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Bones and Cartilage - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123190604, 9780080454153

Bones and Cartilage

1st Edition

Developmental and Evolutionary Skeletal Biology

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Authors: Brian K. Hall Brian Hall
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123190604
Paperback ISBN: 9781493300570
eBook ISBN: 9780080454153
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 20th June 2005
Page Count: 792
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Bones and Cartilage provides the most in-depth review ever assembled on the topic. It examines the function, development and evolution of bone and cartilage as tissues, organs and skeletal systems. It describes how bone and cartilage is developed in embryos and are maintained in adults, how bone reappears when we break a leg, or even regenerates when a newt grows a new limb, or a lizard a tail.

This book also looks at the molecules and cells that make bones and cartilages and how they differ in various parts of the body and across species. It answers such questions as “Is bone always bone?” “Do bones that develop indirectly by replacing other tissues, such as marrow, tendons or ligaments, differ from one another?” “Is fish bone the same as human bone?” “Can sharks even make bone?” and many more.

Key Features

  • Complete coverage of every aspect of bone and cartilage
  • Full of interesting and unusual facts
  • The only book available that integrates development and evolution of the skeleton
  • Treats all levels from molecular to clinical, embryos to evolution
  • Written in a lively, accessible style
  • Extensively illustrated and referenced
  • Integrates analysis of differentiation, growth and patterning
  • Covers all the vertebrates as well as invertebrate cartilages
  • Identifies the stem cells in embryos and adults that can make skeletal tissues


Biologists, medical researchers, evolutionary biologists, paleontologists, skeletal biologists, endocrinologists as well as graduate students and clinicians in all of these areas

