation
        • Abstract
        • What Is the Optimal Number of Folds?
        • Important Things to Keep in Mind When Using Crossvalidation
        • Examples of Brain Imaging Analyses that Do or Do Not Require Crossvalidation
        • What Are the Alternatives to Crossvalidation and What Are Their Advantages and Disadvantages?
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Multi-voxel Pattern Analysis
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Background and Motivation
        • Methodology of Pattern Analysis
        • See also
        • References
      • Reverse Inference
        • Abstract
        • Forward versus Reverse Inference
        • An Analysis of Reverse Inference
        • Meta-Analytic Approaches to Reverse Inference
        • Reverse Inference by Formal Decoding
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Computational Modeling of Responses in Human Visual Cortex
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Visual Field Maps
        • Stimulus-Referred Measurements
        • Population RF Models
        • Integration of fMRI and ECoG Data
        • Discussion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Meta-Analyses in Functional Neuroimaging
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Meta-Analytic Data
        • Meta-Analytic Methods
        • Software
        • Future Developments
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
        • Glossary
      • Integrative Computational Neurogenetic Modeling
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgements
        • Introduction
        • Probabilistic Neurogenetic Model of a Spiking Neuron
        • Spiking Neural Networks: Structures and Learning Algorithms
        • Computational Neurogenetic Models (CNGM)
        • Modeling the Effect of Genes on the Activity of a CNGM
        • Neurogenetic Modeling of Brain Diseases
        • Neurogenetic Modeling for Cognitive Robotics and Emotional Computing
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • BrainMap Database as a Resource for Computational Modeling
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Acknowledgments
        • Data Types and Sources
        • Data-Mining in a Coordinate Space: BrainMap at Work
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Databases
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Neuroimaging Databasing: A Particular Example
        • The Information Flow of Neuroimaging Data Sharing
        • Databasing Infrastructure
        • Data Access and Security
        • Interoperability with Analysis Workflow Tools
        • Discussion
        • Directions for Future Development
        • See also
        • References
      • Methodological Issues in fMRI Functional Connectivity and Network Analysis
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Network Measures and (In)stability Across Thresholds
        • Defining Network Nodes
        • Motion Confounds for Connectivity Analyses
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
  • Volume 2: Anatomy and Physiology, Systems
    • Anatomy and Physiology
      • Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
      • Evolution of the Cerebral Cortex
        • Abstract
        • Definition of Cerebral Cortex
        • Origins of the Cerebral Cortex
        • Scaling and Development
        • Changes in Microanatomy
        • Cellular Phenotypes and Distribution
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Fetal and Postnatal Development of the Cortex: MRI and Genetics
        • Abstract
        • Nomenclature
        • Acknowledgment
        • Introduction
        • The Cortex Development: Structure and Morphology
        • The Maturation of Cortical Microstructure
        • Interhemispheric Asymmetries in Cortical Development
        • Influence of Genetic, Epigenetic, and Environmental Factors
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
        • Glossary
      • Quantitative Data and Scaling Rules of the Cerebral Cortex
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Brain Sex Differences
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Multiple Mechanisms and Influences Establish and Maintain Sex Differences in the Brain
        • Neural Networks Mediate Sex Differences in Physiology and Behavior
        • Why Understanding Sex Differences in the Brain Is Important
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Gyrification in the Human Brain
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgment
        • Global and Regional Gyrification
        • Ontogeny of the GI
        • Gyrification and Aging
        • Gyrification and Genetics
        • The Causes of Cortical Folding
        • Examples of Altered Gyrification in Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Sulci as Landmarks
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Defining Sulci and Gyri
        • Explicit Sulcal Constraints in Spatial Normalization
        • Patterns and Manifolds
        • Sulcal Roots and Sulcal Pits
        • See also
        • References
      • Columns of the Mammalian Cortex
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Anatomy and Physiology
        • Development: The Ontogenetic Column
        • Minicolumn Size in Evolution
        • Unresolved Issues
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Cell Types in the Cerebral Cortex: An Overview from the Rat Vibrissal Cortex
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Excitatory Cell Types in the Rat Vibrissal Cortex
        • Excitatory Cell Types in Supragranular Layers
        • Excitatory Cell Types in Granular Layers
        • Excitatory Cell Types in Infragranular Layers
        • Cell Type-Specific Innervation and Structure–Function Relationships
        • Cell Type-Specific Intracortical Circuits
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Functional and Structural Diversity of Pyramidal Cells
        • Abstract
        • Dendritic Morphology
        • Axonal Projection Pattern
        • Function
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Cortical GABAergic Neurons
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • The Many Facets of Inhibition by Cortical GABAergic Neurons
        • The Best-Defined Types of Cortical GABAergic Neurons and Their Possible Subtypes
        • Circuit Motifs and Putative Functions of Cortical GABAergic Neurons
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Von Economo Neurons
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Discovery and Rediscovery of Von Economo Neurons
        • VENs in Primates
        • VENs in Other Mammals
        • VENs in Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders
        • Possible Functions of VENs
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Synaptic Organization of the Cerebral Cortex
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • General Structural Features of Synapses
        • Structural Composition of Chemical Neocortical Synapses
        • Release Machinery and Release Probability at Neocortical Synapses
        • Neurotransmitter Receptors at Cortical Synapses
        • Synapse–Astrocyte Interaction in the Neocortex
        • Development of Neocortical Synapses
        • See also
        • References
      • Astrocytes, Oligodendrocytes, and NG2 Glia: Structure and Function
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Acknowledgments
        • Neuroglia: History, Definition, and Classification
        • Astroglia
        • Oligodendroglia
        • NG2 Glia
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Microglia: Structure and Function
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Acknowledgments
        • History and Definition
        • Developmental Origins
        • Morphology
        • Physiology
        • Membrane Potential
        • Ion Channels
        • Receptors
        • Functions or Microglia
        • Physiological Functions of Microglia
        • Activation in Pathology
        • Conclusions
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Cytoarchitecture and Maps of the Human Cerebral Cortex
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgements
        • Cells and Layers of the Cerebral Cortex
        • Principal Subdivisions of the Cerebral Cortex
        • Paleocortex
        • Archicortex
        • Isocortex
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Myeloarchitecture and Maps of the Cerebral Cortex
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgment
        • Myeloarchitecture: The Roots of the Concept
        • Basic Features of Myeloarchitecture
        • Myeloarchitecture of Cortical Areas
        • Brain Maps Based on Myeloarchitecture
        • MRI: Maps and Lamination Patterns
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Cortical Surface Morphometry
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Methodology
        • Relationship Between Morphology and Histology
        • Covariance of Cortical Morphology
        • Genetic Influences upon Cortical Morphology
        • Applications
        • Conclusions
        • References
      • Embryonic and Fetal Development of the Human Cerebral Cortex
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Histogenetic Cellular Events
        • Developmental Phases of Corticogenesis, Sequential Development of Transient Cellular Compartments (Zones), and Dynamics of Histogenetic Events
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Cytoarchitectonics, Receptorarchitectonics, and Network Topology of Language
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Core Language Regions
        • Other Cortical Regions
        • Subcortical Structures
        • White Matter Pathways
        • Interhemispheric Asymmetry and Gender Differences
        • Conclusion
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Functional Connectivity
