Bones and Cartilage

Bones and Cartilage

Developmental and Evolutionary Skeletal Biology

1st Edition - April 19, 2002

Write a review

  • Authors: Brian K. Hall, Brian Hall
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080454153

Purchase options

Purchase options
DRM-free (Mobi, PDF, EPub)
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order

Description

Bones and Cartilage provides the most in-depth review ever assembled on the topic. It examines the function, development and evolution of bone and cartilage as tissues, organs and skeletal systems. It describes how bone and cartilage is developed in embryos and are maintained in adults, how bone reappears when we break a leg, or even regenerates when a newt grows a new limb, or a lizard a tail. This book also looks at the molecules and cells that make bones and cartilages and how they differ in various parts of the body and across species. It answers such questions as “Is bone always bone?” “Do bones that develop indirectly by replacing other tissues, such as marrow, tendons or ligaments, differ from one another?” “Is fish bone the same as human bone?” “Can sharks even make bone?” and many more.

Key Features

* Complete coverage of every aspect of bone and cartilage
* Full of interesting and unusual facts
* The only book available that integrates development and evolution of the skeleton
* Treats all levels from molecular to clinical, embryos to evolution
* Written in a lively, accessible style
* Extensively illustrated and referenced
* Integrates analysis of differentiation, growth and patterning
* Covers all the vertebrates as well as invertebrate cartilages
* Identifies the stem cells in embryos and adults that can make skeletal tissues

Readership

Biologists, medical researchers, evolutionary biologists, paleontologists, skeletal biologists, endocrinologists as well as graduate students and clinicians in all of these areas

Table of Contents

  • Epigraph
    Preface
    Table of Contents (FULL)

    PART I – SKELETAL TISSUES
    Chapter 1 — Types of Skeletal Tissues
    Bone
    Cartilage
    Dentine
    Enamel
    Intermediate Tissues
    Cementum
    Enameloid
    Chondroid and Chondroid bone
    Bone or Cartilage

    Chapter 2 — Bone
    Discovery of the Basic Structure of Bone
    Cellular Bone
    Intramembranous vs Endochondral Bone?
    Embryonic Origins
    Other Modes
    Metabolic Differences
    Morphogenetic Differences
    Osteones
    Growth
    Regional Remodeling
    Ageing
    Osteones Over Time
    Acellular Bone
    Caisson Disease and Abnormal Acellular Bone in Mammals
    Acellular Bone in Teleost Fishes
    Development
    Resorption
    Repair of Fractures
    Ca++ Regulation
    Aspidine
    Bone in 'Cartilaginous' Fishes (Sharks and Rays)

    Chapter 3 —Cartilage
    Types
    Chondrones
    Cartilage Growth
    Cartilage Canals
    Secondary Ossification Centres
    Elastic Cartilage
    Elastic Fibres
    The Cells
    Elastic Cartilage Intermediates
    Shark Cartilage
    Development and Mineralization
    Growth
    Inhibition of Vascular Invasion
    Lampreys
    Mucocartilage
    Lamprin
    Mineralization
    Hagfish

    PART II – NATURAL EXPERIEMENTS
    Chapter 4 — Invertebrate Cartilages
    Chondroid, Cartilage or Neither
    Odontophoral Cartilage of the Channeled Whelk, Busycon canaliculatum
    Branchial (Gill Book) Cartilage of the Horseshoe Crab, Limulus polyphemus
    Cranial Cartilages in Squid, Cuttlefish and Octopuses
    Composition of the ECM
    Glycosaminoglycans
    Collagens
    Tentacular Cartilages of Polychaete Annelids
    Lophophore Cartilage in the Articulate Brachiopod, Terebratalia transversa
    Mineralization of Invertebrate Cartilages
    Cartilage Origins