Table of Contents

Epigraph<BR id=""CRLF"">Preface <BR id=""CRLF"">Table of Contents (FULL)<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">PART I – SKELETAL TISSUES<BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 1 — Types of Skeletal Tissues<BR id=""CRLF"">Bone<BR id=""CRLF"">Cartilage<BR id=""CRLF"">Dentine<BR id=""CRLF"">Enamel<BR id=""CRLF"">Intermediate Tissues<BR id=""CRLF"">Cementum<BR id=""CRLF"">Enameloid<BR id=""CRLF"">Chondroid and Chondroid bone<BR id=""CRLF"">Bone or Cartilage<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 2 — Bone<BR id=""CRLF"">Discovery of the Basic Structure of Bone<BR id=""CRLF"">Cellular Bone<BR id=""CRLF"">Intramembranous vs Endochondral Bone?<BR id=""CRLF"">Embryonic Origins<BR id=""CRLF"">Other Modes<BR id=""CRLF"">Metabolic Differences<BR id=""CRLF"">Morphogenetic Differences <BR id=""CRLF"">Osteones<BR id=""CRLF"">Growth<BR id=""CRLF"">Regional Remodeling<BR id=""CRLF"">Ageing<BR id=""CRLF"">Osteones Over Time<BR id=""CRLF"">Acellular Bone<BR id=""CRLF"">Caisson Disease and Abnormal Acellular Bone in Mammals<BR id=""CRLF"">Acellular Bone in Teleost Fishes<BR id=""CRLF"">Development<BR id=""CRLF"">Resorption<BR id=""CRLF"">Repair of Fractures<BR id=""CRLF"">Ca++ Regulation<BR id=""CRLF"">Aspidine<BR id=""CRLF"">Bone in 'Cartilaginous' Fishes (Sharks and Rays)<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 3 —Cartilage<BR id=""CRLF"">Types<BR id=""CRLF"">Chondrones <BR id=""CRLF"">Cartilage Growth<BR id=""CRLF"">Cartilage Canals<BR id=""CRLF"">Secondary Ossification Centres<BR id=""CRLF"">Elastic Cartilage<BR id=""CRLF"">Elastic Fibres<BR id=""CRLF"">The Cells<BR id=""CRLF"">Elastic Cartilage Intermediates<BR id=""CRLF"">Shark Cartilage <BR id=""CRLF"">Development and Mineralization<BR id=""CRLF"">Growth <BR id=""CRLF"">Inhibition of Vascular Invasion <BR id=""CRLF"">Lampreys<BR id=""CRLF"">Mucocartilage<BR id=""CRLF"">Lamprin<BR id=""CRLF"">Mineralization<BR id=""CRLF"">Hagfish<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">PART II – NATURAL EXPERIEMENTS<BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 4 — Invertebrate Cartilages<BR id=""CRLF"">Chondroid, Cartilage or Neither<BR id=""CRLF"">Odontophoral Cartilage of the Channeled Whelk, Busycon canaliculatum<BR id=""CRLF"">Branchial (Gill Book) Cartilage of the Horseshoe Crab, Limulus polyphemus<BR id=""CRLF"">Cranial Cartilages in Squid, Cuttlefish and Octopuses <BR id=""CRLF"">Composition of the ECM<BR id=""CRLF"">Glycosaminoglycans<BR id=""CRLF"">Collagens<BR id=""CRLF"">Tentacular Cartilages of Polychaete Annelids<BR id=""CRLF"">Lophophore Cartilage in the Articulate Brachiopod, Terebratalia transversa<BR id=""CRLF"">Mineralization of Invertebrate Cartilages<BR id=""CRLF"">Cartilage Origins<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 5 — Intermediate Tissues<BR id=""CRLF"">Chondroid and Chondroid Bone<BR id=""CRLF"">Modulation and Intermediate Tissues<BR id=""CRLF"">Cartilage from Fibrous Tissue and Metaplasia<BR id=""CRLF"">Metaplasia of Epithelial Cells to Chondroblasts or Osteoblasts<BR id=""CRLF"">Chondroid<BR id=""CRLF"">Teleosts<BR id=""CRLF"">Mammals<BR id=""CRLF"">Chondroid Bone <BR id=""CRLF"">Teleosts<BR id=""CRLF"">Mammals<BR id=""CRLF"">Chondroid Bone and Pharyngeal Jaws<BR id=""CRLF"">Tissues Intermediate Between Bone and Dentine<BR id=""CRLF"">Dentine<BR id=""CRLF"">Cementum <BR id=""CRLF"">Enameloid: a Tissue Intermediate Between Dentine and Enamel <BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 6 — An Evolutionary Perspective<BR id=""CRLF"">Fossilized Skeletal Tissues<BR id=""CRLF"">All Four Skeletal Tissues are Ancient<BR id=""CRLF"">Evolutionary Experimentation<BR id=""CRLF"">Intermediate Tissues in Fossil Agnatha<BR id=""CRLF"">Dinosaur Bone<BR id=""CRLF"">Developing Fossils <BR id=""CRLF"">Problematica<BR id=""CRLF"">Palaeopathlogy<BR id=""CRLF"">Conodonts<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Part III — UNUSUAL MODES OF SKELETOGENESIS<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 7 — Horns and Ossicones<BR id=""CRLF"">Horns<BR id=""CRLF"">Distribution of Horns as Organs<BR id=""CRLF"">Bovidae<BR id=""CRLF"">Rhinos<BR id=""CRLF"">Titanotheres<BR id=""CRLF"">Pronghorn Antelopes<BR id=""CRLF"">Giraffes<BR id=""CRLF"">Horn as a Tissue<BR id=""CRLF"">Development and Growth of Horns<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 8 — Antlers<BR id=""CRLF"">Antlers<BR id=""CRLF"">Size and Absence<BR id=""CRLF"">Initiation of Antler Formation<BR id=""CRLF"">Pedicle Formation<BR