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Bloodstain Patterns - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124159303, 9780124159655

Bloodstain Patterns

1st Edition

Identification, Interpretation and Application

Author: Anita Wonder
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124159303
eBook ISBN: 9780124159655
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 3rd December 2014
Page Count: 352
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Bloodstain Patterns: Identification, Interpretation and Application combines material from Blood Dynamics (2001) and Bloodstain Pattern Evidence (2007) with updated case work and scientific advances from medical and hard sciences. The text expands coverage of such areas as arterial damage pattern identification, staging of crime scenes, legal applications and problems from both sides of the bench, and extending teaching and training to those outside criminal justice. With violent offenders more aware of crime scene investigation techniques and attempting to frame others, the text expands outdated basic training programs that are insufficient to identify attempts to confuse the investigation. This book clarifies previous understandings as well as bridges the gap toward future advance courses. Based on the work of Paul Leland Kirk, the book’s focus is on first line investigators’ accuracy in identifying specific bloodstain patterns, correctly interpreting and applying them to casework.

Key Features

  • Combines and updates material from Blood Dynamics and Bloodstain Pattern Evidence into one comprehensive reference
  • Covers new topics, including arterial damage pattern identification, staging of crime scenes, legal applications, and problems from both sides of the bench
  • More than 300 full color photographs, some with line overlays showing the objective criteria which identify patterns


Primary - Forensic practitioners, law enforcement professionals, and lawyers
Secondary - academia and students of forensic science and/or advanced law

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Author
  • List of Figures
  • Section I. Introduction
    • Chapter 1. Introduction
      • To Solve a Problem, You Identify It
      • Changed History
      • Terminology Shift
      • Correcting Misperceptions
      • Previous Confusion Corrected
      • The Economics of Bloodstain Pattern Training
    • Chapter 2. The Science of Bloodstain Pattern Evidence
    • Chapter 3. Discussion on Terminology
      • Absence Transfer
      • Area of Convergence
      • Arterial Damage Stains
      • Arterial Fountain
      • Arterial Gush
      • Arterial Rain
      • Arterial Spurt
      • Arteries
      • Back Spatter
      • Blockage Transfer
      • Blood
      • Blood into Blood
      • Blood Spatter
      • Bloodstain
      • Blunt Force Impact
      • Bullet Capsular Blast
      • Calipers
      • Castoff Spatters
      • Cessation Castoffs
      • Clot (Coagulation)
      • Contamination
      • Direction of Travel
      • Drip Castoff
      • Entrance Wound Spatter
      • Exit Wound Spatter
      • Gunshot Wound
      • Hemolyze
      • High Velocity Impact Spatter (HVIS)
      • Incident Angle
      • Inline Beading
      • Inside Angle (Incident Angle or Impact Angle)
      • Investigative Transfer (IT)
      • Low Velocity Impact Spatter (LVIS)
      • Medium Velocity Impact Spatter (MVIS)
      • Mist Spatter or Misting
      • Moving Contact Bloodstains
      • Muzzle Blast
      • Origin
      • Parent Drop
      • Passive
      • Pattern
      • Physiologically Altered Bloodstain (PABS)
      • Plasma
      • Pool (Volume)
      • Preblast
      • Protractor
      • Red Blood Cells
      • Retraction (Clot)
      • Satellite Spatter
      • Secondary Spatter
      • Serum
      • Serum Stain
      • Shadowing
      • Simple Direct Transfer Patterns
      • Smear (Smudge)
      • Spatter
      • Spine
      • Splash
      • Splatter
      • String Reconstruction
      • Swipe Moving Transfer Pattern
      • Target
      • Template Transfers
      • Transfer Pattern
      • Void
      • Volume (Pool)
      • Whole Pattern
      • Wipe Moving Transfer Pattern
  • Section II. Identification
    • Chapter 4. Review of Historical Approaches to Bloodstain Pattern Identification
      • Identifying the Whole Pattern
      • Directions of Travel
      • Alignments
      • Distribution/Density
      • Further Discussions Regarding Examples of Spatter Patterns
    • Chapter 5. Differentiations Between Similar Patterns
      • Additions to Guidelines for Identification
      • Various Bloodstain Patterns Found on the Floor
      • Moving Transfer Patterns
    • Chapter 6. How Many Pieces of Evidence?
      • Discussion of Figure 6.1
      • Discussion of Figure 6.2
      • Discussion of Figure 6.3
      • Discussion of Figure 6.4
      • Discussion of Figure 6.5
      • Discussion of Figure 6.6
      • Putting the Sections Together for a Crime Scene Investigation
  • Section III. Interpretation
    • Chapter 7. Information for Interpretation
      • Interpretations Based on Common Workshop Experiments
    • Chapter 8. Investigative Leads: Suggested Questions and Answers
      • The Major Categories, Subcategories, and a Continuous List of Questions for Interpretation of Bloodstain Pattern Evidence
      • How Bloodstain Pattern Evidence May Be Used to Answer the Preceding Questions
    • Chapter 9. Staging
      • Physiologically Altered Bloodstains
      • Volume Stains (Pooling of Blood)
      • Case Examples Where Staging Should Have Been Eliminated
      • Clever Staging?
  • Section IV. Application
    • Chapter 10. Expanding Applications in Bloodstain Pattern Evidence
      • 1. Interviews of Individuals Claiming Knowledge of the Evidence
      • 2. Investigations of Vandalism
      • 3. Determination of Suicide, Accident, or Homicide
      • 4. CSI General Work-up for Violent Events
      • 5. Recognition of Staged Crime Scenes
      • 6. Trial Strategy for Both Prosecution and Defense
      • 7. Openings for Appeals
      • 8. Evidence for Parole Considerations
      • 9. Cold Case and Historical Considerations
      • 10. Child Abuse and Animal Cruelty
      • 11. Internal Affairs Investigations into Officer-Involved Shootings
      • 12. Incarcerated Population Interrogation
      • How to Apply Bloodstain Pattern Analysis
    • Chapter 11. Applications of Bloodstain Pattern Evidence to Crime Scene Investigation
      • Introduction
      • Applying Workshops and Lectures to Case Work-up
      • The Importance of the 3D Approach
      • Applications to Review within a 3D Context
    • Chapter 12. Bloodstain Pattern Application in Court
      • History from the Legal Viewpoint
      • Interactions Between Lawyers and Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Experts
      • Importance of Pretrial Motions
      • Application of Expertise Early in the Case
      • Questions for Key Witnesses in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (BPA) Cases
      • Summation
  • Section V. Research for the Future
    • Chapter 13. Reinventing the Wheel
      • 1. Identify and Limit the Specific Problem or Question to be Understood and/or Resolved with the Project
      • 2. Conduct a Literature Search for Applicable Scientific Foundations
      • 3. Construct an Experimental Design for the Project
      • 4. Acquire and/or Manufacture Instrumentation and Devices, and Compile a Formula for Reagents as Necessary
      • 5. Identify What and How Records of the Project Results Will be Kept and Distributed
      • 6. Conduct the Project
      • 7. Review Results, Interpret Information Gleaned, and Draw Conclusions
      • 8. Suggest Modifications for Future Projects to Deal with Unsuspected Results and Extend Understanding
    • