Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice, 2-Volume Set

Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice, 2-Volume Set

7th Edition - October 13, 2015

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  • Authors: Robert Daroff, Joseph Jankovic, John Mazziotta, Scott Pomeroy
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323339162

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Description

Comprehensive, easy to read, and clinically relevant, Bradley’s Neurology in Clinical Practice provides the most up-to-date information presented by a veritable "Who's Who" of clinical neuroscience. Its unique organization allows users to access content both by presenting symptom/sign and by specific disease entities—mirroring the way neurologists practice. A practical, straightforward style; templated organization; evidence-based references; and robust interactive content combine to make this an ideal, dynamic resource for both practicing neurologists and trainees.

Key Features

  • Authoritative, up-to-date guidance from Drs. Daroff, Jankovic, Mazziotta, and Pomeroy along with more than 150 expert contributors equips you to effectively diagnose and manage the full range of neurological disorders.
  • True-to-life view of how neurological disorders manifest through detailed videos covering EEG and seizures, deep brain stimulation for PD and tremor, sleep disorders, movement disorders, ocular oscillations, EMG evaluation, cranial neuropathies, disorders of upper and lower motor neurons, as well as other neurologic signs.
  • Easy searches through an intuitive organization by both symptom and grouping of diseases mirrors the way you practice.