id=""CRLF"">The Antler Bud and Dermal-Epidermal Interactions<BR id=""CRLF"">Hormonal Control of Pedicle Development and Growth<BR id=""CRLF"">Antler Regeneration<BR id=""CRLF"">The Shedding Cycle<BR id=""CRLF"">Histogenesis of Antlers<BR id=""CRLF"">White-tailed Deer, American Elk, European Fallow and Roe Deer<BR id=""CRLF"">Rocky Mountain Mule Deer<BR id=""CRLF"">Sika Deer<BR id=""CRLF"">Hormones, Photoperiod and Antler growth <BR id=""CRLF"">Photoperiod and Testosterone<BR id=""CRLF"">Parathyroid Hormone and Calcitonin<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 9 — Tendons and Sesamoids <BR id=""CRLF"">Tendons and Skeletogenesis<BR id=""CRLF"">Fibrocartilage in Tendons<BR id=""CRLF"">Rodent Achilles Tendons<BR id=""CRLF"">Ossification of Avian Tendons<BR id=""CRLF"">Formation and Composition of Tendon Fibrocartilages<BR id=""CRLF"">Condensation<BR id=""CRLF"">Scleraxis<BR id=""CRLF"">Composition<BR id=""CRLF"">Sesamoids <BR id=""CRLF"">Amphibians <BR id=""CRLF"">Reptiles<BR id=""CRLF"">Birds<BR id=""CRLF"">Teleosts<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">PART IV – STEM CELLS<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 10 — Embryonic Stem Cells <BR id=""CRLF"">Stem Cells<BR id=""CRLF"">Set-aside Cells?<BR id=""CRLF"">Stem Cells for Periosteal Osteogenesis in Long Bones<BR id=""CRLF"">Modulation of Synthetic Activity and Differentiative Pathways of Cell Populations<BR id=""CRLF"">Fibroblast-Chondroblast Modulation<BR id=""CRLF"">Modulation of Glyocaminoglycan Synthesis<BR id=""CRLF"">Modulation of Synthetic Activity and Differentiative Pathways in Single Cells<BR id=""CRLF"">Degradative Activity<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 11 — Stem Cells in Adults<BR id=""CRLF"">Fibroblast Colony-Forming Cells<BR id=""CRLF"">Osteogenic Precursor Cells<BR id=""CRLF"">Clonal Analysis<BR id=""CRLF"">Lineages of Cells<BR id=""CRLF"">Dexamethasone<BR id=""CRLF"">Epithelial Induction of Ectopic Bone<BR id=""CRLF"">Transitional Epithelium of the Urinary Bladder<BR id=""CRLF"">Epithelial Cell Lines <BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">PART V – SKELETOGENIC CELLS<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 12—Osteo- and Chondroprogenitor Cells<BR id=""CRLF"">Identifying Osteo- and Chondroprogenitor cells<BR id=""CRLF"">Execrable Terminology<BR id=""CRLF"">Features<BR id=""CRLF"">Cell Cycle Dynamics<BR id=""CRLF"">Bipotential Progenitor Cells for Osteo- and Chondrogenesis<BR id=""CRLF"">Bipotential Cell Populations or Bipotential Cells?<BR id=""CRLF"">Uncovering Bipotentiality<BR id=""CRLF"">Discovering Bipotentiality<BR id=""CRLF"">Biochemical and Metabolic Markers<BR id=""CRLF"">Collagen Types<BR id=""CRLF"">The Tumor Suppressor Gene p53<BR id=""CRLF"">Condylar Cartilage on the Condylar Process of the Mammalian Dentary<BR id=""CRLF"">Histodifferentiation and Scurvy<BR id=""CRLF"">One or Two Cell Populations<BR id=""CRLF"">Evidence Against Bipotentiality <BR id=""CRLF"">Evidence Supporting Bipotentiality <BR id=""CRLF"">All or Some?<BR id=""CRLF"">Secondary Cartilage on Avian Membrane Bones<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 13 — Dedifferentiation Provides Progenitor Cells for Jaws and Long Bones<BR id=""CRLF"">Condylar Cartilage of the Mammalian Temporomandibular Joint<BR id=""CRLF"">The TMJ<BR id=""CRLF"">Hypertrophic Chondrocytes Survive<BR id=""CRLF"">Hypertrophic Chondrocytes Transform to OPCs<BR id=""CRLF"">Meckel's Cartilages<BR id=""CRLF"">Mammalian Meckel’s<BR id=""CRLF"">Dedifferentiation During Endochondral Bone Formation<BR id=""CRLF"">Rodent Ribs<BR id=""CRLF"">Mice<BR id=""CRLF"">Rats<BR id=""CRLF"">Appendicular Long Bones<BR id=""CRLF"">Enzyme Activity<BR id=""CRLF"">Evidence from 3H-Thymidine-Labelling and Other Approaches<BR id=""CRLF"">Murine Interpubic Joints <BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 14 — Dedifferentiation and Urodele Limb Regeneration<BR id=""CRLF"">Dedifferentiation<BR id=""CRLF"">Morphological Dedifferentiation<BR id=""CRLF"">Functional Dedifferentiation<BR id=""CRLF"">Hyaluronan<BR id=""CRLF"">Blastema Formation<BR id=""CRLF"">Aneurogenic Limbs<BR id=""CRLF"">More than One Cell Fate<BR id=""CRLF"">Myoblast and Chondroblast Fates<BR id=""CRLF"">Factors Controlling Dedifferentiation<BR id=""CRLF"">Innervation<BR id=""CRLF"">Aneurogenic Limbs<BR id=""CRLF"">Proliferation<BR id=""CRLF"">Not the Stump<BR id=""CRLF"">Electrical Signals?<BR id=""CRLF"">Hox Genes <BR id=""CRLF"">FgfR1 and FgfR2<BR id=""CRLF"">Radical Fringe<BR id=""CRLF"">Why can’t Frogs Regenerate?