The explosive growth in the semiconductor industry has caused a rapid evolution of thin film materials that lend themselves to the fabrication of state-of-the-art semiconductor devices. Early in the 1960s an old research technique named chemical vapour phase deposition (CVD), which has several unique advantages, developed into the most widely used technique for thin film preparation in electronics technology.
In the last 25 years, tremendous advances have been made in the science and technology of thin films prepared by means of CVD. This book presents in a single volume, an up-to-date overview of the important field of CVD processes which has never been completely reviewed previously.
Contents: Part I. 1. Evolution of CVD Films. Introductory remarks. Short history of CVD thin films. II. Fundamentals. 2. Techniques of Preparing Thin Films. Electrolytic deposition techniques. Vacuum deposition techniques. Plasma deposition techniques. Liquid-phase deposition techniques. Solid-phase deposition techniques. Chemical vapour conversion of substrate. Chemical vapour deposition. Comparison between CVD and other thin film deposition techniques. 3. Chemical Processes Used in CVD. Introduction. Description of chemical reactions used in CVD. 4. Thermodynamics of CVD. Feasibility of a CVD process. Techniques for equilibrium calculations in CVD systems. Examples of thermodynamic studies of CVD systems. 5. Kinetics of CVD. Steps and control type of a CVD heterogeneous reaction. Influence of experimental parameters on thin film deposition rate. Continuous measurement of the deposition rate. Experimental methods for studying CVD kinetics. Role of homogeneous reactions in CVD. Mechanism of CVD processes. Kinetics and mechanism of dopant incorporation. Transport phenomena in CVD. Status of kinetic and mechanism investigations in CVD systems. 6. Measurement of Thin Film Thickness. Mechanical methods. Mechanical-optical methods. Optical methods. Electrical methods. Miscellaneous methods. 7. Nucleation and Growth of CVD Films. Stages in the nucleation and growth mechanism. Regimes of nucleation and growth. Nucleation theory. Dependence of nucleation on deposition parameters. Heterogeneous nucleation and CVD film structural forms. Homogeneous nucleation. Experimental techniques. Experimental results of CVD film nucleation. 8. Thin Film Structure. Techniques for studying thin film structure. Structural defects in CVD thin films. 9. Analysis of CVD Films. Analysis techniques of thin film bulk. Analysis techniques of thin film surfaces. Film composition measurement. Depth concentration profiling. 10. Properties of CVD Films. Mechanical properties. Thermal properties. Optical properties. Photoelectric properties. Electrical properties. Magnetic properties. Chemical properties. Part III. 11. Equipment and Substrates. Equipment for CVD. Safety in CVD. Substrates. 12. Preparation and Properties of Semiconducting Thin Films. Homoepitaxial semiconducting films. Heteroepitaxial semiconducting films. 13. Preparation and Properties of Amorphous Insulating Thin Films. Oxides. Nitrides and Oxynitrides. Polymeric thin films. 14. Preparation and Properties of Conductive Thin Films. Metals and metal alloys. Resistor materials. Transparent conducting films. Miscellaneous materials. 15. Preparation and Properties of Superconducting and Magnetic Thin Films. Superconducting materials. Magnetic materials. 16. Uses of CVD Thin Films. Applications in electronics and microelectronics. Applications in the field of microwaves and optoelectronics. Miscellaneous applications. Artificial heterostructures (Quantum wells, superlattices, monolayers, two-dimensional electron gases). Part V. 17. Present and Future Importance of CVD Films. Present status and future trends in CVD films. References. Index of Acronyms and Abbreviations. Author Index. CVD Film Index. Subject Index. Supplier Index.