        • Abstract
        • Brain Organization and the Different Aspects of Connectivity
        • Functional Connectivity: Definition and Conceptual Implications
        • Functional Connectivity in fMRI
        • How to Analyze FC: Seed Correlations
        • How to Analyze FC: Network Analysis
        • How to Analyze FC: Independent Component Analysis
        • Summary and Conceptual Considerations
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • The Resting-State Physiology of the Human Cerebral Cortex
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Metabolic Properties of Brain Physiology
        • RS Signals
        • RS Connectivity
        • Resting-State Networks
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Genoarchitectonic Brain Maps
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Developmental Genoarchitectonic Brain Maps
        • Adult Genoarchitectonic Brain Maps
        • See also
        • References
      • Basal Ganglia
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Introduction
        • Topography of the Basal Ganglia
        • Cytoarchitecture of the Basal Ganglia
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
        • Glossary
      • Thalamus: Anatomy
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Acknowledgments
        • The Thalamus
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
        • Glossary
      • Cerebellum: Anatomy and Physiology
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Anatomy
        • Scaling of the Cerebellum: Evidence for Prominent Irregularities Embedded in Marked Regularities
        • See also
        • References
      • The Brain Stem
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Current Maps of the Mammalian Brain Stem
        • Twenty-First Century Methods for Mapping the Brain Stem
        • MRI: High-Resolution Magnetic Imaging of the Brain Stem
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Transmitter Receptor Distribution in the Human Brain
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Acknowledgments
        • Transmitter Receptors and Brain Mapping
        • Regional Distribution of Transmitter Receptors in the Human Cerebral Cortex
        • Regional Distribution of Transmitter Receptors in the Human Amygdala, Basal Ganglia, Diencephalon, and Cerebellum
        • Laminar Distribution of Transmitter Receptors in the Human Neocortex
        • Development and Aging
        • Receptors and Functional Systems
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Motor Cortex
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Introduction
        • Architectonic Heterogeneity of the Motor Cortex
        • Classes of Motor Areas and General Pattern of Cortical Connectivity
        • Descending Motor Projections from the Motor Cortex and Parallel Control of Motor Execution
        • Cortical Connectivity of the Motor Cortex and Parallel Control of Action Selection and Organization
        • Cortical Motor Networks
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • References
      • Somatosensory Cortex
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Receptors and Peripheral Nerve Afferents
        • The Brain Stem and Spinal Cord Targets
        • The Thalamic Targets
        • Somatosensory Cortex of Anterior Parietal Cortex
        • Somatosensory Cortex of Lateral Parietal Cortex
        • Posterior Parietal Cortex
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Functional Organization of the Primary Visual Cortex
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Anatomy and Lamination
        • Retinotopic Mapping with fMRI
        • Mapping Orientation Columns and Cortical Layers with Ultrahigh Field fMRI
        • A Crucial Role of V1 in Theories of Perception
        • See also
        • References
      • Topographic Layout of Monkey Extrastriate Visual Cortex
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Acknowledgments
        • Topographic Organization of Macaque Occipitotemporal Visual Cortex
        • Relationship Between Retinotopy and Clustering of Object-Category Selectivity in Occipitotemporal Cortex
        • See also
        • References
      • Auditory Cortex
        • Abstract
        • Subdivisions of Auditory Cortex
        • Early Parallel Processing in the Auditory Cortex
        • Selectivity for Band-Passed Noise and Frequency Sweeps in the Auditory Belt
        • Selectivity for Species-Specific Calls
        • Auditory Belt Projections to the Prefrontal Cortex
        • Human Imaging Studies
        • See also
        • References
      • Vestibular Cortex
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Methods to Stimulate Vestibular Receptors in Neuroimaging Studies
        • Main Cortical Vestibular Areas
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Gustatory System
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Taste Bud Distribution and Innervation
        • The Central Nervous System
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Posterior Parietal Cortex: Structural and Functional Diversity
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Microstructural Parcellation and Features
        • Connectivity Patterns
        • Functional Segregation
        • Relating Structure and Function in the PPC
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Mapping Cingulate Subregions
        • Abstract
        • Subregional Cytoarchitecture
        • Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Subregions and Connections
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Amygdala
        • Abstract
        • Topography
        • Architecture
        • Development
        • Connections
        • Role in Emotional Behavior and Learning and Memory
        • Amygdalar Pathology in Disorders
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
        • Glossary
      • The Olfactory Cortex
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Olfactory System
        • Olfactory Bulb
        • Primary Olfactory Cortex
        • Piriform Cortex
        • Olfactory Projections beyond the POC
        • See also
        • References
      • Development of the Basal Ganglia and the Basal Forebrain
        • Abstract
        • Some Introductory Notes on the Basal Ganglia and the Basal Forebrain
        • Overview of the Development of the Telencephalon
        • Development of the Subpallium
        • Development of the Basal Ganglia
        • Development of the Amygdala
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Development of the Diencephalon
        • Abstract
        • Development of the Diencephalon
        • The (Dorsal) Thalamus
        • The Ventral Thalamus or Prethalamus
        • The Subthalamus
        • Time-of-Neuron-Origin Studies
        • The Lateral Geniculate Body
        • The Pulvinar
        • Development of Thalamocortical Projections
        • Development of the Hypothalamus
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Development of the Brain Stem and the Cerebellum
        • Abstract
        • Development of the Brain Stem
        • Development of the Cranial Nerves
        • Some Developmental Disorders of the Cranial Nerves
        • Development of the Cerebellum
        • Development of Cerebellar Nuclei
        • Development of Precerebellar Nuclei
        • A Few Notes on Cerebellar Malformations
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Insular Cortex
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Introduction
        • Structure
        • Function
        • Pathology
        • See also
        • References
      • Basal Forebrain Anatomical Systems in MRI Space
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Acknowledgment
        • Introduction
        • The Ventral Striatopallidal System
        • Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis: Extended Amygdala
        • Basal Nucleus of Meynert
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • References
      • Anatomy and Physiology of the Mirror Neuron System
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • The Mirror Neuron Network in Monkeys
        • Action Representation in the Monkey Mirror Neuron System
        • The Mirror Neuron Network in Humans
        • Evidence for a Human Mirror Neuron System
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Lateral and Dorsomedial Prefrontal Cortex and the Control of Cognition
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Anatomical and Functional Organization of the Lateral Prefrontal Cortex
        • Posterior Dorsolateral Frontal Region: Flexible Attentional Selection of Stimuli
        • Mid-Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex and the Monitoring of Events in Working Memory: the Epoptic Process
        • The Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortical Region: Active Controlled Memory Retrieval and Language Processing
        • Dorsomedial Prefrontal Cortex and Performance Monitoring
        • See also
        • References
      • Development of Structural and Functional Connectivity
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Development of the Structural Connectivity: Fetal and Preterm Periods
        • Maturation of the Structural Connectivity: Late Preterm and Postterm Periods
        • Development of the Functional Connectivity
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
    • Systems
      • Introduction to Systems
      • Hubs and Pathways
        • Abstract
        • What Is a Network Hub?
        • Mapping the Structural and Functional Hubs of the Human Brain
        • Functional Sensory Streams in the Human Brain (or How Sensory Systems Integrate and Reach the Cortical Hubs)
        • Are the Cortical Hubs and Their Functional Streams the Basis for Evolved Cognitive Capacities in Humans?
