Boron Nitride Nanotubes in Nanomedicine

Boron Nitride Nanotubes in Nanomedicine

1st Edition - April 19, 2016

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  • Editors: Gianni Ciofani, Virgilio MATTOLI
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323389457
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323389600

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Boron Nitride Nanotubes in Nanomedicine compiles, for the first time in a single volume, all the information needed by researchers interested in this promising type of smart nanoparticles and their applications in biomedicine. Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) represent an innovative and extremely intriguing class of nanomaterials. After introducing BNNTs and explaining their preparation and evaluation, the book shows how the physical, chemical, piezoelectric and biocompatibility properties of these nanotubes give rise to their potential uses in biomedicine. Evidence is offered (from both in vitro and in vivo investigations) for how BNNTs can be useful in biomedical and nanomedicine applications such as therapeutic applications, tissue regeneration, nanovectors for drug delivery, and intracellular nanotransducers.

Key Features

  • Covers a range of promising biomedical BNNT applications
  • Provides great value not just to academics but also industry researchers in fields such as materials science, molecular biology, pharmacology, biomedical engineering, and biophysical sciences
  • Offers evidence for how BNNTs can be useful in biomedical and nanomedicine applications such as therapy, tissue regeneration, nanovectors for drug delivery, and intracellular nanotransducers
  • Incorporates, for the first time in a single volume, all the information needed by researchers interested in this promising type of smart nanoparticles and their applications in biomedicine


Academics, industry researchers, and PhD students in materials science, life sciences/biology, molecular biology, pharmacology, chemical-, material- and biomedical engineering, physical and biophysical sciences, radiology, and neuroscience.

Table of Contents

  • Foreword
    Giorgia Pastorin

    1. Introduction to Boron Nitride Nanotubes: Synthesis, Properties, Functionalization, and Cutting
    Shiva Bhandari, Bishnu Tiwari, Nazmiye Yapici, Dongyan Zhang, Yoke Khin Yap
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Properties of BNNTs for Potential Biomedical Applications
    1.3 Synthesis of BNNTs
    1.3.1 Chemical Vapor Deposition
    1.3.2 Ball Milling
    1.3.3 Laser-Based Techniques
    1.3.4 Large-Scale Synthesis by Plasma-Based Techniques
    1.4 Comparison of Production Rate, Purity, and Dispersibility of BNNTs
    1.5 Functionalization and Cutting of BNNTs for Biomedical Applications
    1.5.1 Noncovalent Functionalization
    1.5.2 Covalent Functionalization
    1.6 Summary

    2. Functionalization of Boron Nitride Nanotubes for Applications in Nanobiomedicine
    Zhenghong Gao, Chunyi Zhi, Yoshio Bando, Dmitri Golberg, Takeshi Serizawa
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Covalent Functionalization
    2.2.1 Nitrogen Site Reaction
    2.2.2 Boron Site Reaction
    2.3 Noncovalent Functionalization
    2.3.1 Small Molecules with Aromatic Groups
    2.3.2 Small Molecules without Aromatic Groups
    2.3.3 Amino Acids
    2.3.4 Surfactants
    2.3.5 Peptides
    2.3.6 Deoxyribonucleic Acids (DNA)
    2.3.7 Lipids
    2.3.8 Polysaccharides
    2.3.9 Polymers
    2.4 Defect Reaction Approach
    2.5 Filling BNNTs Approach
    2.6 Conclusions and Perspectives

    3 Biocompatibility Evaluation of Boron Nitride Nanotubes
    Özlem Şen, Melis Emanet, Mustafa Çulha
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Common Methods for Evaluating in Vitro Biocompatibility
    3.2.1 Viability and Cytotoxicity Assays
    3.2.2 ROS Detection
    3.2.3 Apoptosis and Necrosis Detection
    3.2.4 Genotoxicity Assessment
    3.3 In Vitro Biocompatibility Assessment
    3.4 In Vivo Biocompatibility Assessment
    3.5 Future Studies and Perspectives
    3.6 Conclusions

    4 Theoretical Investigations of Interactions Between Boron Nitride Nanotubes and Drugs
    Ehsan Shakerzadeh
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Density Functional Theory Methods
    4.3 BNNTs/Biomolecules Interactions
    4.3.1 BNNTs and Platinum-Based Drugs
    4.3.2 BNNTs and Heterocyclic Compound
    4.3.3 BNNTs and Other Clinically-Relevant Molecules
    4.3.4 BNNTs and Amino Acids
    4.4 Conclusions