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title Page
  • Table of Contents
  • Dedication
  • Copyright
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • List of Contributors
  • Video Table of Contents
  • Volume 1 Principles of Diagnosis
  • Part I Common Neurological Problems
  • 1 Diagnosis of Neurological Disease
  • Neurological Interview
  • Chief Complaint
  • History of Present Illness
  • Review of Patient-Specific Information
  • Examination
  • Assessment of the Cause of the Patient's Symptoms
  • Management of Neurological Disorders
  • Experienced Neurologist's Approach to the Diagnosis of Common Neurological Problems
  • 2 Episodic Impairment of Consciousness
  • Syncope
  • Seizures
  • Miscellaneous Causes of Altered Consciousness
  • References
  • 3 Falls and Drop Attacks
  • Drop Attacks with Loss of Consciousness
  • Drop Attacks without Loss of Consciousness
  • Falls
  • Summary
  • References
  • 4 Delirium
  • Clinical Characteristics
  • Pathophysiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Prevention and Management
  • Prognosis
  • References
  • 5 Stupor and Coma
  • Definitions
  • Conditions That May Mimic Coma
  • Approach to the Patient in Coma
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Prognosis
  • Brain Death
  • References
  • 6 Brain Death, Vegetative State, and Minimally Conscious States
  • Brain Death
  • Prolonged Disorders of Consciousness
  • Imaging in Disorders of Consciousness
  • Decision-making and bioethics
  • References
  • 7 Intellectual and Memory Impairments
  • Neural Basis of Cognition
  • Memory
  • Other Types of Memory (Nondeclarative or Implicit Memory)
  • Bedside Tests of Memory and Cognitive Function
  • References
  • 8 Global Developmental Delay and Regression
  • Typical and Atypical Development
  • Global Developmental Delay
  • Management
  • Prognosis
  • Recurrence Risk
  • Regression
  • References
  • 9 Behavior and Personality Disturbances
  • Frontosubcortical Circuitry
  • Assessing Behavior and Personality Disturbances in Patients with Cerebral Dysfunction
  • Behavior and Personality Disturbances Associated with Cerebral Dysfunction
  • References
  • 10 Depression and Psychosis in Neurological Practice
  • Principles of Differential Diagnosis
  • Principles of Neuropsychiatric Evaluation
  • Cognitive-Affective-Behavioral Brain Behavior Relationships
  • Biology of Psychosis
  • Biology of Depression
  • Clinical Symptoms and Signs Suggesting Neurological Disease
  • Psychiatric Manifestations of Neurological Disease
  • Treatment Modalities
  • Treatment Principles
  • References
  • 11 Limb Apraxias and Related Disorders
  • Historical Perspective
  • A Model for Praxis
  • Classification of Limb Apraxias
  • Testing for Limb Apraxias
  • Pathophysiology of Limb Apraxias
  • Rehabilitation for Limb Apraxias
  • Related Disorders
  • Summary
  • References
  • 12 Agnosias
  • Visual Agnosias
  • Auditory Agnosias
  • Tactile Agnosias
  • Summary
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 13 Aphasia and Aphasic Syndromes
  • Symptoms and Differential Diagnosis of Disordered Language
  • Bedside Language Examination
  • Differential Diagnosis of Aphasic Syndromes
  • Language in Right Hemisphere Disorders
  • Language in Dementing Diseases
  • Investigation of the Aphasic Patient
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Recovery and Rehabilitation of Aphasia
  • References
  • 14 Dysarthria and Apraxia of Speech
  • Motor Speech Disorders
  • References
  • 15 Neurogenic Dysphagia
  • Normal Swallowing
  • Neurophysiology of Swallowing
  • Mechanical Dysphagia
  • Neuromuscular Dysphagia
  • Neurogenic Dysphagia
  • Evaluation of Dysphagia
  • References
  • 16 Visual Loss
  • Pattern of Visual Loss
  • Temporal Profile of Visual Loss
  • References
  • 17 Abnormalities of the Optic Nerve and Retina
  • Optic Nerve Anatomy and Physiology
  • The Swollen Optic Disc
  • Optic Neuropathies with Normal-Appearing Optic Discs
  • Optic Neuropathies with Optic Atrophy
  • Congenital Optic Disc Anomalies
  • Retinal Disorders
  • References
  • 18 Pupillary and Eyelid Abnormalities
  • Pupillary Abnormalities
  • Eyelid Abnormalities
  • References
  • 19 Disturbances of Smell and Taste
  • Anatomy and Physiology
  • Chemosensory Testing
  • Disorders of Olfaction
  • Disorders of Taste
  • Clinical Evaluation of Taste and Smell
  • Treatment and Management
  • References
  • 20 Cranial and Facial Pain
  • History
  • Examination
  • Diagnostic Testing
  • Further Observation
  • References
  • 21 Brainstem Syndromes
  • Ocular Motor Syndromes
  • Syndromes Involving Ocular Motor Nuclei
  • Other Brainstem and Associated Syndromes
  • Brainstem Ischemic Stroke Syndromes
  • References
  • 22 Ataxic and Cerebellar Disorders
  • Symptoms and Signs of Ataxic Disorders
  • Diagnostic Approach to Ataxia
  • References
  • 23 Diagnosis and Assessment of Parkinson Disease and Other Movement Disorders
  • Parkinsonism
  • Tremor
  • Dystonia
  • Chorea
  • Tardive Dyskinesia
  • Ballism
  • Tics
  • Myoclonus
  • Miscellaneous Movement Disorders
  • Investigation of Movement Disorders