        • Cortical Hub Analysis in the Study of Neuropsychiatric Diseases (What Wires Together Dies Together)
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Large-Scale Functional Brain Organization
        • Abstract
        • Brain Connectivity and Large-Scale Brain Organization
        • Characterizing Large-Scale Functional Brain Organization
        • Six Major Principles of Large-Scale Functional Organization
        • Global Brain Architecture
        • Graded Inter- and Intrahemispheric Connectivities
        • The Human Brain Is Intrinsically Organized into Coherent Functional Networks
        • Activated and Deactivated Brain Systems
        • Default-Mode Network, A System Important for Self-Referential Mental Processes
        • Dissociable Fronto-Opercular–Parietal Control Systems
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • Bibliography
      • Neural Correlates of Motor Deficits in Young Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury
        • Abstract
        • Motor Deficits in Young Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury
        • Structural Integrity of the Brain and Its Relation to Motor Functioning in TBI
        • Brain Function and Compensatory Mechanisms in Young Brain-Injured Patients
        • Analyses of Structural and Functional Connectivity in Young Patients with TBI
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Visuomotor Integration
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Visuomotor Integration in the Dorsal Visual Stream
        • Brain Areas Implicated in Visuomotor Integration
        • Visuomotor Transformations and Coordinate Frames
        • The Role of Feedback in Visuomotor Integration
        • Beyond Visuomotor Integration
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Bimanual Coordination
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgment
        • Introduction
        • Limitations in Bimanual Coordination: A Coalition of Constraints
        • Overcoming Coordination Constraints to Enrich the Action Repertoire
        • Bimanual Coordination: Functional and Structural Brain Correlates
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Oculomotor System
        • Abstract
        • The Primate Oculomotor System
        • Neuroimaging and the Oculomotor System
        • Investigating Cognitive Control
        • Clinical Applications
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Primate Color Vision
        • Abstract
        • Evolutionary Range of Color Vision
        • Perception of Color
        • Physical and Perceptual Dimensions of Color
        • Color Vision Greatly Increases the Range of Vision
        • Color Naming
        • Color Deficits
        • Retinal Photopigments and Cell Types: Cones
        • Retinal Photopigments and Cell Types: Rods
        • Principle of Univariance
        • Color Opponency
        • Chromatic Aberration
        • Variation in Color Vision across Different Primate Species
        • Color Processing in the Retina
        • Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
        • Primary Visual Cortex (V1)
        • V2
        • V3
        • V4
        • MT/V5
        • Inferior Temporal Cortex
        • References
      • Motion Perception
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Neural Codes for Shape Perception
        • Abstract
        • Shape Integration Along the Visual Stream
        • Adaptive Coding for Shape Perception
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Face Perception
        • Abstract
        • Nomenclature
        • Acknowledgements
        • Introduction
        • A Large Set of Functional Face-Selective Clusters
        • Neurofunctional Decomposition
        • Connectivity and Functional Dynamics
        • Conclusions and Future Challenges
        • See also
        • References
      • Expertise and Object Recognition
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Nature Versus Nurture
        • Domain Specificity Versus Generality
        • Expertise Effects in the FFA
        • How to Measure Expertise?
        • Experience Influences Representations
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Visuospatial Attention
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Spatial Cueing Paradigms
        • Visual Search
        • Shifting the Spatial Focus of Attention
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Early Auditory Processing
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Tonotopic Organization
        • Processing of Complex Sounds: Multiple Representations
        • Hierarchical Organization and Processing Streams
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Functional Brain Imaging of Human Olfaction
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Methodological Considerations in fMRI of Human Olfaction
        • What We Have Learned from Functional Imaging of Human Olfaction
        • Conclusion and Future Directions
        • See also
        • References
      • Somatosensory Processing
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • From the Skin to Midbrain and Cortex: A Brief Outline Anatomy of the Human Somatosensory System
        • Single-Unit Studies in the Somatosensory System of Nonhuman Primates
        • Neuroimaging Work on Mapping the Human Primary Somatosensory Cortex
        • Studies of Higher-Level Representations (S2, Parietal Cortex, and Beyond)
        • Attention, Learning, Neural Plasticity, and Sensory Decision Making
        • See also
        • References
      • Pain: Acute and Chronic
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Introduction
        • Encoding Nociception/Acute Pain
        • Resting State and Acute Pain
        • Chronic Pain
        • Anatomy: Gray Matter
        • Anatomy: White Matter
        • Perception-Related Brain Activity in Chronic Pain
        • Resting-State Brain Activity and Chronic Pain
        • Predicting Transition to Chronic Pain
        • Mechanisms and Drug Development
        • Concluding Remarks
        • References
      • Multisensory Integration and Audiovisual Speech Perception
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Quantifying MSI in the Neural Response
        • Lessons from the Audiovisual Speech Literature
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Taste, Flavor, and Appetite
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Human Imaging Studies
        • Synthesis
        • References
      • Brain Mapping of Control Processes
        • Abstract
        • What Is ‘Control’?
        • The Network Anatomy of Cognitive Control
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Working Memory
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Verbal Working Memory
        • Visuospatial Working Memory
        • Working Memory: Emergent System View
        • Control of Working Memory
        • Summary and Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Salience Network
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction and Overview
        • Saliency Detection and the Salience Network
        • Salience Network: Identification and Anatomical Basis
        • The Salience Network Modes Are Commonly Coactivated Across a Wide Range of Cognitive and Affective Tasks
        • Integrated Salience Network Function in Cognition, Action, and Emotion
        • Dynamic Interaction of the SN with Other Brain Networks: Evidence for Switching Networks
        • Typical and Atypical Development of the SN
        • The SN in Psychopathology
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Neural Networks Underlying Novelty Processing
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Attention
        • Motivation
        • Memory
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Emotion
        • Abstract
        • Understanding Emotions
        • Historical Perspective: The Limbic System Theory of Emotion
        • Contemporary Neurobiological Models
        • Emotion–Cognition Interactions
        • The Somatic Marker Hypothesis
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
        • Glossary
      • Memory
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Imaging the Creation of a Memory Trace
        • Prefrontal Cortex
        • Parietal Cortex
        • Nondeclarative Memory
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • The Mesolimbic Dopamine Pathway and Romantic Love
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
        • Glossary
      • Autonomic Control
        • Abstract
        • What Does Human Neuroimaging of Central Autonomic Control Offer?
        • Methodological Issues
        • Physiological Signal and Global Effects
        • Correlates of Autonomic Responses
        • Axes of Autonomic Control (Efferent)
        • Interoceptive Mapping of Autonomic Response
        • Meta-Analytic Findings
        • Brainstem Neuroimaging and Related Technical Advances
        • Clinical Autonomic Neuroimaging
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Reward
        • Abstract
        • Reward Functions
        • Neuronal Reward Signals
        • Reward Neurons
        • Human Neuroimaging
        • See also
        • References
      • Structural and Functional Components of Brain Networks for Language
        • Abstract
        • Characterizing the Language Network(s)
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Speech Sounds
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Phonetic Organization of Speech Sounds
        • Neural Representations of Speech Sounds
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Grammar and Syntax
        • Abstract
        • Deficit–Lesion Correlations
        • Functional Neuroimaging
        • References
      • Naming
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgment
        • Introduction
        • Cognitive Model of Naming
        • Neural Regions That Support the Cognitive Processes That Underlie Naming
        • Discussion
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Action Understanding
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • The Anatomical Organization of the Cortical Motor System: Frontal and Parietal Areas
        • The Functional Organization of the Cortical Mirror System
        • Mirror Neurons and Action Understanding
        • From Goal to Intention Understanding
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Cortical Action Representations
        • Abstract
        • Introduction: Multiple Perspectives on the Motor Cortex
        • The Cortical Action Map
        • Further Studies of Cortical Action Maps
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Directing Attention in Time as a Function of Temporal Expectation
        • Abstract
        • Voluntary Control of Attention by Temporal Cues: Endogenous Orienting in Time
        • Automatic Capture of Attention by Temporally Salient Stimuli: Exogenous Orienting in Time
        • Duration Estimation or Temporal Attention?
        • Automatic Capture of Attention by Premature Stimuli: Exogenous Shifts of Temporal Attention
        • Voluntary Control of Attention by ‘Time's Arrow’: Endogenous Shifts of Temporal Attention
        • Temporal Attention Enhances Activity in Stimulus-Specific Processing Areas
        • Conclusion: Biased Competition in the Temporal Domain
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
  • Volume 3: Social Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Neuroscience, Clinical Brain Mapping
    • Social Cognitive Neuroscience
      • Introduction to Social Cognitive Neuroscience
      • Fairness and Inequity Aversion
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Social Preferences for Fairness
        • Neural Processing of Fairness
        • Neural Processing of Unfairness
        • The Role of Mentalizing in Fairness Processing
        • Conclusions and Future Directions
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Cooperation and Fairness
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Reciprocal Altruism
        • ‘Pure’ Altruism
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • How the Brain Feels the Hurt of Heartbreak: Examining the Neurobiological Overlap Between Social and Physical Pain
        • Abstract
        • The Evolution of Social Pain
        • Neurochemical Evidence for an Overlap Between Physical and Social Pain
        • Neural Evidence for an Overlap Between Physical and Social Pain
        • Implications of the Neurobiological Overlap Between Physical and Social Pain
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Social Reward
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Social Approval
        • Faces
        • Social Preference
        • Structural Disposition
        • Nonhuman Animals
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Prosocial Motivation
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviation
        • Prosocial Motivations as a Particular Instance of Human Motivation
        • The Neural Underpinnings of Prosocial Motivations
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Neurocognitive and Physiological Mechanisms Linking Stress and Health
        • Abstract
        • Physiological Systems Linking Psychological Stress and Health
        • The Threat-Related Neural System and Physiological Stress Responses
        • The Self/Social Cognition Neural System and Physiological Stress Responses
        • The Safety-Related Neural System and Physiological Stress Responses
        • Conclusions and Future Directions
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Self-Knowledge
        • Abstract
        • Semantic Self-Knowledge
        • Episodic Self-Knowledge
        • Common and Distinct Neural Substrates Across Self-Knowledge Domains
        • Knowledge About the Self and Knowledge About Others
        • What Is the Function of the Brain Regions That Support Self-Knowledge?