    Chapter 5 — Intermediate Tissues
    Chondroid and Chondroid Bone
    Modulation and Intermediate Tissues
    Cartilage from Fibrous Tissue and Metaplasia
    Metaplasia of Epithelial Cells to Chondroblasts or Osteoblasts
    Chondroid
    Teleosts
    Mammals
    Chondroid Bone
    Teleosts
    Mammals
    Chondroid Bone and Pharyngeal Jaws
    Tissues Intermediate Between Bone and Dentine
    Dentine
    Cementum
    Enameloid: a Tissue Intermediate Between Dentine and Enamel

    Chapter 6 — An Evolutionary Perspective
    Fossilized Skeletal Tissues
    All Four Skeletal Tissues are Ancient
    Evolutionary Experimentation
    Intermediate Tissues in Fossil Agnatha
    Dinosaur Bone
    Developing Fossils
    Problematica
    Palaeopathlogy
    Conodonts

    Part III — UNUSUAL MODES OF SKELETOGENESIS

    Chapter 7 — Horns and Ossicones
    Horns
    Distribution of Horns as Organs
    Bovidae
    Rhinos
    Titanotheres
    Pronghorn Antelopes
    Giraffes
    Horn as a Tissue
    Development and Growth of Horns

    Chapter 8 — Antlers
    Antlers
    Size and Absence
    Initiation of Antler Formation
    Pedicle Formation
    The Antler Bud and Dermal-Epidermal Interactions
    Hormonal Control of Pedicle Development and Growth
    Antler Regeneration
    The Shedding Cycle
    Histogenesis of Antlers
    White-tailed Deer, American Elk, European Fallow and Roe Deer
    Rocky Mountain Mule Deer
    Sika Deer
    Hormones, Photoperiod and Antler growth
    Photoperiod and Testosterone
    Parathyroid Hormone and Calcitonin

    Chapter 9 — Tendons and Sesamoids
    Tendons and Skeletogenesis
    Fibrocartilage in Tendons
    Rodent Achilles Tendons
    Ossification of Avian Tendons
    Formation and Composition of Tendon Fibrocartilages
    Condensation
    Scleraxis
    Composition
    Sesamoids
    Amphibians
    Reptiles
    Birds
    Teleosts

    PART IV – STEM CELLS

    Chapter 10 — Embryonic Stem Cells
    Stem Cells
    Set-aside Cells?
    Stem Cells for Periosteal Osteogenesis in Long Bones
    Modulation of Synthetic Activity and Differentiative Pathways of Cell Populations
    Fibroblast-Chondroblast Modulation
    Modulation of Glyocaminoglycan Synthesis
    Modulation of Synthetic Activity and Differentiative Pathways in Single Cells
    Degradative Activity

    Chapter 11 — Stem Cells in Adults
    Fibroblast Colony-Forming Cells
    Osteogenic Precursor Cells
    Clonal Analysis
    Lineages of Cells
    Dexamethasone
    Epithelial Induction of Ectopic Bone
    Transitional Epithelium of the Urinary Bladder
    Epithelial Cell Lines

    PART V – SKELETOGENIC CELLS

    Chapter 12—Osteo- and Chondroprogenitor Cells
    Identifying Osteo- and Chondroprogenitor cells
    Execrable Terminology
    Features
    Cell Cycle Dynamics
    Bipotential Progenitor Cells for Osteo- and Chondrogenesis
    Bipotential Cell Populations or Bipotential Cells?
    Uncovering Bipotentiality
    Discovering Bipotentiality
    Biochemical and Metabolic Markers
    Collagen Types
    The Tumor Suppressor Gene p53
    Condylar Cartilage on the Condylar Process of the Mammalian Dentary
    Histodifferentiation and Scurvy
    One or Two Cell Populations
    Evidence Against Bipotentiality
    Evidence Supporting Bipotentiality
    All or Some?
    Secondary Cartilage on Avian Membrane Bones