  • References
  • 24 Gait Disorders
  • Physiological and Biomechanical Aspects of Gait
  • Anatomical Aspects of Gait
  • History: Common Symptoms and Associations
  • Examination of Posture and Walking
  • Motor and Sensory Examination
  • Discrepancies on Examination of Gait
  • Classification of Gait Patterns
  • Elderly Gait Patterns, Cautious Gaits, and Fear of Falling
  • Perceptions of Instability and Illusions of Movement
  • Reckless Gait Patterns
  • Hysterical and Psychogenic Gait Disorders
  • Musculoskeletal Disorders and Antalgic Gait
  • References
  • 25 Hemiplegia and Monoplegia
  • Anatomy and Physiology
  • Hemiplegia
  • Monoplegia
  • Pitfalls in the Differential Diagnosis of Hemiplegia and Monoplegia
  • References
  • 26 Paraplegia and Spinal Cord Syndromes
  • Common Spinal Cord Syndromes
  • Characteristic Clinical Features of Lesions at Different Levels
  • Pain and Autonomic Dysfunction
  • References
  • 27 Proximal, Distal, and Generalized Weakness
  • Clinical Presentation by Affected Region
  • Bedside Examination of the Weak Patient
  • Functional Evaluation of the Weak Patient
  • Clinical Investigations in Muscular Weakness
  • Differential Diagnosis by Affected Region and Other Manifestations of Weakness
  • References
  • 28 Muscle Pain and Cramps
  • General Features of Pain
  • Muscle Pain: Basic Concepts
  • Clinical Features of Muscle Pain
  • Muscle Discomfort: Specific Causes
  • References
  • 29 Hypotonic (Floppy) Infant
  • Approach to Diagnosis
  • Specific Disorders Associated with Hypotonia in Infancy
  • Summary
  • References
  • 30 Sensory Abnormalities of the Limbs, Trunk, and Face
  • Anatomy and Physiology
  • Approach to Localization and Diagnosis
  • Common Sensory Syndromes
  • Pitfalls
  • References
  • 31 Arm and Neck Pain
  • Clinical Assessment
  • Pathology and Clinical Syndromes
  • Further Reading
  • 32 Lower Back and Lower Limb Pain
  • Anatomy and Physiology
  • Approach to Diagnosis of Low Back and Leg Pain
  • Clinical Syndromes
  • Pitfalls
  • References
  • Part II Neurological Investigations and Related Clinical Neurosciences
  • Section A General Principles
  • 33 Laboratory Investigations in Diagnosis and Management of Neurological Disease
  • Diagnostic Yield of Laboratory Tests
  • Interpretation of Results of Laboratory Investigations
  • Risk and Cost of Investigations
  • Prioritization of Tests
  • Reliability of Laboratory Investigations
  • Decision Analysis
  • Research Investigations and Teaching Hospitals
  • Patient Confidentiality
  • Role of Laboratory Investigations in Neurological Disease Management
  • Section B Clinical Neurophysiology
  • 34 Electroencephalography and Evoked Potentials
  • Electroencephalography
  • Evoked Potentials
  • Intraoperative Monitoring
  • References
  • 35 Clinical Electromyography
  • Nerve Conduction Studies
  • Needle Electromyographic Examination
  • Specialized Electrodiagnostic Studies
  • References
  • 36 Neuromodulation and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
  • Methods and Their Neurophysiological Background
  • Stimulation Parameters for Diagnostic Use of TMS
  • Clinical Applications for Diagnostic Use of TMS
  • Therapeutic Applications
  • Conclusion and Outlook
  • References
  • 37 Deep Brain Stimulation
  • Parkinson Disease
  • Dystonia
  • Tremor
  • Neuropsychiatric Disorders
  • Pain
  • Epilepsy
  • Closed Loop Stimulation—The Epilepsy Experience
  • Conclusions and the Future of DBS
  • References
  • 38 Intraoperative Monitoring
  • Introduction
  • Techniques
  • Interpretation
  • Response to Change
  • Prediction of Deficits
  • Anesthesia
  • Clinical Settings
  • References
  • Section C Neuroimaging
  • 39 Structural Imaging using Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography
  • Computed Tomography
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Structural Neuroimaging in the Clinical Practice of Neurology
  • Indications for Computed Tomography or Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • References
  • 40 Vascular Imaging
  • Computed Tomographic Angiography
  • Magnetic Resonance Angiography
  • Ultrasound
  • References
  • 41 Functional Neuroimaging
  • Functional Neuroimaging Modalities
  • Clinical Applications
  • References
  • 42 Chemical Imaging
  • Principles of Positron Emission Tomography
  • Positron Emission Tomography versus Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography
  • Neurochemical Targets of Interest
  • Assessment of Pathology
  • Clinical Studies
  • Concluding Comments
  • References
  • Section D Clinical Neurosciences
  • 43 Neuropsychology
  • Goals of Neuropsychology
  • Neuropsychological Evaluation
  • Brief Mental Status Examination
  • Neuropsychological Characteristics of Neurological Disease
  • References
  • 44 Neuro-ophthalmology
  • Heterophorias and Heterotropias
  • Nystagmus
  • Saccadic Intrusions and Other Non-Nystagmus Ocular Oscillations
  • Generation and Control of Eye Movements
  • Development of the Ocular Motor System
  • Supranuclear Gaze Disturbances
  • Eye Movement Recording Techniques
  • References
  • 45 Neuro-Ophthalmology