        • Self-Knowledge and Psychopathology
        • Conclusion
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Self-Regulation and Self-Regulation Failure
        • Abstract
        • Cue Exposure
        • Emotional and Social Distress
        • Self-Regulatory Depletion
        • Conclusion
        • References
      • Puberty, Peers, and Perspective Taking: Examining Adolescent Self-Concept Development Through the Lens of Social Cognitive Neuroscience
        • Abstract
        • Adolescent Self-Concept Development
        • Cognitive Maturation and Self-Concept Development
        • Social Maturation, Peer Influence, and Self-Concept Development
        • Neuroimaging Research Examining Adult Self-Processing
        • Neuroimaging Research Examining Youth Self-Processing
        • Neuroimaging Research Examining Self-Processing Within Developmental Disorders
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Emotion Regulation
        • Abstract
        • The Process Model of Emotion
        • Brain Mechanisms of Emotion Regulation
        • Conclusion and Future Directions
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Mindfulness: Mechanism and Application
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgment
        • Definition of Mindfulness
        • Mechanism
        • Clinical Applications
        • Mindfulness Practice
        • Challenge in Mindfulness Field
        • See also
        • References
      • Emotional Experience
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Overview of Neuroimaging Studies of Affective and Emotional Experience
        • Neural Correlates of Emotional Experience
        • Neural Models of Emotional Experience
        • Neuroimaging Findings and Neuropsychological Case Reports
        • Categories of Emotional Experiences
        • Summary and Future Directions
        • See also
        • References
      • Face Perception: Extracting Social Information from Faces: The Role of Static and Dynamic Face Information
        • Abstract
        • Functional Neuroanatomy of Face Processing: Two Alternative Models
        • The Response of the Core Face System to Facial Expression
        • The Response of the Core Face System to Trait Inferences
        • The Response of the Core Face System to Eye Gaze and Head Rotation
        • A Comprehensive Neuroanatomical Model for Dynamic and Static Face Processing
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Emotion Perception and Elicitation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Nature of Emotion: From Discrete and Dimensional to Componential Models
        • Emotion Perception in Different Modalities
        • Emotion-Specific Systems
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • The Amygdala and Social Perception
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • References
      • Genetic Neuroimaging of Social Perception
        • Abstract
        • What Is Social Perception?
        • What Is Imaging Genetics?
        • Summary and Future Directions
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Body Perception
        • Abstract
        • Why Bodies?
        • Behavioral Studies on Body Perception
        • Neural Basis of Body Perception
        • The Temporal Dynamics of Body Perception
        • Future Directions
        • See also
        • References
      • Action Perception and the Decoding of Complex Behavior
        • Abstract
        • Modular Decoding of Action Features
        • Decoding in the Physical Domain: The Action Observation Network
        • Decoding in the Human Domain: The Social Brain Network
        • The Impact of Context
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
        • Glossary
      • The Use of Brain Imaging to Investigate the Human Mirror Neuron System
        • Abstract
        • Early PET and fMRI Studies
        • Recent, Alternative Methods to ‘Image’ the Mirror Neuron System in Humans
        • Possible Functions of Neural Mirroring
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Biological Motion
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
        • Glossary
      • Trust Perception
        • Abstract
        • Perceiving Trustworthiness in Faces
        • Perceiving Trustworthiness in Behavior
        • Integrating Across Multiple Sources of Trust Information
        • Neuroendocrine Perspectives on Trust Perception
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Observational Fear Learning
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Neural Mechanisms of Pavlovian Fear Learning
        • Observational Fear Learning
        • Behavioral Evidence of Observational Fear Learning
        • Neural Mechanisms of Observational Fear Learning
        • Social Factors Modulate Observational Fear Learning
        • Observational Fear Extinction
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Mentalizing
        • Abstract
        • Theory of Mind
        • Person Perception and Social Cognition
        • Are There Brain Regions Necessary for Mentalizing?
        • The Relationship Between Action Understanding and Mentalizing
        • Spontaneous Mentalizing
        • Mentalizing and Its Relationship with Everyday Social Behavior
        • See also
        • References
      • Person Knowledge and Attribution
        • Abstract
        • Person Knowledge and Attribution
        • Neuroimaging of Social Cognition
        • Person Knowledge
        • Common Nodes of the Social Brain
        • Dissociations within Brain Systems for Person Knowledge
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Strategic Mentalizing: The Neural Correlates of Strategic Choice
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Levels of Strategic Thinking
        • The Experimental Beauty Contest Game
        • The Cognitive Hierarchy Model
        • An fMRI Study on the Levels of Strategic Reasoning
        • Bounded Rational Behavior
        • Neural Correlates of Depth of Strategic Reasoning
        • Activity in the mPFC Correlates with Strategic IQ
        • Dorsal and Ventromedial Prefrontal Activity: Self–Other Distinction
        • Pattern of Neural Activity Related with Recursive Thinking
        • Theory of Mind (Mentalizing) and Strategizing
        • Learning and Strategic Reasoning
        • Summary and Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • The Neural Correlates of Social Cognition and Social Interaction
        • Abstract
        • People Trying to Make Sense of People: Social Cognition from an Observer's Point of View
        • Mixing It Up with the Folks: Social Cognition from an Interactor's Point of View
        • Closing the Loop in Social Neuroscience
        • Psychiatric Disorders as Disorders of Social Cognition from an Interactor's Rather Than an Observer's Point of View
        • Summary and Outlook
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • The Default Network and Social Cognition
        • Abstract
        • Delineating the Default Network
        • Meta-Analysis of Default Network Cognitive Function
        • Dorsomedial Subsystem and Functions
        • Medial Temporal Subsystem and Functions
        • Core Regions and Functions
        • Default Network in Context
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • The Social Brain in Childhood and Adolescence
        • Abstract
        • Face Processing
        • Theory of Mind
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Neural Correlates of Social Cognition Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorders
        • Abstract
        • Face Processing
        • Theory of Mind
        • Reward Processing
        • Future Directions
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Mentalizing and Psychopathology in Schizophrenia, Depression, and Social Anxiety
        • Abstract
        • Neural Basis of Mentalizing
        • Mentalizing in Schizophrenia
        • Mentalizing in Depression
        • Mentalizing in Social Anxiety
        • General Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Empathy
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Evolutionary Roots of Empathy
        • Early Signs of Empathy and Concern for Others
        • Brain Response to Others in Pain or Distress
        • Empathy Is a Limited Resource
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Abbreviations
      • Compassion
        • Abstract
        • Psychological Research on Compassion
        • Neuroscientific Research on Compassion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Dehumanization
        • Abstract
        • Universal Dimensions of Social Cognition
        • Social Cognition Network Activation (Featuring the mPFC) Varies Along the Universal Dimensions of Mentalizing: Perceived Warmth/Trustworthiness and Perceived Competence/Capability
        • Future Directions
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • A Neural Network for Moral Decision Making
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • How Do We Arrive at Our Moral Judgments? Emotions and the Role of Empathy
        • Neural Architecture of Moral Cognition
        • The Prefrontal Cortex
        • Cingulate Cortex and Amygdala
        • The Temporal Lobes
        • A Clinical Perspective
        • Conclusions
        • References
      • Dual-Process Theories in Social Cognitive Neuroscience
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Categorical Framework
        • The Dimensional Framework
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Cultural Neuroscience
        • Abstract
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Social Knowledge
        • Abstract
        • Social Perceptual Processes
        • Attentional Processes in Social Cognition
        • Memory and Learning Processes
        • Social Categorization Processes
        • Attributional Processes
        • Self-Oriented Processing
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Social Versus Nonsocial Reasoning
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Social Brain and the Specificity of Social Reasoning
        • Social Reasoning Drawing Differentially on Domain-General Processes
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • References
      • Social Decision Making
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • A Typology of Social Decisions
        • Social Cognition
        • Value Computation
        • What is Social in Social Decision Making?
