Body, Brain, Behavior

Body, Brain, Behavior

Three Views and a Conversation

1st Edition - January 8, 2022

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  • Authors: Tamas Horvath, Joy Hirsch, Zoltán Molnár
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128180938
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128180945

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Description

Body, Brain, Behavior: Three Views and a Conversation describes brain research on the frontiers, with a particular emphasis on the relationship between the brain and its development and evolution, peripheral organs, and other brains in communication. The book expands current views of neuroscience by illustrating the integration of these disciplines. By using a novel method of conversations between 3 scientists of different disciplines, cellular, endocrine, developmental, and social processes are seamlessly woven into topics that relate to contemporary living in health and disease. This book is a critical read for anyone who wants to become familiar with the inner workings of the nervous system and its intimate connections to the universe of contemporary life issues.

Key Features

  • Introduces the reader to basic principles of brain research and integrative physiology
  • Dissects the dispute between Cajal and Golgi regarding the state-of-the art in the neurosciences and immunobiology
  • Provides a short history of brain research and metabolism
  • Discusses contemporary approaches in the neurosciences, along with the importance of technological versus conceptual advances
  • Examines the dynamics of social connections between two brains, integrating mechanisms of Body/Brain/Behavior-to-Body/Brain/Behavior between subjects

Readership

Graduate students, neuroscientists, neurobiologists, and anyone new to the field of neuroscience