  • Neuro-ophthalmological Examination of the Afferent Visual System
  • Ancillary Diagnostic Techniques
  • Nonorganic (Functional) Visual Disturbances
  • References
  • 46 Neuro-otology
  • Historical Background
  • Epidemiology of Vertigo, Dizziness, and Hearing Loss
  • Normal Anatomy and Physiology
  • History of Present Illness
  • Physical Examination
  • Specific Disorders Causing Vertigo
  • Common Causes of Nonspecific Dizziness
  • Common Presentations of Vertigo
  • Hearing Loss
  • Specific Disorders Causing Hearing Loss
  • Common Presentations of Hearing Loss
  • Tinnitus
  • Laboratory Investigations in Diagnosis and Management
  • Management of Patients with Vertigo
  • Management of Patients with Hearing Loss and Tinnitus
  • References
  • 47 Neurourology
  • Lower Urinary Tract and Its Neurological Control
  • The Bowel and Its Neurological Control
  • Sexual Function and Its Neurological Control
  • Neurogenic Bladder Dysfunction
  • Diagnostic Evaluation
  • Complications Arising from Neurogenic Bladder Dysfunction
  • Management of Neurogenic Bladder Dysfunction
  • Management of Neurogenic Sexual Dysfunction
  • Management of Fecal Incontinence
  • Management of Fecal Incontinence
  • References
  • 48 Sexual Dysfunctions in Neurological Disorders
  • The Neurophysiology of Human Sexual Response
  • The Impact of Neurological Conditions on Sexual Function
  • Treatment Options for the Primary Impact of Neurological Conditions on Sexual Function
  • Treatment Options for Secondary Impact Consequences of Neurological Conditions on Sexual Function
  • Treatment Options for Tertiary Consequences of Neurological Conditions on Sexual Function
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 49 Neuroepidemiology
  • Population-Based Rates
  • Cerebrovascular Disease
  • Primary Neoplasms
  • Convulsive Disorders
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Movement Disorders
  • Selected Infections and Neurological Disease
  • Overview of the Frequency of Neurological Disorders
  • References
  • 50 Clinical Neurogenetics
  • Genetics in Clinical Neurology
  • Gene Expression, Diversity, and Regulation
  • Types of Genetic Variation and Mutations
  • Chromosomal Analysis and Abnormalities
  • Disorders of Mendelian Inheritance
  • Mendelian Disease Gene Identification by Linkage Analysis and Chromosome Mapping
  • Non-Mendelian Patterns of Inheritance
  • Common Neurological Disorders and Complex Disease Genetics
  • Genome/Exome Sequencing in Clinical Practice and Disease Gene Discovery
  • Future Role of Systems Biology in Neurogenetic Disease
  • Environmental Contributions to Neurogenetic Disease
  • Genetics and the Paradox of Disease Definition
  • Clinical Approach to the Patient with Suspected Neurogenetic Disease
  • References
  • 51 Neuroimmunology
  • Immune System
  • Organization of the Immune Response
  • Self-Tolerance
  • Immune System and Central Nervous System
  • Putative Mechanisms of Human Autoimmune Disease
  • Neuroimmunological Diseases
  • Immune Response to Infectious Diseases
  • Tumor Immunology
  • Antibody-Associated Neurological Syndromes
  • Immunology of Central Nervous System Transplant
  • Summary
  • References
  • 52 Neuroendocrinology
  • Neuropeptides, Neurotransmitters, and Neurohormones
  • Neuropeptides and the Immune System
  • Nonendocrine Hypothalamus
  • Endocrine Hypothalamus: The Hypothalamic–Pituitary Unit
  • Anterior Pituitary
  • Posterior Pituitary
  • Approach to the Patient with Hypothalamic-Pituitary Dysfunction
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors
  • References
  • Volume 2 Neurological Disorders and Their Management
  • Part III Neurological Diseases and Their Treatment
  • Section A Principles of Management
  • 53 Management of Neurological Disease
  • Principles of Neurological Management
  • Evidence-Based Medicine in Neurology
  • Goals of Treatment
  • Principles of Symptom Management
  • Explaining the Prognosis
  • Palliation and Care of the Terminally Ill Patient
  • Genetic Counseling
  • Legal Issues
  • Implications for Clinical Practice
  • References
  • 54 Principles of Pain Management
  • Definition and Challenge
  • Anatomy and Physiology of the Pain Pathways
  • Multidisciplinary Approach to Pain Management
  • Pharmacological Management of Chronic Pain
  • Interventional Pain Management
  • Psychological Therapy in Chronic Pain Management
  • Rehabilitation in Chronic Pain Management
  • Common Pain Syndromes
  • Summary
  • References
  • 55 Principles of Neurointensive Care
  • Clinical Assessment of Critically Ill Neurological Patients
  • Monitoring in the Neurointensive Care Unit
  • Global Brain Monitoring Techniques
  • Regional/Focal Brain Monitoring Techniques
  • Principles of Managing Critically Ill Neurological Patients
  • References
  • 56 Principles of Neurointerventional Therapy
  • Ischemic Stroke
  • Hemorrhagic Stroke
  • Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations
  • Cerebral Arteriovenous Fistulas
  • Spinal Vascular Malformations
  • Tumor Embolization
  • Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension
  • References
