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Volume 7. Applications of Piezoelectric Quartz Crystal Microbalances

Published: 1st February 1984 Editors: C. Lu A.W. Czanderna

Preface

Chapter 1. Introduction, History, and Overview of Applications of Piezoelectric Quartz Crystal Microbalances

I. Introduction

II. History of Piezoelectric Quartz Crystal Microbalances

A. Piezoelectric Effect

B. Frequency Control with Quartz Crystals

C. Relating Changes in Mass to Frequency Measurements

III. Overview of Applications of Piezoelectric Quartz Crystal Microbalances

A. Chapter 2, Theory and Practice of the Quartz Crystal Microbalance

B. Chapter 3, Applications of Quartz Crystal Microbalances for Thin Film Deposition Process Control

C. Chapter 4, Stress Effects in Quartz Crystal Microbalances

D. Chapter 5, Simultaneous Measurement of Mass and Temperature Using Quartz Crystal Microbalances

E. Chapter 6, Applications of Quartz Crystal Microbalances in Surface Science

F. Chapter 7, Quartz Crystal Microbalances for Plasma-Assisted Etching Studies and Applications

G. Chapter 8, Applications of Quartz Crystal Microbalances in Analytical Chemistry

H. Chapter 9, Application of the Quartz Crystal Microbalance to Space System Contamination Studies

I. Chapter 10, Applications of Quartz Crystal Microbalances in Aerosol Mass Measurement

References

Chapter 2. Theory and Practice of the Quartz Crystal Microbalance

I. Introduction

II. Piezoelectric Quartz Crystal Resonators

A. Modes of Vibration

B. Crystallographic Orientation

C. Temperature Dependence of the Resonant Frequency

D. Equivalent Circuit

III. Theory of the Piezoelectric Quartz Crystal Microbalance

A. A Linear Frequency-to-Mass Equation for Small Mass Loads

B. A Linear Period-to-Mass Approximation for Extended Mass Loads

C. A General Formula for Mass Determination by a Quartz Crystal Microbalance

IV. The Role of Acoustic Impedance in a Quartz Crystal Microbalance

A. Experiments with Different Materials

B. Computation and Estimation of Acoustic Impedance

C. Accumulated Layers of Different Materials

V. Design Considerations for a Quartz Crystal Microbalance

A. The Quartz Crystal and its Supporting Structures

B. Limit of Mass Load on a Quartz Crystal Microbalance

C. Quartz Crystal Microbalances for Special Environments

D. Associated Electronics

VI. Conclusion

References

Chapter 3. Applications of Quartz Crystal Microbalances for Thin Film Deposition Process Control

I. Introduction

II. Quartz Crystal Microbalances

A. Fundamentals

B. Differential Mass Sensitivity

C. Limiting Factors to the Accuracy and Mass Load

III. Thin Film Monitoring with Quartz Crystal Microbalances

A. Formation of Films with Reproducible Characteristics

B. Reliable Measures for Depositing Films with Correct and Reproducible Characteristics

C. Conclusions and Measures to Increase the Reproducibility of Film Characteristics

IV. Control of an Automatic Deposition System Using a Quartz Crystal Monitor

A. General Principles

B. Realization of an Automatic Coating System

C. Final Remarks

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 4. Stress Effects in Quartz Crystal Microbalances

I. Introduction

II. Origin of the Stress Effects

III. Magnitude of the Stress Effect for Microbalance Applications

IV. Simultaneous Mass and Stress Measurements Using the Double Resonator Technique

A. Development of Equations for Sf (dfA, dfB) and Mf (dfA, dfB)

B. Sf and Mf for Au Films Bombarded with 45 keV Kr Ions

C. Lateral Stress in Si Films Bombarded with 220 keV Kr Ions

V. Generalization of the Double Resonator Technique

VI. Thermal Shock Effects in Quartz Resonator Microbalances

VII. The SC-Cut as a Microbalance

References

Chapter 5. Simultaneous Measurement of Mass and Temperature Using Quartz Crystal Microbalances