<BR id=""CRLF"">Augmenting Regeneration<BR id=""CRLF"">Finger Tips of Mice, Monkeys and Men<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 15 — Cells to Make and Cells to Break: <BR id=""CRLF"">Clasts and Blasts<BR id=""CRLF"">Resorption<BR id=""CRLF"">Coupling Bone Resorption to Bone Formation<BR id=""CRLF"">Coupling Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts <BR id=""CRLF"">Some Molecular Players<BR id=""CRLF"">When Coupling Goes Awry<BR id=""CRLF"">TRAP-staining for Osteoclasts<BR id=""CRLF"">Mammalian Osteoclasts<BR id=""CRLF"">Teleost Osteoclasts<BR id=""CRLF"">Nitric Oxide – It’s a Gas<BR id=""CRLF"">Progenitor Cells for Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts<BR id=""CRLF"">Japanese Quail-domestic Fowl Chimaeras <BR id=""CRLF"">Osteopetrosis and Osteoclast Origins <BR id=""CRLF"">Osteoclast-Phagocyte-Macrophage or Osteoclast-Monocyte Lineages? <BR id=""CRLF"">Phagocyte/Macrophage Origin<BR id=""CRLF"">Interleukins<BR id=""CRLF"">IL-1<BR id=""CRLF"">IL-6<BR id=""CRLF"">IL-10<BR id=""CRLF"">Evidence Against Monocytes<BR id=""CRLF"">Evidence for Monocytes<BR id=""CRLF"">Chondroclasts and Osteoclasts <BR id=""CRLF"">Synovial Cells?<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">PART VI – EMBRYONIC ORIGINS<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 16 — Skeletal Origins: Somitic Mesoderm<BR id=""CRLF"">Somitic Mesoderm and the Origin of the Vertebrae<BR id=""CRLF"">Paraxial Mesoderm —> Somites<BR id=""CRLF"">Sclerotome Formation and Migration<BR id=""CRLF"">Resegmentation<BR id=""CRLF"">Somitic Contribution to Limb Buds<BR id=""CRLF"">Formation of Muscle<BR id=""CRLF"">Innervation and Myogenesis<BR id=""CRLF"">Signals to Initiate a Limb Bud<BR id=""CRLF"">A Comment on the Pectoral Girdle<BR id=""CRLF"">The Clavicle: Even More Surprising<BR id=""CRLF"">Humans<BR id=""CRLF"">Other Mammals<BR id=""CRLF"">Mammals that Lack Clavicles<BR id=""CRLF"">Birds<BR id=""CRLF"">Wishbone or Clavicles<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 17 — Skeletal Origins: Neural Crest<BR id=""CRLF"">Different Mesenchyme, Same Tissues <BR id=""CRLF"">Neural Crest as a Source of Skeletal Cells <BR id=""CRLF"">Evidence of Skeletogenic Potential<BR id=""CRLF"">Ablation and Transplantation Experiments<BR id=""CRLF"">Marker Experiments<BR id=""CRLF"">3H-thymidine<BR id=""CRLF"">Xenopus laevis-Xenopus borealis Chimaeras<BR id=""CRLF"">Quail-chick Chimaeras<BR id=""CRLF"">Genetic Markers for Murine Neural Crest<BR id=""CRLF"">Information from Mutants<BR id=""CRLF"">Regionalization of the Cranial Neural Crest<BR id=""CRLF"">The Ventral Neural Tube<BR id=""CRLF"">Migration of NCC: the Role of the Extracellular Matrix<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 18 — Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interactions: Jaws<BR id=""CRLF"">Urodele Amphibians: Chondrogenesis<BR id=""CRLF"">Avian Mandibular Skeleton: Chondrogenesis and Osteogenesis<BR id=""CRLF"">Isolated Mesenchyme — Chondrogenesis<BR id=""CRLF"">Isolated Mesenchyme — Osteogenesis<BR id=""CRLF"">Ruling out any Role for Meckel’s Cartilage<BR id=""CRLF"">Molecular Mechanisms<BR id=""CRLF"">Osteogenesis in Avian Maxillary Arch Skeleton<BR id=""CRLF"">Mammalian Mandibular Skeleton<BR id=""CRLF"">Endothelin-1<BR id=""CRLF"">The Dlx Family and Craniofacial Development<BR id=""CRLF"">Teleost Mandibular Arch Skeleton<BR id=""CRLF"">Fgf<BR id=""CRLF"">Hoxd-4 and Retinoic Acid<BR id=""CRLF"">Limb Development<BR id=""CRLF"">Craniofacial Development<BR id=""CRLF"">Fish<BR id=""CRLF"">Endothelin-1 (En-1)<BR id=""CRLF"">Mutants<BR id=""CRLF"">Lateral Line, Neuromasts and Dermal Bone <BR id=""CRLF"">Hope from a Single Trout<BR id=""CRLF"">Teratomas<BR id=""CRLF"">Germ-Layer Combinations<BR id=""CRLF"">Mesenchyme Signals to Epithelium<BR id=""CRLF"">Specificity of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interactions<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">PART VII – GETTING STARTED<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 19 — The Membranous Skeleton: Condensations <BR id=""CRLF"">The Membranous Skeleton<BR id=""CRLF"">Congenital hydrocephalus (ch)<BR id=""CRLF"">Characterizing Condensations<BR id=""CRLF"">How Condensations Arise<BR id=""CRLF"">Altered Mitotic Activity<BR id=""CRLF"">Changing Cell Density<BR id=""CRLF"">Aggregation and/or Failure to Disperse<BR id=""CRLF"">Limb Buds and Limb Regeneration<BR id=""CRLF"">Molecular Control <BR id=""CRLF"">Establishing Boundaries<BR id=""CRLF"">Syndecan and Tenascin<BR id=""CRLF"">Fgfs<BR