  • 57 Neurological Rehabilitation
  • Goals and Structure of Rehabilitation
  • Biological Bases for Rehabilitative Interventions
  • Neuromedical Problems during Rehabilitation
  • Therapies for Impairments and Disabilities
  • Therapies for Cognitive and Behavioral Disabilities
  • Functional Outcomes with Rehabilitation
  • Future Directions
  • References
  • Section B Neurological Complications of Systemic Disease
  • 58 Neurological Complications of Systemic Disease
  • Cardiac Disorders and the Nervous System
  • Diseases of the Aorta
  • Connective Tissue Diseases and Vasculitides
  • Respiratory Diseases
  • Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Hematological Disorders with Anemia
  • Proliferative Hematological Disorders
  • Hemorrhagic Diseases
  • Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndromes
  • Liver Disease
  • Pancreatic Encephalopathy
  • Gastrointestinal Diseases
  • Renal Failure
  • Electrolyte Disturbances
  • Pituitary Disease
  • Diabetes Insipidus
  • Thyroid Disease
  • Parathyroid Disease
  • Adrenal Glands
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • References
  • 59 Neurological Complications of Systemic Disease
  • Cardiac Disorders and the Nervous System
  • Connective Tissue Diseases and Vasculitides
  • Respiratory Disorders
  • Hypertension
  • Hematological Disorders
  • Gastrointestinal Disorders
  • Endocrine Disorders
  • Renal Disorders
  • References
  • Section C Trauma of the Nervous System
  • 60 Basic Neuroscience of Neurotrauma
  • Experimental Models of Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Neuronal Damage after Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Basic Mechanisms of Injury
  • Therapeutic Interventions Directed Against Pathophysiological Processes
  • Inflammation
  • Recovery of Function
  • Summary and Future Directions
  • References
  • 61 Sports and Performance Concussion
  • Epidemiology
  • Definition
  • Pathophysiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Acute and Subacute Management
  • Risk Involved with Premature Return to Participation
  • Long-Term Effects
  • When to Retire an Athlete
  • Prevention
  • References
  • 62 Craniocerebral Trauma
  • Epidemiology
  • Classification
  • Pathophysiolgy
  • Treatment
  • Late Complications
  • Outcome
  • Future of TBI
  • References
  • 63 Spinal Cord Trauma
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Spinal Cord Injury Syndromes
  • Transient Spinal Cord Syndromes
  • Spinal Shock
  • Mechanisms and Types of Injuries
  • Management of Acute Spinal Cord Injuries
  • SCIWORA
  • Treatment of Spinal Cord Injuries in the Acute Setting
  • Stabilization and Support
  • Long-Term Management of Spinal Cord Injuries
  • Delayed Post-traumatic Spinal Cord Syndromes
  • Autonomic Dysreflexia
  • Deep Vein Thrombosis and Thromboembolism in Spinal Cord Injury
  • Future Directions
  • References
  • 64 Trauma of the Nervous System
  • Anatomy of the Spinal Nerves of the Peripheral Nervous System
  • Classification of Nerve Trauma
  • Peripheral Nerve Degeneration and Regeneration
  • Mechanisms of Traumatic Nerve Injury
  • Evaluation of Nerve Trauma
  • Surgical Repair of Nerve Trauma
  • Management of Neuropathic Pain Associated with Nerve Trauma
  • Movement Disorders after Nerve Trauma
  • Future Directions in Treatment of Nerve Trauma
  • References
  • Section D Vascular Diseases of the Nervous System
  • 65 Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease
  • Epidemiology and Risk Factors
  • Pathophysiology of Cerebral Ischemia
  • Pathology of Ischemic Stroke
  • Clinical Syndromes of Cerebral Ischemia
  • Diagnosis and Treatment of Threatened Ischemic Stroke
  • Large-Artery Atherothrombotic Infarctions
  • Small-Vessel or Penetrating Artery Disease
  • Cardiogenic Embolism
  • Nonatherosclerotic Vasculopathies
  • Inherited and Miscellaneous Disorders
  • Hypercoagulable Disorders
  • Infarcts of Undetermined Cause
  • Essential Investigations for Patients with Threatened Strokes
  • Preventing Stroke Recurrence: Medical Therapy
  • Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke
  • General Management of Acute Ischemic Stroke
  • Cerebral Venous Thrombosis
  • References
  • 66 Intracerebral Hemorrhage
  • Mechanisms of Intracerebral Hemorrhage
  • Clinical Features of Intracerebral Hemorrhage
  • Treatment of Intracerebral Hemorrhage
  • References
  • 67 Intracranial Aneurysms and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Natural History of Intracranial Aneurysms
  • Imaging Modalities and Diagnosis
  • Symptoms
  • Treatment of Incidental Intracranial Aneurysms
  • Management of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
  • References
  • 68 Stroke in Children
  • Stroke and the Developing Cerebrovascular System
  • Epidemiology
  • Presentations
  • Etiology
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Evaluation
  • Treatment
  • Summary
  • References
  • 69 Spinal Cord Vascular Disease
  • Vascular Anatomy of the Spinal Cord
  • Vascular Anatomy of the Spinal Cord
  • Spinal Cord Infarction
  • Spinal Vascular Malformations
  • Spinal Cavernous Malformation