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction—Zoltán Molnár
  • How did we end up with the views we have today?
  • Current scientific focus
  • Introduction—Tamas L. Horvath
  • How did we end up with the views we have today?
  • Introduction—Joy Hirsch
  • How did we end up with the views we have today?
  • Current scientific focus
  • Chapter 1. Zoltán Molnár: the developing brain
  • Abstract
  • 1.1 The Blind Men and the Elephant
  • 1.2 Building the brain is like a house of cards
  • 1.3 Your brain is comprised of different cells with various birthdates, but most of your neurons are as old as you are
  • 1.4 Importance of connectivity in brain function
  • 1.5 Generation of neuronal diversity
  • 1.6 Migration is key to newly born neurons to reach to the proper destination
  • 1.7 Brain evolution is the evolution of brain development
  • 1.8 Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of development
  • 1.9 Origins of the mammalian cerebral cortex
  • 1.10 Conservation and divergence during development and evolution
  • 1.11 Evolution of neuronal types
  • 1.12 The brain is a computer that is switched on while it is constructed
  • 1.13 How to link cognitive conditions to their developmental origins?
  • 1.14 Mother and baby form a unit during and after pregnancy
  • 1.15 Influence of maternal environment on the baby’s prenatal development
  • 1.16 Functional localization in the brain
  • 1.17 Remnants of the developmental scaffold have an important role in the adult, linking brain, body, and behavior
  • 1.18 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 2. Tamas Horvath: The hunger view on body, brain and behavior
  • Abstract
  • 2.1 What is the brain?
  • 2.2 Conceptual framework
  • 2.3 Eating: linking the environment to the body and brain
  • 2.4 Plasticity beyond the arcuate nucleus and the hypothalamus triggered by metabolic changes
  • 2.5 Cellular metabolic principles of neuronal responses to the changing metabolic environment
  • 2.6 The conundrum of interventions based on metabolic principles to fight obesity and aging at the population level
  • 2.7 Hunger promoting NPY/AgRP neurons affect higher brain functions and brain disorders
  • 2.8 The metabolic concept of higher brain functions
  • 2.9 Summary
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Chapter 3. Joy Hirsch: Brain-to-Brain
  • Abstract
  • 3.1 Full circle
  • 3.2 The transparent black box reveals the single brain
  • 3.3 Dyads in agreement and disagreement
  • 3.4 Two brains from different social worlds: high and low disparity dyads
  • References
  • Discussion 1—20th November 2020
  • 1 How to transcribe the Zoom discussions?
  • 2 The brain as a “black box”
  • 3 Buildings to bricks as brains to ion channels: what does the ion channel tell us about the brain?
  • 4 Eye-to-eye contact and social consequences
  • 5 Eye-to-eye contact, blindness, and other deficits
  • 6 Brain development and adaptations to sensory deficits
  • 7 Atypical development and brain
  • Discussion 2—27th November, 2020
  • 1 Many points of view: the “elephant” and what is a brain?
  • 2 The whole body is part of the brain
  • 3 How was the brain put together?
  • 4 The brain needs a body
  • 5 One brain–two bodies versus two brains–one body
  • 6 Lot of ways to make a brain
  • 7 Cortex may be overrated
  • 8 Cortex gathers information from outside
  • 9 Cortex organization remains flexible across the life span
  • 10 Cortical cells are relatively slow to turn over
  • 11 Cell replacement in other body parts
  • 12 Two systems of replacement and regeneration
  • 13 C14 and evolution
  • 14 Neurogenesis and injury
  • 15 Fine-tuning the “black-box”
  • 16 Humans have a very long period of postnatal development
  • 17 Humans versus crows
  • 18 Alternative brains
  • 19 Function versus structure and form
  • 20 The big question for evolutionary neurobiology
  • 21 Principles of connectivity
  • 22 Abnormal brain development: consequences
  • 23 Fetal alcohol syndrome
  • 24 Induced changes to brain development during pregnancy
  • 25 Potential effects of early interventions during periods of plasticity
  • 26 Social interventions to achieve social adaptations
  • Discussion 3—22nd January, 2021
  • 1 A silver lining from hardship to wisdom
  • 2 What is wrong with the typical human brain?
  • 3 Coincidence detection and the developing brain
  • 4 Single-event food aversions
  • 5 Cerebellum and single-event learning
  • 6 The vestibular system and single-trial motor learning
  • 7 Languages and the roles of supplementary hand gestures
  • 8 The brain and acquired versus native languages
  • 9 Different languages/different brains?
  • 10 Does dancing protect against Alzheimer’s disease?
  • 11 The food axis connects brain to body to mind
  • 12 What is this book about?
  • 13 Synergy to creativity
  • Discussion 4—10th February 2021
  • 1 Individual variations in tolerance of food shortages
  • 2 Puberty and energy metabolism
  • 3 Genes for anorexia
  • 4 Metabolism and the migration out of Africa
  • 5 Metabolism for long distance running
  • 6 Oxygen and metabolism
  • 7 Why are there 6 layers of cells in the cortex?
  • 8 Neural rehabilitation
  • 9 A role for neuroplasticity
  • 10 Longevity and neuroplasticity