    Chapter 13 — Dedifferentiation Provides Progenitor Cells for Jaws and Long Bones
    Condylar Cartilage of the Mammalian Temporomandibular Joint
    The TMJ
    Hypertrophic Chondrocytes Survive
    Hypertrophic Chondrocytes Transform to OPCs
    Meckel's Cartilages
    Mammalian Meckel’s
    Dedifferentiation During Endochondral Bone Formation
    Rodent Ribs
    Mice
    Rats
    Appendicular Long Bones
    Enzyme Activity
    Evidence from 3H-Thymidine-Labelling and Other Approaches
    Murine Interpubic Joints

    Chapter 14 — Dedifferentiation and Urodele Limb Regeneration
    Dedifferentiation
    Morphological Dedifferentiation
    Functional Dedifferentiation
    Hyaluronan
    Blastema Formation
    Aneurogenic Limbs
    More than One Cell Fate
    Myoblast and Chondroblast Fates
    Factors Controlling Dedifferentiation
    Innervation
    Aneurogenic Limbs
    Proliferation
    Not the Stump
    Electrical Signals?
    Hox Genes
    FgfR1 and FgfR2
    Radical Fringe
    Why can’t Frogs Regenerate?
    Augmenting Regeneration
    Finger Tips of Mice, Monkeys and Men

    Chapter 15 — Cells to Make and Cells to Break:
    Clasts and Blasts
    Resorption
    Coupling Bone Resorption to Bone Formation
    Coupling Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts
    Some Molecular Players
    When Coupling Goes Awry
    TRAP-staining for Osteoclasts
    Mammalian Osteoclasts
    Teleost Osteoclasts
    Nitric Oxide – It’s a Gas
    Progenitor Cells for Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts
    Japanese Quail-domestic Fowl Chimaeras
    Osteopetrosis and Osteoclast Origins
    Osteoclast-Phagocyte-Macrophage or Osteoclast-Monocyte Lineages?
    Phagocyte/Macrophage Origin
    Interleukins
    IL-1
    IL-6
    IL-10
    Evidence Against Monocytes
    Evidence for Monocytes
    Chondroclasts and Osteoclasts
    Synovial Cells?

    PART VI – EMBRYONIC ORIGINS

    Chapter 16 — Skeletal Origins: Somitic Mesoderm
    Somitic Mesoderm and the Origin of the Vertebrae
    Paraxial Mesoderm —> Somites
    Sclerotome Formation and Migration
    Resegmentation
    Somitic Contribution to Limb Buds
    Formation of Muscle
    Innervation and Myogenesis
    Signals to Initiate a Limb Bud
    A Comment on the Pectoral Girdle
    The Clavicle: Even More Surprising
    Humans
    Other Mammals
    Mammals that Lack Clavicles
    Birds
    Wishbone or Clavicles

    Chapter 17 — Skeletal Origins: Neural Crest
    Different Mesenchyme, Same Tissues
    Neural Crest as a Source of Skeletal Cells
    Evidence of Skeletogenic Potential
    Ablation and Transplantation Experiments
    Marker Experiments
    3H-thymidine
    Xenopus laevis-Xenopus borealis Chimaeras
    Quail-chick Chimaeras
    Genetic Markers for Murine Neural Crest
    Information from Mutants
    Regionalization of the Cranial Neural Crest
    The Ventral Neural Tube
    Migration of NCC: the Role of the Extracellular Matrix

    Chapter 18 — Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interactions: Jaws
    Urodele Amphibians: Chondrogenesis
    Avian Mandibular Skeleton: Chondrogenesis and Osteogenesis
    Isolated Mesenchyme — Chondrogenesis
    Isolated Mesenchyme — Osteogenesis
    Ruling out any Role for Meckel’s Cartilage
    Molecular Mechanisms
    Osteogenesis in Avian Maxillary Arch Skeleton
    Mammalian Mandibular Skeleton
    Endothelin-1
    The Dlx Family and Craniofacial Development
    Teleost Mandibular Arch Skeleton
    Fgf
    Hoxd-4 and Retinoic Acid
    Limb Development
    Craniofacial Development
    Fish
    Endothelin-1 (En-1)
    Mutants
    Lateral Line, Neuromasts and Dermal Bone
    Hope from a Single Trout
    Teratomas
    Germ-Layer Combinations
    Mesenchyme Signals to Epithelium
    Specificity of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interactions

    PART VII – GETTING STARTED

    Chapter 19 — The Membranous Skeleton: Condensations
    The Membranous Skeleton
    Congenital hydrocephalus (ch)
    Characterizing Condensations
    How Condensations Arise
    Altered Mitotic Activity
    Changing Cell Density
    Aggregation and/or Failure to Disperse
    Limb Buds and Limb Regeneration
    Molecular Control
    Establishing Boundaries
    Syndecan and Tenascin
    Fgfs
    Wnt-7a

    Chapter 20 — From Condensation to Differentiation
    Condensation Growth
    Lessons from Mutants
    talpid3
    bpH
    Adhere, Proliferate and Grow
    Gap Junctions
    Limb Bud Mesenchyme
    Craniofacial Mesenchyme
    Transcription Factors and Hox genes
    Position and Shape
    Establishing Condensation Size
    Bmps
    Fibronectin
    Hyaluronan
    Extrinsic Control
    From Condensation to Overt Differentiation
    The Molecular Cascades
    Bmps
    Tenascin and N-CAM
    Runx-2

    Chapter 21 — Skulls, Eyes and Ears: Condensations and Tissue Interactions
    The Bony Skull
    Avian Skull Development
    Mammalian Skull Development
    The Cartilaginous Skull
    Type II Collagen
    Otic, Optic and Nasal Capsules
    The Otic Vesicle
    Morphogenesis
    Tympanic Cartilages
    Scleral Cartilage
    Heterogeneity
    Chondrogenic Mesenchyme
    Chondrogenic Mesenchyme
    Morphogenesis
    Scleral Ossicles
    Ossicle Number
    Scleral Papillae
    An Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interaction
    Scaleless Mutant Fowl
    A Role for Tenascin?

    PART VIII – SIMILARITY AND DIVERSITY

    Chapter 22 —Chondrocyte Diversity
    Segregation from Precursors
    Perichondria
    Morphogenetic Specificity
    Cartilages of Different Embryological Origins
    Chondrocyte Hypertrophy
    Type X Collagen
    Discovery and Regulation of Synthesis
    Syndromes and Mutations
    Type X Does Not Always Indicate Hypertrophy
    Regulation of Chondrocyte Hypertrophy
    Tgf-ß
    Bmps
    Type X and Mineralization
    Matrix Vesicles
    Hypertrophic Chondrocytes and Subperiosteal Ossification
    Brachypod (bpH) in mice

    Chapter 23 — Cartilage Diversity
    Sternal Chondrocytes
    Synthesis of Collagen and GAG
    Differential expression of Type II Collagen
    Differential Synthesis and Organization of Collagen Types
    Type X Collagen and Hypertrophy
    Fibronectin
    Nanomelia
    Tumour Invasion
    Vascularity
    Resisting Vascular Invasion
    Inhibitors of Angiogenesis and Vascular Invasion
    Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (Vegf)
    PTH-PTHrP
    Interpubic Joints and the Transformation of Cartilage to Ligament
    Cartilage —> Ligament
    Mediation by Oestrogen and Relaxin

    Chapter 24 —Osteoblast and Osteocyte Diversity
    Osteocytic Osteolysis
    Initiating Osteogenesis in vitro from Embryonic Mesenchyme
    Osteogenic Cells in Vitro
    Folded Periostea
    Establishing Osteoblasts/Osteogenesis in vitro
    Calvarial Osteoblasts in vitro
    Isolating Subpopulations of Calvarial Osteogenic Cells
    Chondrogenesis from Osteogenic Cells
    Clonal Cultures