  • Spinal Hemorrhage
  • References
  • 70 Central Nervous System Vasculitis
  • Types of Central Nervous System Vasculitis
  • Isolated Central Nervous System Vasculitis
  • Central Nervous System Vasculitis Associated with Other Disorders
  • References
  • Section E Cancer and the Nervous System
  • 71 Epidemiology of Brain Tumors
  • Classification
  • Descriptive Epidemiology
  • Analytical Epidemiology
  • Summary
  • References
  • 72 Pathology and Molecular Genetics
  • General Principles of Nervous System Tumor Biology
  • History of Nervous System Tumor Classification Schemes
  • General Histopathological Features and Techniques
  • Primary Neuroepithelial Tumors
  • Meningeal/Extra-axial Tumors
  • Nerve Sheath Tumors
  • Miscellaneous Tumors
  • Metastatic Tumors
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 73 Clinical Features of Brain Tumors and Complications of Their Treatment
  • Clinical Features of Brain Tumors
  • Complications of Brain Tumor Treatment
  • References
  • 74 Primary Nervous System Tumors in Adults
  • General Aspects
  • Management of Specific Brain Tumors
  • References
  • 75 Primary Nervous System Tumors in Infants and Children
  • Pediatric Primary Nervous System Tumors
  • Embryonal Tumors
  • Astrocytic Tumors
  • Neuronal and Mixed Neuronal-Glial Tumors
  • Other Central Nervous System Tumors
  • Treatment-Related Complications in Infants and Children with Primary Nervous System Tumors
  • Summary
  • References
  • 76 Nervous System Metastases
  • Brain Metastases
  • Spinal Cord Compression
  • Intramedullary Spinal Metastases
  • Skull and Dural Metastases
  • Leptomeningeal Metastases
  • Plexus Metastases
  • Peripheral Nerve Metastases
  • References
  • Section F Infections of the Nervous System
  • 77 Neurological Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Adults
  • Epidemiology and Current Trends
  • HIV Genome, Replication, and Molecular Heterogeneity of HIV
  • Natural History of HIV Infection and Neuro-HIV Disease
  • Neuropathogenesis of HIV Disease
  • Antiretroviral Therapy and Its Effect on Neuro-HIV Disease
  • Clinical Spectrum of Neuro-HIV Disease
  • Major HIV-Associated Neurological Syndromes
  • HIV-Associated Neuromuscular Disorders
  • References
  • 78 Viral Encephalitis and Meningitis
  • Deoxyribonucleic Acid Viruses
  • Ribonucleic Acid Viruses
  • References
  • 79 Bacterial, Fungal and Parasitic Diseases of the Nervous System
  • Bacterial Infections of the Central Nervous System
  • Fungal Infections of the Central Nervous System
  • Parasitic Infections of the Central Nervous System
  • Summary
  • References
  • Section G Neurological Disorders
  • 80 Multiple Sclerosis and Other Inflammatory Demyelinating Diseases of the Central Nervous System
  • Pathophysiology
  • Pathology
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Symptoms and Physical Findings
  • Diagnosis
  • Clinical Course and Prognosis
  • Variants of Multiple Sclerosis
  • Treatment and Management
  • Other Inflammatory Demyelinating Diseases of the Central Nervous System
  • References
  • 81 Paraneoplastic Disorders of the Nervous System
  • Pathogenesis
  • General Diagnostic Approach
  • Specific PNSs and Their Treatment
  • References
  • 82 Autoimmune Encephalitis with Antibodies to Cell Surface Antigens
  • Specific Syndromes
  • General Treatment Recommendations
  • References
  • 83 Anoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy
  • Pathophysiological Concepts
  • Clinical Examination
  • Management
  • Approach to Prediction of Prognosis
  • Laboratory and Electrophysiological Testing
  • Neuroimaging
  • References
  • 84 Toxic and Metabolic Encephalopathies
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Toxic Encephalopathies
  • Metabolic Disturbances
  • References
  • 85 Deficiency Diseases of the Nervous System
  • Cobalamin (Vitamin B12)
  • Folate Deficiency and Homocysteine
  • Vitamin E
  • Pellagra (Nicotinic Acid Deficiency)
  • Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
  • Thiamine
  • Wernicke–Korsakoff Syndrome
  • Other Diseases Associated with Alcoholism
  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin D
  • Miscellaneous Deficiency Diseases
  • References
  • 86 Effects of Toxins and Physical Agents on the Nervous System
  • Occupational Exposure to Organic Chemicals
  • Occupational Exposure to Metals
  • Effects of Ionizing Radiation
  • Effects of Nonionizing Radiation
  • Electric Current and Lightning
  • Vibration
  • Hyperthermia
  • Hypothermia
  • Burns
  • Neurotoxins of Animals and Insects
  • Neurotoxins of Plants and Fungi
  • Marine Neurotoxins
  • References
  • 87 Effects of Drug Abuse on the Nervous System
  • Drugs of Dependence
  • Neurological Complications
  • References
  • 88 Brain Edema and Disorders of Cerebrospinal Fluid Circulation
  • Blood–Brain Interfaces
  • Brain Edema
  • Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 89 Developmental Disorders of the Nervous System
  • Embryological and Fetal Development of the Nervous System
  • Neurulation
  • Mitotic Proliferation of Neuroblasts (Neuronogenesis)
  • Programmed Cell Death (Apoptosis)