id=""CRLF"">Wnt-7a<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 20 — From Condensation to Differentiation<BR id=""CRLF"">Condensation Growth<BR id=""CRLF"">Lessons from Mutants<BR id=""CRLF"">talpid3<BR id=""CRLF"">bpH <BR id=""CRLF"">Adhere, Proliferate and Grow<BR id=""CRLF"">Gap Junctions<BR id=""CRLF"">Limb Bud Mesenchyme<BR id=""CRLF"">Craniofacial Mesenchyme<BR id=""CRLF"">Transcription Factors and Hox genes<BR id=""CRLF"">Position and Shape<BR id=""CRLF"">Establishing Condensation Size <BR id=""CRLF"">Bmps<BR id=""CRLF"">Fibronectin<BR id=""CRLF"">Hyaluronan<BR id=""CRLF"">Extrinsic Control<BR id=""CRLF"">From Condensation to Overt Differentiation <BR id=""CRLF"">The Molecular Cascades<BR id=""CRLF"">Bmps<BR id=""CRLF"">Tenascin and N-CAM<BR id=""CRLF"">Runx-2<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 21 — Skulls, Eyes and Ears: Condensations and Tissue Interactions <BR id=""CRLF"">The Bony Skull<BR id=""CRLF"">Avian Skull Development<BR id=""CRLF"">Mammalian Skull Development <BR id=""CRLF"">The Cartilaginous Skull<BR id=""CRLF"">Type II Collagen<BR id=""CRLF"">Otic, Optic and Nasal Capsules<BR id=""CRLF"">The Otic Vesicle<BR id=""CRLF"">Morphogenesis<BR id=""CRLF"">Tympanic Cartilages<BR id=""CRLF"">Scleral Cartilage<BR id=""CRLF"">Heterogeneity<BR id=""CRLF"">Chondrogenic Mesenchyme<BR id=""CRLF"">Chondrogenic Mesenchyme<BR id=""CRLF"">Morphogenesis<BR id=""CRLF"">Scleral Ossicles<BR id=""CRLF"">Ossicle Number<BR id=""CRLF"">Scleral Papillae <BR id=""CRLF"">An Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interaction<BR id=""CRLF"">Scaleless Mutant Fowl<BR id=""CRLF"">A Role for Tenascin?<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">PART VIII – SIMILARITY AND DIVERSITY<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 22 —Chondrocyte Diversity<BR id=""CRLF"">Segregation from Precursors<BR id=""CRLF"">Perichondria<BR id=""CRLF"">Morphogenetic Specificity<BR id=""CRLF"">Cartilages of Different Embryological Origins<BR id=""CRLF"">Chondrocyte Hypertrophy<BR id=""CRLF"">Type X Collagen<BR id=""CRLF"">Discovery and Regulation of Synthesis<BR id=""CRLF"">Syndromes and Mutations<BR id=""CRLF"">Type X Does Not Always Indicate Hypertrophy<BR id=""CRLF"">Regulation of Chondrocyte Hypertrophy <BR id=""CRLF"">Tgf-ß<BR id=""CRLF"">Bmps <BR id=""CRLF"">Type X and Mineralization<BR id=""CRLF"">Matrix Vesicles<BR id=""CRLF"">Hypertrophic Chondrocytes and Subperiosteal Ossification<BR id=""CRLF"">Brachypod (bpH) in mice<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 23 — Cartilage Diversity<BR id=""CRLF"">Sternal Chondrocytes<BR id=""CRLF"">Synthesis of Collagen and GAG<BR id=""CRLF"">Differential expression of Type II Collagen<BR id=""CRLF"">Differential Synthesis and Organization of Collagen Types<BR id=""CRLF"">Type X Collagen and Hypertrophy <BR id=""CRLF"">Fibronectin<BR id=""CRLF"">Nanomelia <BR id=""CRLF"">Tumour Invasion<BR id=""CRLF"">Vascularity<BR id=""CRLF"">Resisting Vascular Invasion<BR id=""CRLF"">Inhibitors of Angiogenesis and Vascular Invasion<BR id=""CRLF"">Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (Vegf)<BR id=""CRLF"">PTH-PTHrP<BR id=""CRLF"">Interpubic Joints and the Transformation of Cartilage to Ligament<BR id=""CRLF"">Cartilage —> Ligament<BR id=""CRLF"">Mediation by Oestrogen and Relaxin <BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 24 —Osteoblast and Osteocyte Diversity<BR id=""CRLF"">Osteocytic Osteolysis<BR id=""CRLF"">Initiating Osteogenesis in vitro from Embryonic Mesenchyme<BR id=""CRLF"">Osteogenic Cells in Vitro<BR id=""CRLF"">Folded Periostea<BR id=""CRLF"">Establishing Osteoblasts/Osteogenesis in vitro<BR id=""CRLF"">Calvarial Osteoblasts in vitro<BR id=""CRLF"">Isolating Subpopulations of Calvarial Osteogenic Cells <BR id=""CRLF"">Chondrogenesis from Osteogenic Cells<BR id=""CRLF"">Clonal Cultures<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 25 — Bone Diversity<BR id=""CRLF"">Heterogeneity of Response to Sodium Fluoride <BR id=""CRLF"">Enhanced Proliferation and Osteogenesis<BR id=""CRLF"">Interaction with Hormonal Action<BR id=""CRLF"">Osteoporosis<BR id=""CRLF"">Chondrogenesis<BR id=""CRLF"">Mineralization<BR id=""CRLF"">Mechanical Properties of Bone<BR id=""CRLF"">Alveolar Bone of Mammalian Teeth<BR id=""CRLF"">Origin<BR id=""CRLF"">Physiology and Circadian Rhythms<BR id=""CRLF"">Penile and Clitoral Cartilages and Bones<BR id=""CRLF"">Os penis<BR id=""CRLF"">Os clitoris<BR id=""CRLF"">Hormonal Control<BR id=""CRLF"">Digits and Penile Bones<BR id=""CRLF"">Oestrogen-Stimulated