Introduction and Overview. Introduction. Approach, Objectives and Scope of Analysis. Overview. THE ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT OF TRANSIT OPERATIONS. Contemporary Metropolitan Areas and the Demand for Transit. Introduction. Transit Travel Demand Patterns. Principles of Transit Travel Demand Analysis. Effects of Urban Form, Demographic and Female Employment Factors on Transit Demand. Transit Demand Elasticities. Public Policy Effects on Transit Demand. Conclusions. The Economic Environment of Transit Services Supply. Introduction. Theoretical Considerations in the Regulation and Subsidization of Public Transport. Actual Forms of Regulation of Public Transit. Transit Subsidization. The Monopsonistic Power of Labor Unions in Transit. Regulatory and Subsidy Policies and Transit Firms' Behavior. Conclusions. COST AND PRODUCTION PROPERTIES OF TRANSIT SERVICE SUPPLY. Transit Services Provision: The Decision Making Problem. Introduction. Theoretical Foundation of Transit Resource Allocation Decision Model. Review of Studies on the Decision Making Model of Transit Service Provision. Determinants of the Transit Firm Decision Problem. A Transit Resources Allocation Model. Empirical Properties of the Decision Model. Conclusions. Analysis of Transit Cost and Production Structure. Introduction. Models Used in Transit Cost Analysis. Data Bases Used in Empirical Studies. Analysis of Transit Cost Elasticities. Properties of Transit Production Technology. Conclusions. Appendix A: The Translogarithmic Cost Function Model. Analysis of Transit Productivity and Efficiency. Introduction. Concepts of Efficiency and Productivity. Performance Indicators Analysis. Cost and Production Function-Based Partial and Full Factor Productivity Measures. Alternative Methodologies for Measuring Transit Productivity. A Market Equilibrium Model of Transit Productivity Measurement. Principal Factors Affecting Transit Productivity Changes. Conclusions. TRANSIT REGULATORY REFORM: POLICIES AND PROSPECTS. Theoretical Foundations of Transit Regulatory Reform Perspectives. Introduction. The Political-Economic Context of Regulatory Reform. Transit Regulatory Reform Policies. Regimes of Transit Regulatory Reform Policies. Conclusions.Transit Deregulation and Market Structure. Introduction. Working Definition of Transit Market Deregulation Policy. Transit Markets Contestability. Analysis of Entry Deterrence in Deregulated Transit Markets. Structure of Deregulated Transit Markets. Conclusions. Lessons from Transit Deregulation and Privatization Policies. Introduction. Evaluation of Results from Transit Regulatory Reforms. The UK Transit Deregulation. The USA Inter-urban Bus Deregulation. Regulatory Reforms in Other Countries. Conclusions. Competitive Tendering as a Transit Policy Option. Introduction. Forms of Competitive Tendering. Competitive Tendering: Theoretical Foundations and Problems. Operating Franchises. Experience from Competitive Tendering in Public Transit. Conclusions. Proposed Transit Policy Regimes. Introduction. A Comparison of Transit Policy Options. Proposed Transit Policy Regimes in Transit Markets. Bibliography. Subject Index.