        • Conclusions and Future Directions
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Attitudes
        • Abstract
        • The Attitude Itself: Structure and Strength
        • Attitude Processes: Antecedents and Consequences
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Exploring the Brain Dynamics of Racial Stereotyping and Prejudice
        • Abstract
        • Neuroimaging of Stereotyping and Prejudice
        • The Malleability of the Circuitry of Race
        • Future Directions
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Website
        • Glossary
      • Attitude Change and Cognitive Consistency
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Attitude Change Following Cognitive Dissonance
        • Attitude Change Following Cognitive Imbalance
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Social Influence and Persuasion and Message Propagation
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Acknowledgment
        • Neuroscience of Social Influence
        • Neurobiological Mechanisms of Conformity
        • Neurobiology of the Internalization of Social influence
        • Neurobiology of Other Forms of Social Influence
        • A General Neurobiological Mechanism of Social Influence
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
    • Cognitive Neuroscience
      • Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience
      • Top-Down Suppression
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Selective Attention
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Interactions between Attention and Emotion
        • Abstract
        • Emotional Stimuli Engage Attention
        • Affective Salience and Executive Control
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Attention and Memory
        • Abstract
        • Attention
        • Memory
        • Interactions between Attention and Memory
        • Open Questions
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Attentional Capacity and Limitations
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Sensory Capacity Limits and Their Alleviation by Attention
        • Capacity Limits in WM
        • Capacity Limits in Temporal Processing
        • Central Capacity Limits
        • Reconciling Multiple Bottlenecks: The Locus of Selection and Load Theory
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Salience/Bottom-Up Attention
        • Abstract
        • Bottom-Up Versus Top-Down Attention Control
        • Stimulus Salience and Bottom-Up Attention
        • The Neurophysiology of Bottom-Up Attention and Salience
        • Bottom-Up Attention: Relevance, Expectations, and Predictions
        • Bottom-Up Attention Across Sensory Modalities
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • References
      • Prediction and Expectation
        • Abstract
        • Introducing Prediction
        • Prediction at Different Timescales
        • Styles and Sources of Prediction
        • Abnormal and Pathological Prediction
        • Outlook
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Response Inhibition
        • Abstract
        • What Defines an "Inhibitory Motor Area"?
        • Inhibiting a Prepotentiated Motor Response: Neurophysiological Studies in Behaving Monkeys
        • Human Studies of Response Inhibition
        • Conclusions and Suggestions for Future Research
        • See also
        • References
      • Working Memory
        • Abstract
        • Working Memory Assessment
        • Working Memory Circuitry
        • fMRI of Working Memory
        • Structural Imaging and Working Memory
        • Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Working Memory
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
        • Glossary
      • Task Switching Processes
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Frontoparietal Networks in Task Switching
        • Proactive Control in Task Switching
        • Reactive Control in Task Switching
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Rule Representation
        • Abstract
        • Neural Representation of Tasks and Rules
        • Rule Representation Across Modalities
        • Rule Switching
        • Rules and Task Coordination
        • Rule Representation over Learning and Development
        • Theories of Rule Representation
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Working Memory–Attention Interplay
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgment
        • Introduction
        • Parietofrontal Cortex, Attentional Control, and WM Biasing
        • Assessing the Interplay Between WM and Attention
        • WM Biases on Neural Responses
        • A Frontothalamic Network for WM Biasing
        • Brain Substrates for Strategic Control of WM Biases
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Neuropsychopharmacology of Cognitive Flexibility
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Reversal Learning
        • Attentional Set Shifting
        • Task-Set Switching
        • Working Memory
        • Conclusion and Open Questions
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Performance Monitoring
        • Abstract
        • Performance Monitoring
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Reward Processing
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Foundations of Reward Processing
        • Encoding the Subjective Value of Rewards
        • Modulation of Reward Processing by Social Information
        • Conclusions and Future Challenges
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning in Artificial Agents
        • Options and Pseudo-Reward Prediction Errors
        • Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning in Nested Corticostriatal Gating Circuits
        • Open Questions and Future Directions
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Neuroimaging Studies of Reinforcement-Learning
        • Abstract
        • Computational RL Theory
        • Neural Substrates of RL
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Value Representation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Value Representation During Intertemporal Choice
        • Utility of Anticipation
        • Value Representation During Choice Under Uncertainty
        • Unitary Account of Value Representation
        • See also
        • References
      • Impulsivity
        • Abstract
        • Facets of Impulsivity and Its Measurement
        • Impulsivity and Psychopathology
        • Neuroimaging of Impulsivity
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Uncertainty
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Neural Representation of Expected Value and Risk
        • Neural Representation of Ambiguity
        • Learning about Uncertainty
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Perceptual Decision Making
        • Abstract
        • Multistability, Gestalt Formation, and Perceptual Decision
        • Neural Correlates of Bistable Perception
        • Can Neuroimaging Test Perceptual Decision Mechanisms at the Columnar Level?