  • 11 Human humor
  • 12 Effects of social reciprocity
  • Discussion 5—17th February 2021
  • 1 “Gut” and brain interface
  • 2 Ascending signals of the autonomic nervous system and brain functions
  • 3 “Gut” control of eating behavior: a paradigm shift
  • 4 Where are the models to connect brain function and body signals?
  • 5 Developing models and findings to connect brain function (learning) with real faces
  • 6 Is learning better when hungry?
  • 7 Beyond the hypothalamus and receptors for orexin
  • 8 Bottom-up influences on top-down processes
  • 9 Attention and arousal
  • 10 Linking hypotheses between brain function and behavior
  • 11 The role peripheral tissues (such as liver), arousal, and high level perception
  • 12 Variations of social behaviors based on arousal and context
  • 13 Beyond hypothalamus to cortex or is it the other way around?
  • 14 Many working parts become one brain
  • 15 Hypothalamus as a radio station
  • Discussion 6—22nd February 2021
  • 1 Reviewing grant applications based on a holistic view
  • 2 Fast and slow decision-making
  • 3 Personality and spending decisions
  • 4 Soap and far-away hotels
  • 5 Multi-generational effects of food shortages
  • 6 Effects of pandemic isolation in science
  • 7 Our brains during agreement and disagreement
  • 8 Disagreement versus social harmony
  • 9 “On-line” versus face-to-face disagreements
  • 10 Social “change blindness” and iPhones
  • 11 Social cues for rituals compared to novel situations
  • 12 Writing is creative
  • 13 Plagiarism or not?
  • Discussion 7—3rd March 2021
  • 1 Core temperature and longevity
  • 2 Bio-markers for major depression
  • 3 How do we measure the success of neuroscience?
  • 4 The big problem of understanding long-term cause and effects
  • 5 Conventional wisdom versus energetic naiveté
  • Discussion 8—10th March, 2021
  • 1 Input to the brain is gaited and selected
  • 2 Thalamus “listens” to the brain and not very much to the outside world
  • 3 The whole brain is somatosensory cortex?
  • 4 Functional specificity versus distributed processes
  • 5 Functions assigned to brain areas?
  • 6 Does the inner life of the brain need a body?
  • 7 Brain to brain, body to body: how separable?
  • 8 The adaptable brain
  • 9 The “black box” and the interaction between brains
  • 10 Three views of the brains and conversations to bring it together
  • Discussion 9—17th March, 2021
  • 1 Pandemic effects: is communication altered by online (Zoom) compared to face-to-face communication?
  • 2 Student admissions procedures during the pandemic
  • 3 How do we evaluate our institutions?
  • Discussion 10—7th April, 2021
  • 1 A book review
  • 2 The neuroscience of yesterday versus the neuroscience of tomorrow
  • 3 Laboratory architecture and creativity
  • 4 Creative synergy versus isolated intelligence
  • 5 The fundamental social unit and the collective behavior of ants
  • 6 Collective intelligence of multiple brains
  • 7 Collective intelligence without any brain
  • 8 The “data-dump” and micro-views
  • 9 What is your 5-year plan?
  • 10 To plan or not to plan
  • 11 Function or structure?
  • 12 What is “normal”?
  • 13 How do we teach creativity?
  • 14 The academic ladder and war
  • Discussion 11—14th April, 2021
  • 1 The Eureka moment
  • 2 How do we structure education for science?
  • 3 Objective measurements and facts versus objective measures and promise
  • 4 The “bridge” between data, findings, and interpretation
  • 5 From data to interpretation: a slippery slope
  • 6 The power of a personal connection
  • 7 How do we measure the ability for interpersonal interactions?
  • 8 The development of the ability for interpersonal interactions
  • 9 How are dyadic interactions affected by physiological variables?
  • 10 The fear of public speaking and physiological variables
  • 11 How are dyadic interactions developed?
  • 12 Distractions and competing forms of input information
  • 13 Variations in dyadic connections
  • 14 The effects of the absence of live interactions
  • 15 Pandemic-related changes in how we connect
  • Discussion 12—28th April, 2021
  • 1 The making of brains
  • 2 Nature, compensation, and nurture: separate or a mix?
  • 3 Many competing points of views about brain and behavior
  • 4 Predictions for criminality and a mechanism for fetal alcohol syndrome
  • 5 Placental effects on development
  • 6 The placenta to brain connection
  • 7 Social interactions begin in utero
  • 8 Sleep, brain, and lots of other
  • 9 Sleep and longevity
  • Discussion 13—10th May 2021
  • 1 Bad things matter in our lives
  • 2 A well-hidden dark side: is it predictable?
  • 3 Memory enhancement during traumatic events
  • 4 Trauma in medical school and in academics
  • 5 Pros and cons of peer review
  • 6 Imagine if editors competed for papers to publish
  • 7 Peer review: pros/cons and practice
  • 8 A paper review: the most popular brain areas
  • 9 Dejavu all over again
  • 10 Isolated parts versus the integrated whole
  • 11 The symphony analogy
  • 12 We are sculpters of our own brains
  • 13 Asperger’s and brain plasticity
  • 14 High versus low pathways leading to social malfunctions
  • 15 Empathy: an exaggerated social function
  • 17 Narcisism