    Chapter 25 — Bone Diversity
    Heterogeneity of Response to Sodium Fluoride
    Enhanced Proliferation and Osteogenesis
    Interaction with Hormonal Action
    Osteoporosis
    Chondrogenesis
    Mineralization
    Mechanical Properties of Bone
    Alveolar Bone of Mammalian Teeth
    Origin
    Physiology and Circadian Rhythms
    Penile and Clitoral Cartilages and Bones
    Os penis
    Os clitoris
    Hormonal Control
    Digits and Penile Bones
    Oestrogen-Stimulated Deposition of Medullary Bone in Laying Hens
    Oestrogen-Stimulated Resorption of Innominate Bones in Mice

    PART IX – MAINTAINING CARTLAGE IN GOOD TIMES AND BAD

    Chapter 26 — Maintaining Differentiated Chondrocytes
    Differentiated Chondrocytes
    Synthesis and Deposition of Cartilaginous Extracellular Matrix
    Synthesis of Chondroitin Sulphate
    Synthesis of Type-II Collagen
    Synthesis of Collagen and Chondroitin Sulfate by the Same Chondrocyte
    Collagen Gel Culture
    Feedback Control of the Synthesis of Glycosaminoglycans
    Evidence from Organ Culture
    Evidence from Chondrocyte Cell Cultures
    Interactions Between Glycosaminoglycans and Collagens within the ECM
    Synthesis of Collagen and CS are Regulated Independently
    Hypertrophy
    The Interactive Extracellular Matrix

    Chapter 27 — Maintenance Awry: Achondroplasia
    Genetic Disorders of Collagen Metabolism
    Cartilage Anomaly (can) in Mice
    Achondroplasia (ac) in Rabbits
    Achondroplasia (cn) in Mice
    FgfR-3
    Chondrodysplasia (cho) in Mice
    Sprouty
    Brachymorphic (bm) Mice
    Stumpy (stm) Mice
    Nanomelia (nm) in Domestic Fowl
    Induced Micromelia
    Metabolic Regulation and Stability of Differentiation

    Chapter 28 — Restarting Mammalian Articular Chondrocytes
    Mammalian Articular Chondrocytes in Vitro
    A Role for Oxygen
    Responsiveness to Environmental Signals
    Mechanisms of Articular Cartilage Repair
    Dividing Again in vitro
    Dividing Again in vivo
    DNA Synthesis vs. Division
    Osteotomy and Trauma
    Transcription Factor

    Chapter 29 — Repair of Fractures and Regeneration of Growth Plates
    A Brief History of Fracture Repair
    Standardizing the Fracture
    Motion
    Non-unions and Persistent Non-unions
    Growth Factors and Fracture Repair
    Bmps
    Jump-Starting Repair
    Regeneration of Growth Plates in Rats, Opossums and Men

    PART X- GROWING TOGETHER

    Chapter 30 — Initiating Skeletal Growth
    What is Growth?
    Numbers of Stem Cells
    Cell movement and Cell Viability
    Epithelia and Fgf/FgfR-2
    Metabolic Regulation
    Creeper (Cp) Fowl
    Tibia/Fibula
    Growth Retardation
    A Growth Inhibitor
    Mechanical Stimulation and Chondroblast Differentiation/Growth
    Mechanical Stimuli and Metabolic Activity
    Transduction
    Membrane Potential
    Skeletal Responses Mediated by cAMP
    Matrix Synthesis and Condensation
    Hormones
    Teeth and Alveolar Bone
    Electrical Stimulation
    cAMP and Prechondroblast Proliferation
    Long Bones
    Limb Regeneration
    Condylar Cartilage