        • Predicting Neural Activity Patterns from Models of Perceptual Inference
        • Inferring Neural Coding Mechanisms and Models from Bistable Perceptual Decision: Linking Levels of Analysis
        • Adaptation Mechanisms in Perceptual Decision
        • Holistic Perception Models: From Core to Extended Architectures of Decision-Making Circuits
        • Concluding Remarks
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Neuroimaging of Economic Decision-Making
        • Abstract
        • Economic Decision-Making and Neural Correlates of Value
        • Economic Decision-Making Under Risk
        • Naturalistic Risk-Taking Tasks
        • Prospect Theory and the Brain
        • Intertemporal Choice
        • Functional Imaging Evidence for Temporally Discounted Value
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Motor Decision-Making
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Behavioral and Modeling Studies on Motor Decision-Making
        • Neural and Computational Mechanisms Underlying Motor Decision-Making
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Speech Perception
        • Abstract
        • Behavioral and Neuroimaging Approaches to ‘Speech Perception’
        • Integrative Proposals: Dual Streams
        • Neuroimaging of Speech Perception: Current Areas of Active Debate
        • See also
        • References
      • Speech Production
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgment
        • Introduction: Neuroimaging of Speech and Language
        • Brain Regions Involved in Speech Production
        • Neurocomputational Modeling of Speech Production
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Semantic Processing
        • Abstract
        • Concepts and Semantics
        • Theories of Concept Representation
        • A Brain Network for General Semantic Processing
        • Embodied Sensory, Motor, and Affective Knowledge
        • Space, Time, Causality, and Other Event Concepts
        • Abstract Concepts
        • Object Categories in the Brain
        • Significance of Semantic Processing
        • See also
        • References
      • Naming
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgment
        • Introduction
        • Cognitive Model of Naming
        • Neural Regions That Support the Cognitive Processes That Underlie Naming
        • Discussion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Syntax in the Brain
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgment
        • Introduction
        • Syntactic Computations
        • Neuroanatomical Networks of the Syntactic System
        • Neuroanatomical Basis of Syntactic Computations
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
        • Glossary
      • Bilingualism
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The Neural Representation of L2
        • Language Control and Neural Consequences Induced by Bilingualism
        • See also
        • References
      • The Neurobiology of Sign Language
        • Abstract
        • Language Production
        • Language Comprehension
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Short-Term Memory
        • Abstract
        • Working Memory
        • Multimodal Model of WM
        • The Nature of Capacity Limits
        • The Neurophysiology of WM
        • Single-Unit Recordings
        • Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
        • Electrophysiology/Electroencephalography (EEG)
        • Proposed Neural Mechanisms of WM Capacity Limits
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Category Learning
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Perceptual Contributions in Category Learning
        • Learning and Memory Systems: The Hippocampus and the Basal Ganglia
        • Frontoparietal Rule Learning and Cognitive Control Mechanisms
        • Automaticity and Changes Across Time
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Neural Correlates of Motor Skill Acquisition and Consolidation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Motor Sequence Learning
        • Motor Adaptation
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Statistical Learning
        • Abstract
        • Paired-Associate Learning
        • Segmentation of Continuous Streams
        • More Complex Statistical Structure
        • Spatial Regularities
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • The Neural Underpinnings of Spatial Memory and Navigation
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Methods for Understanding the Neural Basis of Human Spatial Cognition: Lesions and Neuroimaging
        • The Neural Basis of Egocentric Representation
        • The Neural Basis of Allocentric Representation
        • Reconciling Roles of the Hippocampus and Parahippocampal Cortex in Spatial Memory
        • Conversion Between Egocentric and Allocentric Representation Systems
        • The Neural Basis of Egocentric to Allocentric Conversion
        • The Neural Basis of Allocentric to Egocentric Conversion
        • Conclusions/Future Directions of the Field
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Familiarity
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgment
        • Phenomenological Accounts
        • Controlled Versus Automatic Retrieval
        • Attribution Theory
        • Statistical and Computational Models
        • Neural Substrates
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
      • Memory Attribution and Cognitive Control
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Memory Attribution and Cognitive Control
        • The Surprising ‘Retrieval Success’ fMRI Contrast
        • Criteria for Evaluating the Functional Significance of ‘Retrieval Success’ Activations
        • Examinations of Source Memory Using fMRI
        • Posterior Parietal Activation during Source Memory and Item Memory
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Semantic Memory: Cognitive and Neuroanatomical Perspectives
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Declarative Memory: Episodic and Semantic
        • Organizing Principles of Semantic Memory
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • The Medial Temporal Lobe and Episodic Memory
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Medial Temporal Lobe
        • Network Contributions to Episodic Memory
        • See also
        • References
      • Complex Problem Solving
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Planning Phase
        • Execution
        • Neural Network Supporting TOL Performance
        • Good Problem Solvers
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Music
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Perception/Production
        • Memory
        • Imagery
        • Emotion
        • Plasticity
        • See also
        • References
      • Numerosity
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Origins
        • Development
        • Nature of Number Representation
        • Neural Coding of Number
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • A Frontostriatal Circuit for Timing the Duration of Events
        • Abstract
        • Motor and Perceptual Timing
        • Context-Independent Timing? Influence of Duration Range and Modality
        • Memory for Time
        • Distorting the Magnitude of Time
        • Rhythmic Timing
        • Time in the Future
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Imaging Studies of Reading and Reading Disability
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Skills That Support Typical Reading Acquisition
        • Developmental Dyslexia
        • Functional Anatomy of Reading
        • Neuroanatomical Bases of Dyslexia
        • Neurofunctional Bases of Dyslexia
        • Genetic and Physiological Mechanisms in Dyslexia
        • Neurobiology of Reading Interventions
        • Cause Versus Consequence?
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
        • Glossary
      • Reading
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgment
        • What Is Reading?
        • What Is Unique About Reading in Functional Terms?
        • Orthographic Knowledge
        • The Search for Brain Regions and Networks That Were Dedicated to Reading
        • Cortical Regions That Process Orthography
        • Cortical Regions That Map Orthography to Phonology at the Sublexical Level
        • Cortical Regions That Map Orthography to Phonology at the Lexical Level
        • White Matter Tracts for Reading
        • Further Questions
        • See also
        • Further Reading
        • Glossary
      • Substantia Nigra
        • Abstract
        • Nomenclature
        • Anatomy
        • Structural Neuroimaging
        • Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
        • Neurotransmitter Imaging
        • Clinical Utility
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
    • Clinical Brain Mapping
      • Introduction to Clinical Brain Mapping
      • Developmental Brain Atlases
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Challenges and Existing Solutions in the Construction of Developmental Brain Atlases
        • Overview and Perspectives
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Normal Aging of the Brain
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Neuroanatomy: Aging of the Brain Gray and White Matter
        • Age-Related Risk Factors as Modifiers of Structural Brain Aging
        • Aging Brain Structure as Substrate of Cognitive Aging
        • Interventions in Brain Aging
        • Summary and Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
        • Glossary
      • Imaging Alzheimer's Disease: The Evolution of Biomarkers
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Imaging Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease
        • The FDA Approval of AD Biomarkers
        • New PET Tracers for AD
        • Ethical Considerations
        • Conclusion
        • References
      • Differential Patterns of Dysfunction in Neurodegenerative Dementias
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Functional Imaging for Studying Brain Function
        • Classical Brain Dysfunction in Alzheimer's Disease and Differential Patterns of Dysfunction in MCI
        • The Heterogeneity of AD Cerebral Dysfunction
        • Differential Dysfunction Between AD and FTD
        • Other Neurodegenerative Diseases and Other Altered Brain Networks
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Website
        • Glossary
      • Amyloid Tracers
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Different Classes of Amyloid PET Tracers and Their Binding Properties
        • Amyloid Imaging in AD
        • Amyloid Imaging in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment
        • Amyloid Imaging in Healthy Elderly
        • Correlation Between Amyloid Imaging, Cerebral Glucose Metabolism, CSF Biomarkers, and Cognition
        • Amyloid Imaging in Non-AD Dementia Disorders
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Basic Concepts of Image Classification Algorithms Applied to Study Neurodegenerative Diseases
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Basic Machine Learning Concepts
        • Machine Learning Algorithms
        • Benefits and Limitations
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Alzheimer's Disease
        • Abstract
        • Neuropathology
        • Epidemiology
        • Risk Factors
        • Clinical Characteristics
        • Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
        • Therapy
        • Prevention
        • Outlook
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Primary Progressive Aphasia
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Primary Progressive Aphasia
        • Clinical Presentations
        • Diagnostic Criteria
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Organic Amnesia
        • Abstract
        • Organic Amnesia: Preserved and Impaired Kinds of Cognition
        • Neural Bases of Organic Amnesia
        • Challenges to the Standard View of Organic Amnesia
        • Etiologies of Organic Amnesia
        • See also
        • References
      • Huntington's Disease for Brain Mapping: An Encyclopedic Reference
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Symptoms
        • Genetic Basis
        • Natural History
        • Cognitive Performance in HD
        • Structural Imaging
        • Diffusion-Weighted Imaging
        • Functional Imaging
        • Future Disease-Modifying Therapies
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Human Prion Diseases
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Introduction
        • Prion Pathophysiology
        • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
        • Positron-Emission Tomography
        • Recommended Imaging Protocol
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Corticobasal Degeneration
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Features
        • Pathological Features
        • Neuroimaging Findings
        • Genetics
        • Conclusions and Future Directions
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Frontotemporal Dementias
        • Abstract
        • What Is Frontotemporal Dementia?
