Description

Lipids are the most abundant organic compounds found in the brain, accounting for up to 50% of its dry weight. The brain lipidome includes several thousands of distinct biochemical structures whose expression may greatly vary according to age, gender, brain region, cell type, as well as subcellular localization. In synaptic membranes, brain lipids specifically interact with neurotransmitter receptors and control their activity. Moreover, brain lipids play a key role in the generation and neurotoxicity of amyloidogenic proteins involved in the pathophysiology of neurological diseases. The aim of this book is to provide for the first time a comprehensive overview of brain lipid structures, and to explain the roles of these lipids in synaptic function, and in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Creutzfeldt-Jakob’s and Parkinson’s. To conclude the book, the authors present new ideas that can drive innovative therapeutic strategies based on the knowledge of the role of lipids in brain disorders.

Key Features

  • Written to provide a "hands-on" approach for readers
  • Biochemical structures explained with molecular models, and molecular mechanisms explained with simple drawings
  • Step-by-step guide to memorize and draw lipid structures
  • Each chapter features a content summary, up-to-date references for additional study, and a key experiment with an explanation of the technique

Readership

Neuroscience graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, experienced researchers new to neuroscience, and senior researchers that want technique updates

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • About the Authors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 1: Chemical Basis of Lipid Biochemistry
    • Abstract
    • 1.1. Introduction
    • 1.2. Chemistry background
    • 1.3. Molecular interactions
    • 1.4. Solubility in water: what is it?
    • 1.5. Lipid biochemistry
    • 1.6. Biochemical diversity of brain lipids
    • 1.7. A key experiment: lipid analysis by thin layer chromatography
  • Chapter 2: Brain Membranes
    • Abstract
    • 2.1. Why lipids are different from all other biomolecules
    • 2.2. Role of structured water in molecular interactions
    • 2.3. Lipid self-assembly, a water-driven process?
    • 2.4. Lipid–lipid interactions: why such a high specificity?
    • 2.5. Nonbilayer phases and lipid dynamics
    • 2.6. The plasma membrane of glial cells and neurons: the lipid perspective
    • 2.7. Key experiments on lipid density
  • Chapter 3: Lipid Metabolism and Oxidation in Neurons and Glial Cells
    • Abstract
    • 3.1. General aspects of lipid metabolism
    • 3.2. Cholesterol
    • 3.3. Sphingolipids
    • 3.4. Phosphoinositides
    • 3.5. Phosphatidic acid
    • 3.6. Endocannabinoids
    • 3.7. Lipid peroxidation
    • 3.8. Key experiment: Alzheimer’s disease, cholesterol, and statins: where is the link?
  • Chapter 4: Variations of Brain Lipid Content
    • Abstract
    • 4.1. Brain lipids: how to bring order to the galaxy
    • 4.2. Variations in brain cholesterol content
    • 4.3. Variations in brain ganglioside content
    • 4.4. Variations in myelin lipids
    • 4.5. Impact of nutrition on brain lipid content
    • 4.6. Key ex

Details

No. of pages:
398
Language:
English
Copyright:
© 2015
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128004920
Print ISBN:
9780128001110

About the authors

Jacques Fantini

Jacques Fantini was born in France in 1960. He has over 30 years of teaching and research experience in biochemistry and neurochemistry areas. Since 1998, he is professor of biochemistry and honorary member of the ‘Institut Universitaire de France’. He has demonstrated the implication of glycolipids in the attachment and fusion of HIV-1 with the plasma membrane of target cells, and has published several important articles in this field. He is an active member of the research group ‘Molecular Interactions in Model and Biological Membrane Systems’ led by Nouara Yahi. This group is internationally recognized for studies of lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions pertaining to virus fusion, amyloid aggregation, oligomerization and pore formation. Together with Nouara Yahi, Jacques Fantini has discovered the universal sphingolipid-binding domain (SBD) in proteins with no sequence homology but sharing common structural features mediating sphingolipid recognition. The SBD is present in a broad range of infectious and amyloid proteins, revealing common mechanisms of pathogenesis in viral and bacterial brain infections, and in neurodegenerative diseases. His current research is focused on the molecular organization of the synapse in physiological and pathological conditions. Jacques Fantini is the author/co-author of 167 articles (PubMed), with 5800 citations and a H-index of 42. He has also published 4 patent applications.

Affiliations and Expertise

Molecular Interactions in Model and Biological Membranes Laboratory, Faculty of Science and Technology, Marseille, France

Nouara Yahi

Nouara Yahi was born in France in 1964. She has accumulated 25 years of fundamental research and teaching experience in virology and molecular biology areas. She has been a pioneer in the analysis of resistance mutations in patients with HIV infections, and has published several important articles in this field. She is currently professor of biochemistry at Aix-Marseille University and leader of the research group ‘Molecular Interactions in Model and Biological Membrane Systems’. This group is internationally recognized for studies of lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions pertaining to virus fusion, amyloid aggregation, oligomerization and pore formation. Together with her teammate Jacques Fantini, Nouara Yahi has discovered the universal sphingolipid-binding domain (SBD) in proteins with no sequence homology but sharing common structural features mediating sphingolipid recognition. The SBD is present in a broad range of infectious and amyloid proteins, revealing common mechanisms of pathogenesis in viral and bacterial brain infections, and in neurodegenerative diseases. Nouara Yahi is the author/co-author of 82 articles (PubMed), with 3500 citations and a H-index of 35. She has also published 5 patent applications.

Affiliations and Expertise

Molecular Interactions in Model and Biological Membranes Laboratory, Faculty of Science and Technology, Marseille, France