    Chapter 31 — Form, Polarity and Long-Bone Growth
    Fundamental Form
    Polarity
    Polarized Cells
    Long Bone Growth
    Growth Plates
    Growth Plate Dynamics
    New Cells, Bigger Cells and Matrix
    Cell Proliferation
    Birds and Mammals
    Clones and Timing
    Hormonal Involvement
    Growth at Opposite Ends
    Diurnal and Circadian Rhythyms
    Rhythms are Under Hormonal Control
    A role for the periosteum in Regulation the Growth Plate?
    Periosteal Sectioning
    Feedback Control

    Chapter 32 — Long Bone Growth: a Case of Crying Wolff?
    Wolff, von Meyer or Roux
    Response to Pressure
    Continuous or Intermittent Mechanical Stimuli
    Scaling and Variation: When Wolff meets the Dwarfs
    Gravity
    Transduction of Mechanical Stimuli

    PART XI – STAYING APART

    Chapter 33 — The Temporomandibular Joint and Synchondroses
    The Mammalian Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ)
    Mechanical Factors
    The Condylar Process
    The Angular Process
    Diet
    Other Functional Approaches
    Cranial Synchondroses
    As Pacemakers
    Limited Growth Potential
    As Adaptive

    Chapter 34 — Sutures and Craniosynostosis
    Sutural Growth as Secondary and Adaptive
    Working with the Functional Matrix
    Sutural Cartilage
    The Dura
    Craniosynostosis
    Msx-2
    Fgf Receptors
    Sutural Growth
    Sutural Fusion

    PART XII – LIMB BUDS

    Chapter 35 — The Limb Field and the AER
    The Mesodermal Limb Field
    Ectodermal Responsiveness
    Mesoderm Specifies Fore vs. Hindlimb
    Roles for the Ectoderm Associated with the Limb Field
    Limb Bud Growth
    Cell Proliferation
    Suppressing the Flank
    Mitotic Rate in Limb Mesenchyme
    Proximo-Distal Patterning of the Limb Skeleton
    Mesenchymal Factors Maintain the AER
    AEMF
    The PNZ
    Specificity of Limb-Bud Epithelium
    Specificity of Distal Limb Mesenchyme
    The Temporal Component
    A Mechanical Role for the Epithelium

    Chapter 36 — Adding or Deleting an AER
    AER Regeneration
    Experimental Removal of the AER
    Failure to Maintain the AER: the wingless (wl) Mutant
    Mutual Interaction
    Experimental Addition of an AER
    Mutants with Duplicated Limbs
    An Enlarged AER
    Duplicating the AER
    Narrow or Subdivided AERs

    Chapter 37 — AERs in Limbed and Limbless Tetrapods
    AERs Across the Tetrapods
    Amphibians
    Anurans
    Urodeles
    Reptiles
    Mammals
    Mice
    Chimaeras
    Humans
    Limbless Tetrapods
    Evolutionary Patterns
    Gaining Limbs Back
    Ecological Correlates of Limblessness
    The Developmental Basis of Limblessness in Snakes and Legless Lizards
    Inability to Maintain an AER
    Molecular Mechanisms

    PART XIII – LIMBS AND LIMB SKELETONS

    Chapter 38 — Axes and Polarity
    Establishing Axes and Polarity
    The A-P Axis and the ZPA
    A Role for Fgf-2
    dHAND and shh
    Wnts and Fgf
    ZPAs Abound
    D-V Polarity
    P-D Polarity and the Progress Zone
    Extension to Amphibian Limb Regeneration
    Connecting D-V and P-D Polarity
    Thalidomide and Limb Defects
    Time of Action
    Mode of Action

    Chapter 39 — Patterning Limbs and Limb Skeletons
    Morphogenesis and Growth
    Programmed Cell Death (Apoptosis)
    Posterior and Anterior Necrotic Zones (PNZ, ANZ)
    Interdigital Cell Death
    A Role for BmpR-1
    The Opaque Patch
    Cell Adhesion and Morphogenesis: Talpid (ta) Mutant Fowl
    Talpid2
    Talpid3