        • FTD Clinical Syndromes (Table 1)
        • Progressive Nonfluent Aphasia
        • The FTD Overlap Syndromes
        • Motor Neuron Disease and FTD
        • Genetic Causes of FTD
        • Imaging Findings Associated with FTD Genetic Mutations
        • Neuroimaging Findings Based on Pathology
        • New Advances in Imaging in FTD
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Focal Cortical Degenerations
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia
        • Frontotemporal Dementia with Motor Neuron Disease
        • Semantic Dementia
        • Primary Progressive Apraxia of Speech
        • Progressive Agrammatic Aphasia
        • Logopenic Progressive Aphasia
        • Progressive Limb Apraxia
        • Posterior Cortical Atrophy
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Functional Studies of Parkinson's Disease
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Functional Imaging of Motor Symptoms in PD
        • Functional Imaging of Cognitive Dysfunction
        • Functional Imaging of Behavioral Alterations in PD
        • Functional Imaging of Mood Disorders in PD
        • Functional Imaging of Apathy in PD
        • Functional Imaging of Impulse Control Disorders in PD
        • Functional Imaging of Psychosis in PD
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Brain Mapping Techniques Used to Guide Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Brain Mapping in the Early Years of Functional Neurosurgery
        • Invasive Brain Mapping
        • Brain Mapping in the Modern Era of Functional Neurosurgery
        • Noninvasive Brain Mapping
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Other Hypokinetic Parkinsonian Syndromes
        • Abstract
        • Multiple System Atrophy
        • Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
        • Corticobasal Degeneration
        • Conclusion
        • References
      • Insights into Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome from the Neuroimaging Perspective
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Clinical Case
        • Theoretical Models of Brain Dysfunction
        • Evidence from Brain Anatomy
        • Evidence from Brain Function Studies
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Website
      • Tics and Tremors
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Tics
        • Tremor
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Chorea and Other Hyperkinetic Disorders
        • Abstract
        • Definitions
        • The Role of Structural Imaging
        • HD and Its Mimics
        • MRI in HD
        • MRI in Dystonia
        • Functional Imaging
        • Functional Imaging of Choreas
        • Imaging Inflammation in HD
        • Functional Imaging of Dystonia
        • Motor Activation in Dystonia
        • Dopamine-Responsive Dystonia and Dystonia–Parkinsonism
        • Conclusions
        • References
      • The Anatomy of Parkinsonian Disorders
        • Abstract
        • The Pathology of Parkinsonian Disorders
        • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
        • Transcranial Sonography
        • Functional Imaging
        • The Presynaptic Dopaminergic System
        • Imaging Synaptic Dopamine Levels
        • Tremor and Serotonin
        • Gait and Cholinergic Function
        • Detection of Preclinical PD
        • L-Dopa-Induced Motor Fluctuations and Dyskinesias
        • Nonmotor Complications of PD
        • Multiple-System Atrophy
        • Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
        • Conclusions
        • References
      • Parkinsonian Syndromes
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Introduction
        • Atypical Parkinsonian Disorders
        • MRI in Atypical Parkinsonism
        • Differential Diagnosis of Atypical Parkinsonism
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • The Role of Neuroimaging in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
        • Abstract
        • The Evolution of ALS as a Primary Cerebral Pathology
        • The Role of Neuroimaging in ALS
        • Moving Forward
        • See also
        • References
      • Cerebral Hemodynamics and Homeostatic Mechanisms
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Cerebral Hemodynamics
        • Measuring Hemodynamic Reserves
        • Clinical Applications
        • Summary and Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Early Prognosis Models in Aphasia
        • Abstract
        • Outcome Models in Stroke and Aphasia
        • Neuroimaging Approaches
        • Recovery Mechanisms
        • Conclusion
        • References
      • Remote Dysfunction
        • Abstract
        • What Is ‘Remote Dysfunction’ and What Is It Not?
        • How Can Remote Dysfunction Be Detected?
        • How Can Diaschisis Be Evidenced in the Human Brain?
        • Can Diaschisis Be Structurally Imaged?
        • See also
        • References
      • Cerebral Oxygen Extraction Fraction in Carotid Occlusive Disease: Measurement and Clinical Significance
        • Abstract
        • Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
        • Measurement of OEF
        • Significance of Increased OEF
        • Prevention of Stroke in Patients with Increased OEF
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Hemodynamic and Metabolic Disturbances in Acute Cerebral Infarction
        • Abbreviations
        • Introduction
        • Measurement of Cerebral Blood Flow
        • Collateral Circulation
        • Cerebral Autoregulation
        • Cerebral Blood Volume
        • Ischemic Penumbra
        • Brain Energy Metabolism
        • Glutamate and Glutamine Metabolism
        • Astrocytic Energy Metabolism
        • Selective Neuronal Necrosis
        • Neuroinflammation
        • Measurement of Tissue Hypoxia
        • Measurement of CBF, CBV, OEF, and CMRO2 in Small Animals
        • Summary
        • References
      • Language
        • Abstract
        • The Neurolinguistics of Aphasia
        • Recovery from Aphasia
        • Neural Mechanisms of Aphasia Recovery
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Recovery and Rehabilitation Poststroke
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Imaging Techniques in Stroke
        • Imaging Motor Recovery After Stroke
        • Assessing Network Connectivity
        • Future Applications for Neuroimaging in Neurorehabilitation
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Limbic Seizures
        • Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
        • Lateral Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Presurgical Assessment for Epilepsy Surgery
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
        • Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
        • Single-Photon Emission Cerebral Tomography (SPECT)
        • Electric and Magnetic Source Imaging
        • Multimodal Imaging and Coregistration
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Intraoperative Monitoring
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Mapping and Monitoring the Cortex
        • Mapping and Monitoring Subcortical Tracts
        • Mapping Epileptic Foci
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
        • Glossary
      • Focal Cortical Dysplasia
        • Abstract
        • Etiology of FCDs
        • Classification and Histopathology of FCDs
        • Epidemiology
        • Imaging in FCDs
        • Clinical Aspects
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
      • Epilepsy Therapeutics
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Epilepsy and Pharmacotherapy
        • Pharmacoresistant Epilepsy
        • Epilepsy Surgery
        • Electrical Modulation of the Brain and Epilepsy
        • Alternative Strategies with Antiepileptic Effects
        • Searching for New Antiepileptic Therapies
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Demyelinating Diseases
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Conventional MRI and the Diagnosis of Demyelinating Diseases
        • Imaging Cortical Lesions and the Diagnosis of Demyelinating Diseases
        • Advanced MRI Techniques in Demyelinating Diseases
        • Ultrahigh-Field MRI
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • MRI in Clinical Management of Multiple Sclerosis
        • Abstract
        • Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging Protocol
        • Clinical MRI for MS Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
        • Clinical MRI for Assessing Disease Prognosis and for Guiding Treatment Choice
        • Clinical MRI for Therapy Monitoring
        • Clinical MRI to Detect Treatment Complications
        • See also
        • References
      • Inflammatory Disorders in the Brain and CNS
        • Abstract
        • Central Nervous System Inflammatory Diseases
        • The Future
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
        • Glossary
      • Brain Inflammation, Degeneration, and Plasticity in Multiple Sclerosis
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Brain Inflammation in Multiple Sclerosis
        • Brain Degeneration in MS
        • Brain Plasticity in MS
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Imaging Genetics
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Heritability
        • Pleiotropy
        • Candidate Gene Studies
        • Searching the Genome
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Distribution of Estrogen Synthase (Aromatase) in the Human Brain
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgment
        • PET Studies of Brain Aromatase
        • Gene Expression, Immunoreactivity, and Enzymatic Activity of Aromatase in the Human Brain
        • Brain Aromatase and Neuropsychiatric Disorders
        • Brain Aromatase and Estrogen Receptor Distribution
        • Summary and Future Perspectives
        • References
      • Action of Antipsychotics
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Historical Background of Pharmacotherapy in Schizophrenia
        • Antipsychotics and Dopamine Receptor Blockade
        • Downstream Signaling of Dopamine Receptors
        • Dopamine Receptor Blockade as Mechanism of Action of Antipsychotic Drugs
        • Challenges to Dopamine2 Blockade Theory
        • Alternate Theories to Explain the Action of Antipsychotics
        • Linking Pharmacology and Phenomenology: Aberrant Salience Hypothesis
        • Conclusions
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Schizophrenia
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Structural Neuroimaging
        • Functional Neuroimaging: Regional Activation
        • Functional Neuroimaging: Connectivity
        • Imaging Endophenotypes: Imaging Genetics of Schizophrenia
        • Neuroimaging of Environmental Risk Mechanisms of Schizophrenia
        • Neuroimaging of Gene–Environment Interactions in Schizophrenia
        • Neuroimaging of Treatment Effects
        • See also
        • References
      • Hypomania
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging
        • Functional MRI
        • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Functional Surgery: From Lesioning to Deep Brain Stimulation and Beyond
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • A Brief History of Functional Surgery
        • Deep Brain Stimulation
        • Emerging Techniques in Functional Surgery
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
        • Glossary
      • Depression
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Structural Abnormalities
        • Functional Imaging Studies
        • An Integrative Brain Map of Depression
        • See also
        • References
      • Imaging Studies of Anxiety Disorders
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Generalized Anxiety Disorder
        • Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder
        • Panic Disorder
        • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
        • Social Anxiety Disorder
        • Summary
        • References
      • Emotion and Stress
        • Abstract
        • What Has Neuroimaging Contributed to Our Understanding of Emotion?