Deposition of Medullary Bone in Laying Hens<BR id=""CRLF"">Oestrogen-Stimulated Resorption of Innominate Bones in Mice<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">PART IX – MAINTAINING CARTLAGE IN GOOD TIMES AND BAD<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 26 — Maintaining Differentiated Chondrocytes<BR id=""CRLF"">Differentiated Chondrocytes<BR id=""CRLF"">Synthesis and Deposition of Cartilaginous Extracellular Matrix<BR id=""CRLF"">Synthesis of Chondroitin Sulphate<BR id=""CRLF"">Synthesis of Type-II Collagen<BR id=""CRLF"">Synthesis of Collagen and Chondroitin Sulfate by the Same Chondrocyte<BR id=""CRLF"">Collagen Gel Culture<BR id=""CRLF"">Feedback Control of the Synthesis of Glycosaminoglycans<BR id=""CRLF"">Evidence from Organ Culture<BR id=""CRLF"">Evidence from Chondrocyte Cell Cultures<BR id=""CRLF"">Interactions Between Glycosaminoglycans and Collagens within the ECM<BR id=""CRLF"">Synthesis of Collagen and CS are Regulated Independently<BR id=""CRLF"">Hypertrophy<BR id=""CRLF"">The Interactive Extracellular Matrix<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 27 — Maintenance Awry: Achondroplasia<BR id=""CRLF"">Genetic Disorders of Collagen Metabolism<BR id=""CRLF"">Cartilage Anomaly (can) in Mice<BR id=""CRLF"">Achondroplasia (ac) in Rabbits<BR id=""CRLF"">Achondroplasia (cn) in Mice<BR id=""CRLF"">FgfR-3<BR id=""CRLF"">Chondrodysplasia (cho) in Mice<BR id=""CRLF"">Sprouty<BR id=""CRLF"">Brachymorphic (bm) Mice<BR id=""CRLF"">Stumpy (stm) Mice<BR id=""CRLF"">Nanomelia (nm) in Domestic Fowl<BR id=""CRLF"">Induced Micromelia<BR id=""CRLF"">Metabolic Regulation and Stability of Differentiation <BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 28 — Restarting Mammalian Articular Chondrocytes<BR id=""CRLF"">Mammalian Articular Chondrocytes in Vitro<BR id=""CRLF"">A Role for Oxygen<BR id=""CRLF"">Responsiveness to Environmental Signals<BR id=""CRLF"">Mechanisms of Articular Cartilage Repair<BR id=""CRLF"">Dividing Again in vitro<BR id=""CRLF"">Dividing Again in vivo<BR id=""CRLF"">DNA Synthesis vs. Division<BR id=""CRLF"">Osteotomy and Trauma<BR id=""CRLF"">Transcription Factor<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 29 — Repair of Fractures and Regeneration of Growth Plates<BR id=""CRLF"">A Brief History of Fracture Repair<BR id=""CRLF"">Standardizing the Fracture<BR id=""CRLF"">Motion<BR id=""CRLF"">Non-unions and Persistent Non-unions<BR id=""CRLF"">Growth Factors and Fracture Repair<BR id=""CRLF"">Bmps<BR id=""CRLF"">Jump-Starting Repair<BR id=""CRLF"">Regeneration of Growth Plates in Rats, Opossums and Men<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">PART X- GROWING TOGETHER<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 30 — Initiating Skeletal Growth<BR id=""CRLF"">What is Growth?<BR id=""CRLF"">Numbers of Stem Cells<BR id=""CRLF"">Cell movement and Cell Viability<BR id=""CRLF"">Epithelia and Fgf/FgfR-2<BR id=""CRLF"">Metabolic Regulation<BR id=""CRLF"">Creeper (Cp) Fowl<BR id=""CRLF"">Tibia/Fibula<BR id=""CRLF"">Growth Retardation<BR id=""CRLF"">A Growth Inhibitor<BR id=""CRLF"">Mechanical Stimulation and Chondroblast Differentiation/Growth <BR id=""CRLF"">Mechanical Stimuli and Metabolic Activity<BR id=""CRLF"">Transduction<BR id=""CRLF"">Membrane Potential<BR id=""CRLF"">Skeletal Responses Mediated by cAMP<BR id=""CRLF"">Matrix Synthesis and Condensation<BR id=""CRLF"">Hormones<BR id=""CRLF"">Teeth and Alveolar Bone<BR id=""CRLF"">Electrical Stimulation<BR id=""CRLF"">cAMP and Prechondroblast Proliferation <BR id=""CRLF"">Long Bones<BR id=""CRLF"">Limb Regeneration<BR id=""CRLF"">Condylar Cartilage<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 31 — Form, Polarity and Long-Bone Growth<BR id=""CRLF"">Fundamental Form<BR id=""CRLF"">Polarity<BR id=""CRLF"">Polarized Cells<BR id=""CRLF"">Long Bone Growth<BR id=""CRLF"">Growth Plates <BR id=""CRLF"">Growth Plate Dynamics<BR id=""CRLF"">New Cells, Bigger Cells and Matrix<BR id=""CRLF"">Cell Proliferation<BR id=""CRLF"">Birds and Mammals<BR id=""CRLF"">Clones and Timing<BR id=""CRLF"">Hormonal Involvement<BR id=""CRLF"">Growth at Opposite Ends<BR id=""CRLF"">Diurnal and Circadian Rhythyms <BR id=""CRLF"">Rhythms are Under Hormonal Control<BR id=""CRLF"">A role for the periosteum in Regulation the Growth Plate?<BR id=""CRLF"">Periosteal Sectioning<BR id=""CRLF"">Feedback Control<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 32 — Long Bone Growth: a Case of Crying Wolff?