  • Neuroblast Migration
  • Fissures and Sulci of Cortical Structures
  • Growth of Axons and Dendrites
  • Electrical Polarity of the Cell Membrane
  • Synaptogenesis
  • Biosynthesis of Neurotransmitters
  • Myelination
  • Cajal-Retzius Neurons and Subplate Neurons of the Fetal Brain
  • Etiology of Central Nervous System Malformations
  • Molecular Genetic Classification of Malformations of the Nervous System
  • Clinical Expression of Selected Malformations of the Nervous System
  • References
  • 90 Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities
  • Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Intellectual Disability
  • Cerebral Palsy
  • Learning Disabilities
  • References
  • 91 Inborn Errors of Metabolism and the Nervous System
  • General Considerations
  • Disorders Involving Complex Molecules
  • Disorders Involving Small Molecules
  • Other Subclassifications of IEM
  • Acknowledgement
  • References
  • 92 Neurodegenerative Disease Processes
  • Where Do Neurodegenerative Disorders Begin?
  • Mechanisms of Cell Loss in Neurodegeneration
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 93 Mitochondrial Disorders
  • Genetics of Mitochondrial Disorders
  • Pathophysiology of Mitochondrial Disorders
  • Approach to the Diagnosis of Mitochondrial Disorders
  • Mitochondrial Clinical Syndromes
  • Management of Mitochondrial Diseases
  • Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Neurodegenerative Disease
  • References
  • 94 Prion Diseases
  • Human Prion Diseases
  • Clinical Aspects of Human Prion Diseases
  • Diagnosis of Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease
  • Treatments of Human Prion Diseases
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • References
  • 95 Alzheimer Disease and other Dementias
  • Normal Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment
  • Dementia
  • Alzheimer Disease
  • Neurodegenerative Dementias Associated with Parkinsonism
  • Frontotemporal Dementias
  • Vascular Dementia (Vascular Cognitive Impairment)
  • Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
  • Chronic Traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)/ Post-traumatic Dementia
  • Other Causes
  • Young Onset Dementia
  • References
  • 96 Parkinson Disease and Other Movement Disorders
  • Movement Disorders and the Basal Ganglia
  • Mechanisms of Neurodegeneration
  • Parkinsonian Disorders
  • Tremor
  • Chorea
  • Tardive Dyskinesia
  • Dystonia
  • Tics
  • Myoclonus
  • Miscellaneous Movement Disorders
  • References
  • 97 Disorders of the Cerebellum, Including the Degenerative Ataxias
  • Acquired Ataxias
  • Inherited Ataxias
  • Sporadic Ataxias
  • References
  • 98 Disorders of Upper and Lower Motor Neurons
  • Disorders of Upper Motor Neurons
  • Disorders of Lower Motor Neurons
  • Disorders of Both Upper and Lower Motor Neurons
  • References
  • 99 Channelopathies
  • Ion Channels
  • Genetic Disorders of Muscular Ion Channels
  • Genetic Disorders of Neuronal Ion Channels
  • Epilepsy
  • Autoimmune Channelopathies
  • Summary
  • References
  • 100 Neurocutaneous Syndromes
  • Tuberous Sclerosis
  • Neurofibromatosis
  • Sturge-Weber Syndrome
  • Von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome
  • Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia
  • Hypomelanosis of Ito
  • Incontinentia Pigmenti
  • Ataxia-Telangiectasia
  • Epidermal Nevus Syndrome
  • Neurocutaneous Melanosis
  • Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
  • Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis
  • Progressive Facial Hemiatrophy
  • Kinky Hair Syndrome (Menkes Disease)
  • Xeroderma Pigmentosum
  • Other Neurological Conditions with Cutaneous Manifestations
  • References
  • 101 Epilepsies
  • Seizures and Epilepsy Definitions
  • Ictal Phenomenology
  • Classification of Seizures
  • Seizure Types
  • Classification of Epilepsies and Epileptic Syndromes
  • Seizure Precipitants
  • Epidemiology of Epilepsy and Seizures
  • Morbidity and Mortality
  • Pathophysiology and Mechanisms
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Evaluation and Diagnosis
  • Medical Therapy
  • Surgical Therapy
  • Other Therapies
  • Quality-of-Care Standards in the Management of Epilepsy
  • Seizure Clusters and Status Epilepticus
  • References
  • 102 Sleep and Its Disorders
  • Definition of Sleep and Moment of Sleep Onset
  • Physiological Changes in Sleep
  • Sleep Deprivation and Sleepiness
  • Classification of Sleep Disorders
  • Clinical Phenomenology
  • Laboratory Assessment of Sleep Disorders
  • Principles of Management of Sleep Disorders
  • References
  • 103 Headache and Other Craniofacial Pain
  • Pain Transmission and Modulation as Related to Headache
  • Classification
  • References
  • 104 Cranial Neuropathies
  • Olfactory Nerve (Cranial Nerve I)
  • Optic Nerve (Cranial Nerve II)
  • Oculomotor Nerve (Cranial Nerve III)
  • Trochlear Nerve (Cranial Nerve IV)
  • Trigeminal Nerve (Cranial Nerve V)
  • Abducens Nerve (Cranial Nerve VI)
  • Facial Nerve (Cranial Nerve VII)
  • Vestibulocochlear Nerve (Cranial Nerve VIII)
  • Glossopharyngeal Nerve (Cranial Nerve IX)