  • 18 Anatomical substrates of psychiatric conditions
  • 19 Is the isolated brain conscious?
  • 20 The neuroscience department of the future
  • 21 What about this emerging book?
  • 22 The parabol of many blind people and the elephant
  • 23 The person in the science
  • Discussion 14—Monday, 17th May, 2021
  • 1 On talking about interdisciplinary departments
  • 2 Two brains and one dyad
  • 3 Leader and follower brains
  • 4 Interpersonal interactions and the autonomic nervous system
  • 5 Our background statements: Zoltán started as a neurosurgeon in Hungary
  • 6 Neurons aren’t even the major part of the brain
  • 7 Friends and science
  • 8 When friendship fails
  • 9 Cross-disciplinary collaborations: strengths and weaknesses
  • 10 How do we know what is an important question?
  • 11 The compass going forward: uncharted territory
  • 12 Most important papers and the life span of a scientist
  • 13 Scientists and transitions
  • 14 Vitamin C, the Nobel Prize, and the Hungarian crown (you can’t make this up!)
  • 15 Books not brains are repositories of information
  • 16 Evolutionary influences on the human brain
  • 17 The “zero” cranial nerve
  • Discussion 15—20th May 2021
  • 1 Various roads to becoming a neuroscientist
  • 2 Introduction to the hypothalamus
  • 3 Cellular physiology of sleep
  • 4 Ablation of layer 5
  • 5 Layer 6b neurons
  • 6 Inhibitory signals
  • 7 What does the cortex do?
  • 8 Physiological homeostasis
  • 9 Global versus local effects
  • 10 Resting state signals and their interpretation
  • 11 The value of understanding single cell types
  • 12 The development of inhibitory neurons
  • 13 The impact of “data dump” papers
  • 14 Can perceptions be read from the brain?
  • 15 The binding problem
  • 16 Classification of cells in the mouse brain
  • Discussion 16—3rd June 2021
  • 1 Does “normal” mean the absence of antisocial behavior? How do we separate unusual behaviors into normal or mental illness categories?
  • 2 What role does genetics and development play in health and disease?
  • 3 Is mental illness a common mental state? Where is the threshold between “normal” and “not-normal”?
  • 4 How valid is our current information about the effects of diet on development and mental illness?
  • 5 Human development is so complicated, how does it ever turn out right?
  • 6 The concept of a spectrum for behaviors is useful in describing clusters of social qualities such as is autism spectrum disorder
  • 7 Antisocial behaviors can be self-promoting and reinforcing for some people
  • 8 How much of our behavior is modulated by our genes? It is an enigma that our genes are so similar and our behaviors are so diverse. Can genes give us information about susceptibilities to conditions, such as alcoholism, heart disease, and dementia?
  • 9 The problem of sharing medical information and records
  • 10 Prediction of risk factors from SNIPS can be dangerous and contribute to unnecessary concerns or worries because the probabilities are not well-applied to individuals
  • 11 Normative versus idiopathic information
  • 12 Information gathered from vaccinated people would have been very informative. Should we vaccinate children?
  • 13 How do we understand cognitive side effects following COVID vaccination and consequences for development?
  • 14 When we consider the possible physiological substrates that underlie behavior, health, and disease, we have to consider nonneural mechanisms including the microglia
  • 15 The brain is like a garden and there are many reasons why the flowers do and do not grow
  • 16 Where do all the strains of mice and other animals come from? Why are there so many?
  • Discussion 17—17th June 2021
  • 1 Individual differences: savants and the biology of special talents
  • Discussion 18—17th June 2021
  • 1 Study section blues
  • 2 What is a brain?
  • 3 Diversity of the microbiome
  • 4 Diet, behavior, energetics, and microbiota
  • 5 Neurons in the stomach: are they part of the brain?
  • 6 Enterotypes and behavior
  • 7 What does the intestinal autonomic system have to do with the substantia nigra?
  • 8 Where does the gut bacteria come from?
  • 9 Dementia, chronic inflammation, and the mouth
  • 10 A science hero: Katalin Kariko
  • 11 To be a scientist …
  • Discussion 19—24th June 2021
  • 1 What is dance?
  • 2 Why do we dance?
  • 3 Can we study the dancing brain?
  • 4 The magic of music
  • 5 Social partnership and couples dancing
  • 6 Everybody can dance: a Nobel dance story
  • 7 Learning to dance
  • 8 Possible opinions about our book
  • 9 Core problems in neuroscience
  • 10 Science is what we measure
  • 11 Fitting the pieces together
  • 12 The “right” of being wrong
  • 13 The “wrong” of being right
  • Epilogue—Zoltám Molnár
  • 1 What did you lean and how did you change your views after the discussions?
  • Epilogue—Tamas L. Horvath
  • Epilogue—Joy Hirsch
  • 1 Conversation bootcamp
  • 2 What is a brain?
  • 3 What is the value of conversation?
  • 4 What have I learned?
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 444
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2022
  • Published: January 8, 2022
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128180938
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128180945