    Chapter 40 — Before Limbs There Were Fins
    Dorsal Median Unpaired Fins
    Teleost Fish
    Life Style
    Developmental Origins
    Evolutionary Origins
    Paired Fins
    Fin Buds and Fin Folds
    Fin Skeletons
    Retinoic Acid
    …Regeneration
    A retinoic Acid-shh Link
    Fin Regeneration
    Fins —> Suckers
    Fins —> Limbs
    From Many to Fewer Digits

    PART XTV – BACKBONES AND TAILS

    Chapter 41 — Vertebral Chondrogenesis: Spontaneous or Not?
    Self Differentiation or Induction?
    Morphogenesis
    Spinal Ganglia and Vertebral Morphogenesis
    Chondrogenesis in vitro
    Spontaneous Chondrogenesis
    Environmental Influences
    Cell Division and Cell Death

    Chapter 42 —The Search for the Magic Bullet
    Integrity of Notochord/Spinal Cord and Vertebral Morphogenesis
    Fish Skeletal Defects
    For How Long are Notochord and Spinal Cord Active?
    Can Dermamyotome or Lateral Plate Mesoderm Chondrify?
    The Search for the Magic Bullet
    A Role for Ectoderm?
    Cartilage Cells as Cartilage Inducers
    Active Extracellular Matrices
    Chondrocyte Extracellular Matrix
    Notochord and Spinal Cord Extracellular Matrices
    Glycosaminoglycans
    Collagens
    Function of Notochord and Spinal Cord Matrix Products
    Key Roles for Pax-1 and Pax-9
    Conclusions

    Chapter 43 — Tail Buds, Tails and Tail-lessness
    Embryological Origin
    The Ventral Epithelial Ridge (VER)
    Tbx Genes
    Tail Growth
    Genes or Environment
    Temperature
    Temperature-induced Change in Vertebral Number
    Natural Variation and Adaptive Value
    Studies with Teleost Fish
    Studies with Avian Embryos
    Studies with Mammals
    Studies with Amphibian Embryos
    Temperature Plus...
    Taillessness
    And Thereby Hangs a Tail
    Fish Tails
    Lizards Tails: Autotomy


    PART XV – EVOLUTIONARY SKELETAL BIOLOGY

    Chapter 44 — Evolutionary Experimentation Revisited
    Variation
    Variation of Individual Elements
    Variation that Tests an Hypothesis
    Pattern Variation
    Adaptive Value
    Miniaturization
    Heterochrony
    Process Heterochrony
    Coupling and Uncoupling Dermal and Endochondral Ossification
    Primates
    Neomorphs
    The Preglossale of the Common Pigeon
    Digits
    Secondary Jaw Articulations
    A Boid Intramaxillary Joint
    Regenerated Joints
    Wishbones
    Limb Rudiments in Whales
    Turtle Shells
    Atavisms
    Limb Skeletal Elements in Whales
    Mammalian Teeth
    Teleosts and Taxic Atavisms
    Late-developing Bones in Anurans
    Neomorph or Atavism?

Product details

  • No. of pages: 792
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2005
  • Published: April 19, 2002
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080454153

About the Authors

Brian K. Hall

Brian K. Hall
I have been interested in and studying skeletal tissues since my undergraduate days in Australia in the 1960s. Those early studies on the development of secondary cartilage in embryonic birds, first published in 1967, have come full circle with the discovery of secondary cartilage in dinosaurs12. Bird watching really is flying reptile watching. Skeletal tissue development and evolution, the embryonic origins of skeletal tissues (especially those that arise from neural crest cells), and integrating development and evolution in what is now known as evo-devo have been my primary preoccupations over the past 50+ years.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax NS Canada

Brian Hall

Affiliations and Expertise

Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

Ratings and Reviews

Write a review

There are currently no reviews for "Bones and Cartilage"