  • Vagus Nerve (Cranial Nerve X)
  • Spinal Accessory Nerve (Cranial Nerve XI)
  • Hypoglossal Nerve (Cranial Nerve XII)
  • References
  • 105 Disorders of Bones, Joints, Ligaments, and Meninges
  • Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue
  • Congenital and Inherited Craniospinal Malformations and Deformities
  • Spinal Dysraphism
  • Syringomyelia and Syringobulbia
  • Spinal Deformities and Metabolic Bone Disease
  • Degenerative Disease of the Spine
  • Infectious Diseases of the Spine
  • Inflammatory Joint Disease
  • Epidural Lipomatosis
  • Chronic Meningitis
  • Fibromyalgia
  • References
  • 106 Disorders of Nerve Roots and Plexuses
  • Disorders of Nerve Roots
  • Disorders of the Brachial Plexus
  • Disorders of the Lumbosacral Plexus
  • References
  • 107 Disorders of Peripheral Nerves
  • Clinical Approach to Disorders of Peripheral Nerves
  • Mononeuropathies
  • Hereditary Neuropathies
  • Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathies
  • Peripheral Neuropathies Associated with Monoclonal Proteins
  • Neuropathies Associated with Systemic Disorders
  • Toxic Neuropathies
  • Neuropathies Associated with Infections
  • Chronic Idiopathic Axonal Polyneuropathy
  • Pain in Peripheral Neuropathy
  • References
  • 108 Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System
  • Classification of Autonomic Disorders
  • Clinical Features of Autonomic Impairment
  • Assessment of Autonomic Function
  • Functional Autonomic Disorders
  • Autonomic Disorders Characterized by Excessive Autonomic Outflow
  • Predominantly Peripheral Afferent Structural Autonomic Disorders Characterized by Impaired Autonomic Outflow
  • Predominantly Peripheral Efferent Structural Autonomic Disorders Characterized by Impaired Autonomic Outflow
  • Predominantly Central Structural Autonomic Disorders Characterized by Impaired Autonomic Outflow
  • Nonautonomic Disorders Causing Hypotension or Syncope to Consider in the Differential Diagnosis
  • Therapy of Dysautonomias
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 109 Disorders of Neuromuscular Transmission
  • Myasthenia Gravis
  • Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes (CMS)
  • Lambert–Eaton Syndrome (LES)
  • Botulism
  • Other Causes of Abnormal Neuromuscular Transmission
  • References
  • 110 Disorders of Skeletal Muscle
  • Muscle Histology
  • Specific Disorders
  • References
  • 111 Neurological Problems of the Newborn
  • General Principles of Investigation and Management
  • Neonatal Seizures
  • Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury in the Term Newborn
  • Perinatal Stroke (Focal/Multifocal Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury)
  • Hemorrhagic and Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury in the Premature Newborn
  • Intraventricular Hemorrhage in the Term Newborn
  • Infections of the Central Nervous System
  • Mechanical Trauma to Extracranial, Central, and Peripheral Nervous System Structures
  • Traumatic Injury to the Peripheral Nervous System
  • Effects of Drugs and Toxins
  • References
  • 112 Neurological Problems of Pregnancy
  • Neurological Complications of Contraception
  • Ethical Considerations
  • Imaging
  • Headache
  • Leg Muscle Cramps
  • Myasthenia Gravis
  • Disorders of Muscle
  • Neuropathy
  • Movement Disorders
  • Wernicke Encephalopathy
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Neuromyelitis Optica—Devic Syndrome
  • Tumors
  • Epilepsy and Its Treatments
  • Cerebrovascular Disease
  • Eclamptic Encephalopathy
  • References
  • 113 Functional and Dissociative (Psychogenic) Neurological Symptoms
  • Terminology
  • Epidemiology in Neurology and Other Medical Specialties
  • Clinical Assessment of Functional and Dissociative (Psychogenic) Symptoms
  • Feigning and Malingering
  • Misdiagnosis
  • Prognosis
  • Etiology and Mechanism
  • Investigations
  • Treatment
  • Summary
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 2348
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2015
  • Published: October 13, 2015
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323339162

About the Authors

Robert Daroff

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, and Chair Emeritus; Department of Neurology; Case Western Reserve School of Medicine; University Hospitals Case Medical Center; Cleveland, OH, USA

Joseph Jankovic

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Neurology, Distinguished Chair in Movement Disorders, Director, Parkinson's Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic, Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX

John Mazziotta

Affiliations and Expertise

Vice Chancellor of UCLA Health Sciences; Dean, David Geffen School of Medicine; CEO UCLA Health; University of California, Los Angeles; Los Angeles, CA, USA

Scott Pomeroy

Affiliations and Expertise

Bronson Crothers Professor of Neurology; Director, Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Research Center; Harvard Medical School; Chair, Department of Neurology; Neurologist-in-Chief; Boston Children's Hospital; Boston, MA, USA

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