I. Introduction

II. Electrode-Tab Resonator

III. Experimental Equipment

A. Determination of the Resonant Frequencies

B. Determination of the Mass

C. Determination of the Temperature

IV. Accuracy of the Method

A. Reduction of Errors

B. Experimental Results

V. Optimized Crystal Cut

A. Mass Coefficients a11 and a21

B. Temperature Coefficients a12 and a22

C. The Inaccuracies of δaij and δWi

VI. Summary

Glossary of Definitions

References

Chapter 6. Applications of Quartz Crystal Microbalances in Surface Science

I. Introduction

II. Chemisorption on Single Element Thin Films

III. Chemisorption and Decomposition Properties of Compound Thin Films

IV. Physical Adsorption and Environmental Applications

V. Molecular Beam Measurements

VI. Vapor Pressure and Outgassing Studies

VII. Summary

References

Chapter 7. Quartz Crystal Microbalances for Plasma-Assisted Etching Studies and Applications

I. Introduction

II. In Situ Plasma Studies

A. Plasma-Assisted Etching Apparatus and Terminology

B. Experimental Aspects of Operating a Quartz Crystal Microbalance in a Plasma Environment

C. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Measurements in Reactive Gas Plasmas

III. Nonplasma Studies of Plasma-Related Phenomena

A. Apparatus

B. Ion-Assisted Gas-Surface Chemistry - An Example of a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Application

C. Transient-Like Studies Using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance

D. Calibration of SIMS Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 8. Applications of Quartz Crystal Microbalances in Analytical Chemistry

I. Introduction

II. Experimental Apparatus

III. Sorption Detector

IV. Piezoelectric Crystal Detector for Water

V. Detector for Gas Chromatograph

VI. Detector for Liquid Chromatography

VII. Piezoelectric Crystal Detector for Detection and Determination of Air Pollutants

A. Detector for Sulfur Dioxide

B. Ammonia Detectors

C. Detector for Hydrogen Sulfide

D. Detector for Hydrogen Chloride Gas

E. Detector for Organophosphorus Compounds and Pesticides

F. Detector for Aromatic Hydrocarbons

G. Detector for Mercury in Air

H. Detector for Mononitrotoluene

I. Carbon Monoxide Detector

VIII. Determination of Compounds in Water

IX. Other Applications

A. Microweighing with the Quartz Crystal Detector

B. Piezoelectric Crystals for Residues in Liquid and Hydrogen

C. Miscellaneous Applications

X. Instrumentation Available Commercially

XI. Conclusions

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 9. Application of the Quartz Crystal Microbalance to Space System Contamination Studies

I. Introduction

II. Evaluation of a Commercial Space-Qualified Quartz Crystal Microbalance

A. System Description

B. Evaluation Experiments

C. Data Reduction

D. Comparison of Experimental and Predicted Evaporation Rate

III. Measurement of Outgassing Rate by the Quartz Crystal Microbalance Collection Method

A. Introduction

B. The Quartz Crystal Microbalance Collection Technique

C. Measurement of Diffusion Properties

IV. Analysis of the Species by Heating the Quartz Crystal Microbalance

A. Practical Considerations

B. Applications of the Method

V. Response of the Quartz Crystal Microbalance to Liquid Deposits

A. Theoretical Analysis

B. Experimental Measurements

C. Discussion

VI. Condensation Kinetics

VII. Mass Measurement on Optical and Thermal Control Surfaces

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 10. Applications of Quartz Crystal Microbalances in Aerosol Mass Measurement

I. Introduction

II. Principles

A. Mass Concentration of Aerosol

B. Particle Adhesion

III. Instrumentation

A. General Description

B. Particle Collection and Deposition

C. Piezoelectric Quartz Crystal Mass Detector

IV. Performance Characteristics of the Piezoelectric Quartz Crystal Microbalance for Aerosol Measurements

A. Mass Response

B. Linear Response

C. Collection and Deposition of Aerosol Particles

D. Effects of Temperature

E. Effects of Humidity

F. Effects of Pressure

G. Calibration

V. Applications

VI. Conclusions

Acknowledgment

References

Index

Additional volumes


Volume 1. Methods of Surface Analysis

Published: 1st January 1984 Editor: A.W. Czanderna

Volume 4. Microweighing in Vacuum and Controlled Environments

Published: 1st January 1980 Editors: A.W. Czanderna S.P. Wolsky

Volume 3. Ultrasound

Published: 1st January 1978 Editor: F.J. Fry