    5 Boron Nitride Nanotubes as Drug Carriers
    Xia Li, Dmitri Golberg
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Improving the Dispersibility of BNNT-Based Drug Carriers
    5.2.1 Oxidation Method
    5.2.2 Polymer Surface Modifi cation Method
    5.2.3 Plasma Treatment
    5.2.4 Mesoporous Silica Coating Method
    5.3 Various Drug Molecules Loaded onto BNNT-Based Drug Carriers
    5.3.1 DNA
    5.3.2 Proteins
    5.3.3 Flavin Mononucleotide
    5.3.4 Chemotherapy Drugs
    5.4 Interactions Between BNNTs and Drug Molecules
    5.4.1 Weak Interactions
    5.4.2 Covalent Interactions
    5.5 Integration of Multifunctional Properties in BNNT-Based Drug Carriers
    5.5.1 Targeting Release
    5.5.2 Imaging
    5.5.3 Acting as B Carrier for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy
    5.6 Biocompatibility, Distribution, and Excretion of BNNTs as Drug Carriers
    5.7 Future of BNNTs as Drug Carriers

    6 Applications and Perspectives of Boron Nitride Nanotubes in Cancer Therapy
    Tiago Hilario Ferreira, Edesia M.B. de Sousa
    6.1 Cancer: Aspects of Diagnosis and Treatment
    6.2 Boron Nitride Nanotubes and Nanomedicine
    6.3 Drug Delivery
    6.4 Active Targeting and Uptake
    6.5 Gene Transfection
    6.6 Magnetohyperthermia
    6.7 Boron Neutron Capture Therapy
    6.8 Perspectives

    7 Boron Nitride Nanotubes as Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents
    Lucia Calucci, Claudia Forte
    7.1 Nanomaterials: The Way to Higher Magnetic Resonance Contrast
    7.2 Superparamagnetic BNNTs as T2-Weighted Contrast Agents
    7.3 Gd-Doped BNNTs: Promising Contrast Properties at High and Low Fields
    7.4 Conclusions and Perspectives
    7.5 Appendix. MRI Contrast Enhancement: The Basics

    8 Boron Nitride Nanotubes as Nanotransducers
    Serena Danti
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 BNNT Nanotransducers
    8.2.1 Piezoelectric Nanotransducers
    8.2.2 BNNTs as Piezoelectric Transducers
    8.2.3 BCN-NT Nanotransducers
    8.3 BNNT Bionanotransducers
    8.3.1 Ultrasound—BNNT Systems for Cell Stimulation
    8.3.2 BNNT Nanotransducers for the Nervous System
    8.3.3 BNNT Nanotransducers for Muscle
    8.3.4 BNNT Nanotransducers for Bone
    8.4 Conclusions and Future Perspectives

    9 Optical Properties of Boron Nitride Nanotubes:Potential Exploitation in Nanomedicine
    Vincenzo Piazza, Mauro Gemmi
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Optical Properties of Boron Nitride Nanotubes
    9.3 Boron Nitride Nanotubes in Nanomedicine
    9.4 BNNT Nonlinear Optical Properties : Exploitation in Nanomedicine
    9.5 Conclusions

    10 Boron Nitride Nanotubes as Bionanosensors
    Sondipon Adhikari
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Vibration Analysis of BNNTs with Attached Mass
    10.2.1 Cantilevered BNNT with a Mass at the Tip
    10.2.2 Bridged BNNT with a Mass at the Midpoint
    10.3 Mass Detection and Sensitivity Calculation
    10.4 Vibrational Analysis of BNNTs Using Molecular Mechanics
    10.5 Results and Discussions
    10.6 Conclusions

    11 Boron Nitride Nanotube Films: Preparation, Properties, and Implications for Biology Applications
    Lu Hua Li, Ying Chen
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Growth of BNNT Films
    11.2.1 Boron Ink Method
    11.2.2 Vapor Deposition Method
    11.3 Wettability Properties of BNNT Films
    11.4 Wettability Modifi cation of BNNT Films
    11.5 Biocompatibility of BNNT Films
    11.6 Conclusion