<BR id=""CRLF"">Wolff, von Meyer or Roux<BR id=""CRLF"">Response to Pressure<BR id=""CRLF"">Continuous or Intermittent Mechanical Stimuli<BR id=""CRLF"">Scaling and Variation: When Wolff meets the Dwarfs<BR id=""CRLF"">Gravity<BR id=""CRLF"">Transduction of Mechanical Stimuli<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">PART XI – STAYING APART<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 33 — The Temporomandibular Joint and Synchondroses<BR id=""CRLF"">The Mammalian Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ)<BR id=""CRLF"">Mechanical Factors<BR id=""CRLF"">The Condylar Process<BR id=""CRLF"">The Angular Process<BR id=""CRLF"">Diet<BR id=""CRLF"">Other Functional Approaches<BR id=""CRLF"">Cranial Synchondroses<BR id=""CRLF"">As Pacemakers<BR id=""CRLF"">Limited Growth Potential<BR id=""CRLF"">As Adaptive<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 34 — Sutures and Craniosynostosis<BR id=""CRLF"">Sutural Growth as Secondary and Adaptive<BR id=""CRLF"">Working with the Functional Matrix<BR id=""CRLF"">Sutural Cartilage<BR id=""CRLF"">The Dura<BR id=""CRLF"">Craniosynostosis<BR id=""CRLF"">Msx-2<BR id=""CRLF"">Fgf Receptors<BR id=""CRLF"">Sutural Growth<BR id=""CRLF"">Sutural Fusion<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">PART XII – LIMB BUDS<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 35 — The Limb Field and the AER<BR id=""CRLF"">The Mesodermal Limb Field <BR id=""CRLF"">Ectodermal Responsiveness<BR id=""CRLF"">Mesoderm Specifies Fore vs. Hindlimb <BR id=""CRLF"">Roles for the Ectoderm Associated with the Limb Field<BR id=""CRLF"">Limb Bud Growth<BR id=""CRLF"">Cell Proliferation<BR id=""CRLF"">Suppressing the Flank<BR id=""CRLF"">Mitotic Rate in Limb Mesenchyme<BR id=""CRLF"">Proximo-Distal Patterning of the Limb Skeleton<BR id=""CRLF"">Mesenchymal Factors Maintain the AER<BR id=""CRLF"">AEMF<BR id=""CRLF"">The PNZ<BR id=""CRLF"">Specificity of Limb-Bud Epithelium <BR id=""CRLF"">Specificity of Distal Limb Mesenchyme <BR id=""CRLF"">The Temporal Component<BR id=""CRLF"">A Mechanical Role for the Epithelium<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 36 — Adding or Deleting an AER<BR id=""CRLF"">AER Regeneration <BR id=""CRLF"">Experimental Removal of the AER<BR id=""CRLF"">Failure to Maintain the AER: the wingless (wl) Mutant <BR id=""CRLF"">Mutual Interaction<BR id=""CRLF"">Experimental Addition of an AER<BR id=""CRLF"">Mutants with Duplicated Limbs<BR id=""CRLF"">An Enlarged AER<BR id=""CRLF"">Duplicating the AER<BR id=""CRLF"">Narrow or Subdivided AERs<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 37 — AERs in Limbed and Limbless Tetrapods<BR id=""CRLF"">AERs Across the Tetrapods<BR id=""CRLF"">Amphibians<BR id=""CRLF"">Anurans<BR id=""CRLF"">Urodeles<BR id=""CRLF"">Reptiles<BR id=""CRLF"">Mammals<BR id=""CRLF"">Mice <BR id=""CRLF"">Chimaeras<BR id=""CRLF"">Humans <BR id=""CRLF"">Limbless Tetrapods<BR id=""CRLF"">Evolutionary Patterns<BR id=""CRLF"">Gaining Limbs Back<BR id=""CRLF"">Ecological Correlates of Limblessness<BR id=""CRLF"">The Developmental Basis of Limblessness in Snakes and Legless Lizards<BR id=""CRLF"">Inability to Maintain an AER<BR id=""CRLF"">Molecular Mechanisms<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">PART XIII – LIMBS AND LIMB SKELETONS<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 38 — Axes and Polarity <BR id=""CRLF"">Establishing Axes and Polarity <BR id=""CRLF"">The A-P Axis and the ZPA<BR id=""CRLF"">A Role for Fgf-2<BR id=""CRLF"">dHAND and shh<BR id=""CRLF"">Wnts and Fgf<BR id=""CRLF"">ZPAs Abound<BR id=""CRLF"">D-V Polarity<BR id=""CRLF"">P-D Polarity and the Progress Zone<BR id=""CRLF"">Extension to Amphibian Limb Regeneration<BR id=""CRLF"">Connecting D-V and P-D Polarity<BR id=""CRLF"">Thalidomide and Limb Defects<BR id=""CRLF"">Time of Action<BR id=""CRLF"">Mode of Action<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 39 — Patterning Limbs and Limb Skeletons<BR id=""CRLF"">Morphogenesis and Growth<BR id=""CRLF"">Programmed Cell Death (Apoptosis)<BR id=""CRLF"">Posterior and Anterior Necrotic Zones (PNZ, ANZ)<BR id=""CRLF"">Interdigital Cell Death<BR id=""CRLF"">A Role for BmpR-1<BR id=""CRLF"">The Opaque Patch<BR id=""CRLF"">Cell Adhesion and Morphogenesis: Talpid (ta) Mutant Fowl<BR id=""CRLF"">Talpid2<BR id=""CRLF"">Talpid3<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 40 — Before Limbs There Were Fins<BR id=""CRLF"">Dorsal Median Unpaired Fins<BR id=""CRLF"">Teleost Fish<BR id=""CRLF"">Life Style<BR id=""CRLF"">Developmental Origins<BR id=""CRLF"">Evolutionary Origins<BR id=""CRLF"">Paired Fins<BR id=""CRLF"">Fin Buds and Fin Folds<BR id=""CRLF"">Fin Skeletons<BR id=""CRLF"">Retinoic Acid<BR id=""CRLF"">…Regeneration<BR id=""CRLF"">A retinoic Acid-shh Link<BR id=""CRLF"">Fin Regeneration<BR id=""CRLF"">Fins —> Suckers<BR id=""CRLF"">Fins —> Limbs <BR id=""CRLF"">From Many to Fewer Digits<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">PART XTV – BACKBONES AND TAILS<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 41 — Vertebral Chondrogenesis: Spontaneous or Not?