        • Stress
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Mapping Neurobiological Alterations in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Gray Matter Abnormalities
        • White Matter Abnormalities
        • Cerebellum Alterations
        • Olfactory-Processing Structure in OCD
        • Different Symptom Dimensions in OCD Exhibit Distinct Neural Correlates
        • Amygdala Activation and Symptom Dimensions in OCD
        • Temporal Lobe
        • Prefrontal Cortex
        • Cortical Surface Anatomy
        • CSTC Circuit Dysfunction
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Neuroimaging Approaches to Understanding Youth Antisocial Behavior
        • Abstract
        • Antisocial Behavior
        • Functional Neuroimaging Studies
        • Structural Neuroimaging Findings
        • Relevant Research from Adult Literature
        • Considerations for Future Research
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Neuroimaging Evidences of Gonadal Steroid Hormone Influences on Reward Processing and Social Decision-Making in Humans
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • The Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Gonadal Axis
        • Toward a Functional Characterization of Gonadal Steroid Hormones on the Brain
        • Estradiol and Progesterone Influences on Brain Activity in Women
        • Menstrual Cycle Influence on the Reward System
        • Hormone Therapy Modulates the Reward System at Menopause
        • Neuroimaging Evidence of the Influences of Testosterone on Brain Activity
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
        • Glossary
      • Functional Paresis
        • Abstract
        • Historical Perspective
        • Current Clinical Perspective
        • Current Theoretical Perspective
        • HOW Is Functional Paralysis Produced?
        • WHY Is Functional Paralysis Produced?
        • See also
        • References
        • Further Reading
        • Abbreviations
      • Limbic to Motor Interactions during Social Perception
        • Abstract
        • Emotions Motivate Actions
        • Interaction between the Emotion and the Motor Systems: The Case of Threat-Related Signals
        • Impact of Self-Relevance
        • Impaired Emotion Processing and Related Action Preparation in Clinical Populations
        • Summary and Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Abbreviations
      • Structural Abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorder
        • Abstract
        • Structural Neuroimaging: A Primer
        • Autism Spectrum Disorders
        • Global Changes to Brain Volume
        • Local Changes in Gray and White Matter
        • Structural Covariance and Cortical Thickness Differences
        • Brain Asymmetry
        • Heritability of the Neurobiology of ASD
        • Summary
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
        • Glossary
      • Imaging Genetics of Neuropsychiatric Disease
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Principles of Imaging Genetics
        • Select Findings in Imaging Genetics
        • Future Directions in Imaging Genetics
        • Functional and Anatomical Connectivity
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Neuropsychiatry
        • Abstract
        • Resources
        • Introduction
        • Pneumoencephalography
        • Computerized Tomography
        • MRI and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
        • Diffusion Tensor Imaging
        • Positron Emission Tomography
        • Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography
        • Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
        • Brainstem Auditory Evoked Responses/Brainstem Evoked Response
        • Electroencephalography
        • Brain Electrical Activity Mapping
        • Magnetoencephalography
        • Clinical Implications
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Brain Mapping in Sleep Medicine
        • Abstract
        • Obstructive Sleep Apnea
        • Restless Limbs Syndrome
        • Insomnia
        • Narcolepsy
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
      • Consciousness: And Disorders of Consciousness
        • Abstract
        • Consciousness
        • Disorders of Consciousness
        • Clinical Assessment of Consciousness
        • Ancillary Testing of Consciousness
        • Conclusion
        • See also
        • References
        • Relevant Websites
        • Glossary
      • Functional Characteristics of Brain Tumor Vascularization
        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • The Blood–Brain Barrier and the Blood–Tumor Barrier
        • The Role of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters
        • Vessel Formation Mechanisms in Brain Tumors
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Functional Molecular Imaging in the Assessment of Brain Tumors
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Background of Anatomical and Functional Imaging Techniques
        • Practical Clinical Advantages of Hybrid Imaging
        • Recent Advances in PET Instrumentation: From PET–CT to Simultaneous or Sequential PET–MRI for Brain Imaging and Their Clinical Advantages
        • Advances in PET Tracers: Their Clinical Implications for Brain Tumor Imaging
        • Molecular Mechanism of Uptake of PET Tracers by Tumors
        • Clinical Applications of PET and MRI in Neurooncology
        • Special Case Scenarios
        • Conclusion
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Disorders of Language
        • Abstract
        • Disorders of Language due to Focal Brain Damage
        • Disorders of Language in Neurodegenerative Disorders
        • Developmental Language Disorders
        • See also
        • References
      • Disorders of Audition
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Disorders of the Auditory Pathway
        • Auditory Disorders Without Associated Structural Lesions
        • Auditory Abnormalities in Other Cognitive Disorders
        • Conclusions
        • See also
        • References
      • Imaging as Means to Study Cerebrovascular Pathophysiology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical Correlates
        • Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
        • Positron-Emission Tomography
        • Imaging the BBB
        • Cerebral SVD
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
      • Mapping the Brain in Primary Headache Disorders
        • Abstract
        • Abbreviations
        • Acknowledgment
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Migraine
        • Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias
        • Integrated View
        • See also
        • References
      • Pain Syndromes
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Osteoarthritis
        • Neuropathic Pain
        • Fibromyalgia
        • Are There Common Central Mechanisms for Chronic Pain?
        • See also
        • References
        • Glossary
  • Index
  • Authors

Details

No. of pages:
2658
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2015
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
9780123970251
eBook ISBN:
9780123973160

About the Editor-in-Chief

Arthur W. Toga

Arthur W. Toga is the Director, Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, Director, Institute of Neuroimaging and Informatics, Provost Professor, Departments of Ophthalmology, Neurology, Psychiatry, and the Behavioral Sciences, Radiology and Engineering at the Keck School of Medicine of USC. His research is focused on neuroimaging, informatics, mapping brain structure and function, and brain atlasing. He has developed multimodal imaging and data aggregation strategies and applied them in a variety of neurological diseases and psychiatric disorders. His work in informatics includes the development and implementation of some of the largest and most widely used databases and data mining tools linking disparate data from genetics, imaging, clinical and behavior, supporting global efforts in Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s and Parkinson’s disease. He was trained in neuroscience and computer science and has written more than 1,000 papers, chapters and abstracts, including eight books. Recruited to USC in 2013, he directs the Laboratory of Neuro Imaging. This 110-member laboratory includes graduate students from computer science, biostatistics and neuroscience. It is funded with grants from the National Institutes of Health grants as well as industry partners. He has received numerous awards and honors in computer science, graphics and neuroscience. Prior to coming to USC he was a Distinguished Professor Neurology at UCLA, held the Geffen Chair of Informatics at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Associate Director of the UCLA Brain Mapping Division within the Neuropsychiatric Institute, and Associate Dean, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA. He is the founding Editor-in-Chief of the journal NeuroImage and holds the chairmanship of numerous committees within NIH and a variety of international task forces.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Neurology Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, University of Southern California California, USA

Awards

2016 PROSE Awards - Honorable Mention, Multivolume - Science: Association of American Publishers, Brain Mapping

Reviews

"... a welcome addition to the neuroscientific literature. Every neuroscientist will want access to this essential resource. Score: 91 - 4 Stars" --Doody's