While other methods of drag reduction are well-known in marine R&D and ship design environments worldwide, compliant coating drag reduction remains less well-known and poorly understood. This important book presents cutting-edge techniques and findings from research sources not generally accessible by Western researchers and engineers, aiding the application and further development of this potentially important technology.

Beginning with an introduction to drag reduction that places the authors’ work on elastic surfaces and combined techniques in context, the book moves on to provide a comprehensive study of drag reduction through elastic coating with both flow and material properties considered. Coverage includes:

  • Experimental findings around coherent vortical structures (CVS) in turbulent boundary layers and methods of controlling them
  • Static and dynamic mechanical characteristics of elastic composite coatings, as well as new techniques and devices developed for their measurement
  • Combined methods of flow control and drag reduction, including the effect of injection of polymer solutions, elastic coatings and generated longitudinal vortical structures on hydrodynamic resistance

Intended as a reference for senior engineers and researchers concerned with the drag reduction and the dynamics of turbulent boundary layer flows, Boundary Layer Flow over Elastic Surfaces provides a unique source of information on compliant surface drag reduction and the experimental techniques around it that have shown measurable and repeatable improvements over recent years.

This compilation of research findings and new techniques developed for measurement will aid R&D engineers, naval architects and senior designers in their quest to achieve drag reductions that will deliver significant efficiency savings.

Key Features

  • Unique source of information on compliant surface drag reduction—an important area of technology with practical application to ships—from otherwise inaccessible research studies
  • Updates the knowledge-base on boundary layer flow and surface friction reduction, critical topics in the global quest for increased ship efficiency and fuel economy
  • Reveals new techniques and devices developed for measurement and provides a comprehensive study of drag reduction through elastic coating with both flow and material properties covered


Research engineers, design engineers, naval architects and academics within marine engineering environments, including naval and defense institutions, marine research facilities, manufacturers of large marine vessels, etc.

Table of Contents


List of Symbols



Chapter 1. Interaction of the Free Stream with an Elastic Surface

1.1 Introductory Remarks

1.2 Basic Types of Coherent Vortical Structures arising in the Flow about a Body, and Methods of their Control

1.3 Coherent Structures in a Turbulent Boundary Layer

1.4 The Flow over Elastic Surfaces

1.5 Experimental Studies on the Characteristics of Elastic Plates

1.6 Experimental Investigations of Coherent Vortical Structures in a Transitional Boundary Layer on the Flow over a Rigid Plate

1.7 Distribution of Disturbing Movement across the Thickness of a Laminar Boundary Layer over a Rigid Surface

1.8 Physical Process of Laminar–Turbulent Transition of a Boundary Layer over a Rigid Plate

1.9 Hydrobionic Principles of Drag Reduction

1.10 Experimental Investigation of Coherent Vortical Structures in a Transitional Boundary Layer over an Elastic Plate

1.11 Distribution of Disturbing Movement on the Thickness of a Laminar Boundary Layer on an Elastic Surface

1.12 Receptivity of the Boundary Layer to Different Disturbances

1.13 The Boundary Layer as a Heterogeneous, Asymmetric Wave-Guide

1.14 Control Methods of the CVSs of a Boundary Layer

1.15 Physical Substantiation of the Interaction Mechanism of the Flow with an Elastic Surface

Chapter 2. Types of Elastic Surfaces and Research of their Mechanical Characteristics