    12 Structural and Physical Properties of Boron Nitride Nanotubes and Their Applications in Nanocomposites
    Xiaoming Chen, Changhong Ke
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Structure and Synthesis of BNNTs 12.2.1 Structure of BNNTs
    12.2.2 Synthesis of BNNTs
    12.3 Physical Properties of BNNTs
    12.3.1 Mechanical Properties
    12.3.2 Electrical Properties
    12.3.3 Thermal Properties
    12.4 BNNT-Based Nanocomposites
    12.5 Conclusions and Outlook

    13 Boron Nitride Nanotubes in Nanomedicine: Historical and Future Perspectives
    Giada Graziana Genchi, Antonella Rocca, Agostina Grillone, Attilio Marino,Gianni Ciofani
    13.1 A Brief History of Boron Nitride Nanotubes: From the Theoretical Hypothesis to the Market
    13.2 Main Research Groups Involved in BNNT Research
    13.3 BNNT Availability on the Market
    13.4 Patent Analysis and Economical Implications
    13.5 Toward the Future : Regulatory Aspects and Translational Research

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 246
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © William Andrew 2016
  • Published: April 19, 2016
  • Imprint: William Andrew
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323389457
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323389600

About the Editors

Gianni Ciofani

Gianni Ciofani (born on August 14th, 1982) is Associate Professor at the Polytechnic University of Torino, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (Torino, Italy) and Senior Researcher at the Italian Institute of Technology (IIT), Smart Bio-Interfaces Research Line (Pontedera, Pisa, Italy). He received his Master Degree in Biomedical Engineering (with honors) from the University of Pisa, Italy, in July 2006, and, in the same year, his Diploma in Engineering (with honors) from the Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna of Pisa, Italy. In January 2010, he obtained his Ph.D. in Innovative Technologies (with honors) from the Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna. From January 2010 to August 2013 he was Post-Doc at the IIT, Center for Micro-BioRobotics @SSSA, where, from September 2013 to October 2015, he was Researcher in the framework of the Smart Materials Platform. In October 2015 he was appointed Associate Professor at the Polytechnic University of Torino, maintaining his research activity in IIT where he is currently Principal Investigator of the Smart Bio-Interfaces Research Line. His main research interests are in the field of smart nanomaterials for nanomedicine, bio/non-bio interactions, and biology in altered gravity conditions. He is coordinator or unit leader of many grants/projects, and in 2016 he was awarded a European Research Council (ERC) Starting Grant. Gianni Ciofani is author of more than 100 ISI papers (H-index 25, excluding self-citations), 3 edited books, and 12 book chapters. He delivered about 25 invited talks/lectures in international contexts and, for his research activity, he was awarded several national and international prizes. He serves as Reviewer for more than 100 international journals and as Editorial Board Member of the International Journal of Biological Engineering and of Advances in Nano Research; he is Senior Editor of Nanomaterials & Nanosciences and Associate Editor of Frontiers in Nanobiotechnology. Gianni Ciofani is professor of Biomimetic Systems and Bionanotechnologies, and supervisor of several M.Sc. and Ph.D. students.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor at the Polytechnic University of Torino, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (Torino, Italy) and Senior Researcher at the Italian Institute of Technology (IIT), Smart Bio-Interfaces Research Line (Pontedera, Pisa, Italy).

Virgilio MATTOLI

Virgilio Mattoli received his Laurea degree in chemistry (with honours) from the University of Pisa and the Diploma in Chemistry from the Scuola Normale Superiore of Pisa in 2000. In 2005 he received his PhD in bio-engineering (with honours) from Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, with a thesis focused on the control and integration of miniaturized devices for environmental application. In 2004 he was visiting researcher at the University of Stanford, Center for Design Research, where he focused his activity on sensors and controls modules for biomimetic robotics applications. In 2005 and 2008 he was a short term visiting researcher at Waseda University (Tokyo, Japan) working on a bio-inspired mini-robot and on development of ultra-conformable polymeric films. From June 2008 to October 2009 he obtained a temporary position of Assistant Professor of bioengineer engineering at the Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna (SSSA). Since November 2009, he has been a Team Leader of the Smart Materials Platform in the Center for Micro-BioRobotics of the Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia. His main research interests include: smart and bio-inspired materials, nanomaterials, ultra-thin polymeric films, thin film sensors, sensor conditioning, miniaturised acquisition system and biorobotics. He is currently involved in several research projects on these topics. He is author or co-author of more than seventy articles on ISI journals, of more than forty full papers published in peer-reviewed international conferences proceedings and of several deposited patents.

Affiliations and Expertise

Center for Micro-BioRobotics, Italian Institute of Technology

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