<BR id=""CRLF"">Self Differentiation or Induction?<BR id=""CRLF"">Morphogenesis<BR id=""CRLF"">Spinal Ganglia and Vertebral Morphogenesis<BR id=""CRLF"">Chondrogenesis in vitro<BR id=""CRLF"">Spontaneous Chondrogenesis<BR id=""CRLF"">Environmental Influences<BR id=""CRLF"">Cell Division and Cell Death<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 42 —The Search for the Magic Bullet<BR id=""CRLF"">Integrity of Notochord/Spinal Cord and Vertebral Morphogenesis<BR id=""CRLF"">Fish Skeletal Defects<BR id=""CRLF"">For How Long are Notochord and Spinal Cord Active?<BR id=""CRLF"">Can Dermamyotome or Lateral Plate Mesoderm Chondrify?<BR id=""CRLF"">The Search for the Magic Bullet<BR id=""CRLF"">A Role for Ectoderm?<BR id=""CRLF"">Cartilage Cells as Cartilage Inducers<BR id=""CRLF"">Active Extracellular Matrices<BR id=""CRLF"">Chondrocyte Extracellular Matrix <BR id=""CRLF"">Notochord and Spinal Cord Extracellular Matrices<BR id=""CRLF"">Glycosaminoglycans<BR id=""CRLF"">Collagens <BR id=""CRLF"">Function of Notochord and Spinal Cord Matrix Products<BR id=""CRLF"">Key Roles for Pax-1 and Pax-9 <BR id=""CRLF"">Conclusions <BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 43 — Tail Buds, Tails and Tail-lessness<BR id=""CRLF"">Embryological Origin<BR id=""CRLF"">The Ventral Epithelial Ridge (VER)<BR id=""CRLF"">Tbx Genes<BR id=""CRLF"">Tail Growth<BR id=""CRLF"">Genes or Environment<BR id=""CRLF"">Temperature<BR id=""CRLF"">Temperature-induced Change in Vertebral Number <BR id=""CRLF"">Natural Variation and Adaptive Value<BR id=""CRLF"">Studies with Teleost Fish<BR id=""CRLF"">Studies with Avian Embryos<BR id=""CRLF"">Studies with Mammals<BR id=""CRLF"">Studies with Amphibian Embryos <BR id=""CRLF"">Temperature Plus...<BR id=""CRLF"">Taillessness<BR id=""CRLF"">And Thereby Hangs a Tail <BR id=""CRLF"">Fish Tails <BR id=""CRLF"">Lizards Tails: Autotomy<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">PART XV – EVOLUTIONARY SKELETAL BIOLOGY<BR id=""CRLF""><BR id=""CRLF"">Chapter 44 — Evolutionary Experimentation Revisited<BR id=""CRLF"">Variation<BR id=""CRLF"">Variation of Individual Elements<BR id=""CRLF"">Variation that Tests an Hypothesis<BR id=""CRLF"">Pattern Variation<BR id=""CRLF"">Adaptive Value<BR id=""CRLF"">Miniaturization<BR id=""CRLF"">Heterochrony<BR id=""CRLF"">Process Heterochrony<BR id=""CRLF"">Coupling and Uncoupling Dermal and Endochondral Ossification<BR id=""CRLF"">Primates<BR id=""CRLF"">Neomorphs<BR id=""CRLF"">The Preglossale of the Common Pigeon<BR id=""CRLF"">Digits<BR id=""CRLF"">Secondary Jaw Articulations<BR id=""CRLF"">A Boid Intramaxillary Joint<BR id=""CRLF"">Regenerated Joints<BR id=""CRLF"">Wishbones<BR id=""CRLF"">Limb Rudiments in Whales<BR id=""CRLF"">Turtle Shells<BR id=""CRLF"">Atavisms<BR id=""CRLF"">Limb Skeletal Elements in Whales<BR id=""CRLF"">Mammalian Teeth<BR id=""CRLF"">Teleosts and Taxic Atavisms<BR id=""CRLF"">Late-developing Bones in Anurans<BR id=""CRLF"">Neomorph or Atavism?


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2005
20th June 2005
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
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About the Authors

Brian K. Hall

Brian K. Hall

I have been interested in and studying skeletal tissues since my undergraduate days in Australia in the 1960s. Those early studies on the development of secondary cartilage in embryonic birds, first published in 1967, have come full circle with the discovery of secondary cartilage in dinosaurs12. Bird watching really is flying reptile watching. Skeletal tissue development and evolution, the embryonic origins of skeletal tissues (especially those that arise from neural crest cells), and integrating development and evolution in what is now known as evo-devo have been my primary preoccupations over the past 50+ years.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax NS Canada

Brian Hall

Affiliations and Expertise

Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

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