2.1 Models of Elastic Surfaces

2.2 Mechanical Characteristics of Elastomers

2.3 Methods of Measuring the Mechanical Characteristics of Elastomers

2.4 The Apparatus and Devices for Measuring the Mechanical Characteristics of Elastomers

2.5 Construction of Elastic Surfaces

2.6 Main Similarity Parameters

2.7 Measurement of Static Mechanical Characteristics of Elastomers

2.8 Measurement of Dynamic C


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About the authors

Viktor Babenko

Professor Babenko V. V. (born: April 14, 1938) received B. Dc. in mechanical engineering from Aviation Institute, Moscow in 1963 and Ph.D. in fluid and gas mechanics from the Institute of Hydromechanics of National Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in 1970 (Master of technical Sciences) on a theme: " The experimental research of hydro dynamical stability on rigid and elastic-damping surfaces " and Doctor of Technical Sciences in 1986 on a theme: "Interaction of disturbing movements in a boundary layer" and professor since 1990. In 1963-1965 he has worked at the Kiev’s aviation Antonov designer bureau. Since 1965 he has worked at the Institute of Hydromechanics, Kiev, in the field of boundary layer research. In 1988 - 2000 he has worked a Department Head of the Institute of Hydromechanics. He has managed a variety of hydrodynamic and bionic research projects. Professor Babenko V. V. has developed several new measurement techniques for laminar and turbulent flows and designed some original equipment, devices and apparatus for hydrodynamic measurements. He has developed original methodologies in bionics, at research of the receptivity of boundary layer to 2-D and 3-D disturbances, at interaction between flow and compliant coating, at flow near different cavities, at flow in the vortical chamber, at movement of high-speed surface devices. He has developed control methods of the coherent vortical structures arising at various types of flows. Areas of competence: Experimental Fluid Mechanics; Stability and Transition; Turbulence; Near-wall jets; Hydrodynamics of the vortex chamber; Flow in the cavities; Flow Control; Coherent Vortices Structures; Unsteady Hydrodynamics; Bionics. In 1989-2006 he was member of Scientific Council of the Institute of Hydromechanics NASU, Kiev, Ukraine. Since 2000 he is member of Scientific Councils of University of civil Aviation, Ukraine, Kiev and since 2007 - National technical university of Ukraine "Kiev polytechnic institut

Ho-Hwan Chun

BSc and MSc, Dept. of Naval Architecture & Ocean Engineering, Pusan National University, Korea (1983,1985) Ph.D., Dept. of Naval Architecture & Ocean Engineering, Glasgow University, U.K. (1988) Professor at Dept of Naval Architecture & Ocean Engineering(1994∼present) Director of Advanced Ship Engineering Research Center(2002∼present) Senior Researcher of Hyundai Maritime Research Institute 1991~1993: Yard Research Fellow, Glasgow University, U.K. 1988~1991 Member of 25, 26th ITTC Resistance Committee (2005∼present) Member of 24th ITTC Waterjet Specialist Committee (2002∼2005) Member of 22th ITTC Safety of High Speed Marine Vehicles Specialist Committee (1996∼1999) Fellow of Royal Institute of Naval Architects(UK) (2001∼present) Member of SNAME(USA) Member of SNAK(Korea) Deputy Editor of Journal of Marine Science Technology (published by Springer) (2006∼2009) Editor of International Journal of Naval Architecture & Ocean Engineering (2009∼present)

Inwon Lee

Career March 2000 ~ May 2000; Post Doctoral Researcher Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), Daejeon, Korea June 2000 ~ May 2001; JSPS Postdoctoral Fellow Division of Mechanical Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan June 2001 ~ September 2003; Senior Researcher Core Technology Group, Digital Appliance Laboratory, LG Electronics, Seoul, Korea October 2003 ~ February 2008; Assistant Professor ASERC (Advanced Ship Engineering Research Center), Pusan National University, Busan, Korea March 2008 ~ Present; Associate Professor ASERC (Advanced Ship Engineering Research Center), Pusan National University, Busan, Korea March 2011 ~ Present; Visiting Scholar Dept. of Mechanical Engieering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Professional Society Activities - Member, Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers, March 1994 ~ Present - Member, Korean Society of Visualization, December 2001 ~ Present - Member, Society of Naval Architects of Korea, January 2004 ~ Present - Business Director, Korean Society of Visualization, March 2006 ~ Present - Member, Korea Towing Tank Committee, March 2008 ~ Present Research Projects - PI (Principal Investigator), Effects of riblets on the streaky structures excited by free stream tip vortices in boundary layer, March 2003 ~ September 2004, USD5,000, Pusan National University - PI, Development of Design and Evaluation Technique of Compliant Coating for Ship Drag Reduction, April 2004 ~ March 2006, Korea Research Foundation - PI, Ship Skin Friction Reduction Technique (I), March 2005 ~ February 2008, Korea Science and Engineering Foundation - PI, Development of Boundary Layer Skin Friction Reduction Technology Using Compliant Coating, March 2005 ~ February 2007, Samsung Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. - PI, Experimental Test for ROV Thrust, October 2006 ~ December 2006, Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineerin


"The book provides and in-depth discussion on boundary layer flow, quoting over 500 references to illustrate how our understanding of the various factors involved has grown.  It will be of interest to researchers, naval architects and designers engaged in achieving drag reduction and thus the increased efficiency of propulsion which is needed to reduce harmful emissions."--Ship and Boat International, January/February 2013