Research in neural modeling and neural networks has escalated dramatically in the last decade, acquiring along the way terms and concepts, such as learning, memory, perception, recognition, which are the basis of neuropsychology. Nevertheless, for many, neural modeling remains controversial in its purported ability to describe brain activity. The difficulties in "modeling" are various, but arise principally in identifying those elements that are fundamental for the expression (and description) of superior neural activity. This is complicated by our incomplete knowledge of neural structures and functions, at the cellular and population levels. The first step towards enhanced appreciation of the value of neural modeling and neural networks is to be aware of what has been achieved in this multidisciplinary field of research. This book sets out to create such awareness. Leading experts develop in twelve chapters the key topics of neural structures and functions, dynamics of single neurons, oscillations in groups of neurons, randomness and chaos in neural activity, (statistical) dynamics of neural networks, learning, memory and pattern recognition.