About the Authors

Tamas Horvath

Dr. Horvath is the Jean and David W. Wallace Professor and Chair of the Department of Comparative Medicine and Professor of Neurobiology and Ob/Gyn at Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. He is also the Founding Director for the Yale Program on Integrative Cell Signaling and Neurobiology of Metabolism and member of the Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program at Yale Graduate School. He received a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (D.V.M.) degree from the Faculty of Veterinary Sciences in Budapest, Hungary, and a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degree from the University of Szeged in Hungary. His research is focused on neuronal circuitries that support physiological and pathological homeostatic conditions, including processes associated with reproduction, energy metabolism and neurodegeneration.

Affiliations and Expertise

Jean and David W. Wallace Professor and Chair, Department of Comparative Medicine, Professor of Neurobiology and Ob/Gyn Yale University School of Medicine, USA

Joy Hirsch

Dr. Hirsch is Professor of Comparative Medicine, Psychiatry and member of the Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program at Yale Graduate School. She received a Bachelor of Science (BS) degree from the University of Oregon, a Master of Art (MA) in Experimental Psychology from Portland State University, and, Doctor of Philisophy (PhD) from Columbia University. Research in the Hirsch Lab at the Yale School of Medicine aims to understand the neural circuitry and fundamental mechanisms of the brain that enable human cognition, language, emotion, decision making, and perception in both healthy/typical individuals and in patients with neurological, developmental, and psychiatric disorders.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Comparative Medicine, Psychiatry and member of the Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Yale University School of Medicine, USA

Zoltán Molnár

Zoltan Molnar obtained his M.D. (summa cum laude) at the Albert Szent-Györgyi Medical University, Szeged, Hungary where he started his residency in Neurological Surgery in the institute of Professor Mihaly Bodosi until moving to Oxford in 1989. He obtained his D.Phil. at the University Laboratory of Physiology in the laboratory of Professor Colin Blakemore FRS studying the “Multiple mechanisms in the establishment of thalamocortical innervation”. He continued his work on cerebral cortical development at Oxford as an MRC training fellow and Junior Research Fellow at Merton College. He also investigated thalamocortical development working with Professor Egbert Welker at the Institut de Biologie Cellulaire et de Morphologie, Université de Lausanne, Switzerland, and learned optical recording techniques to understand early functional thalamocortical interactions in the laboratory of Professor Keisuke Toyama at Kyoto Prefectural School of Medicine, Japan. He was appointed to a University Lecturer position at the Department of Human Anatomy and Genetics associated with a Tutorship at St John's College, Oxford from 2000. He was awarded the title Professor of Developmental Neuroscience in 2007. Previously he served as Director of Graduate Studies (2001-3) and Deputy Head of Department (2013-4). He is associated to Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Host Prof Britta Eickholt) as Einstein Visiting Fellow (2020-2024).

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Developmental Neuroscience, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, UK

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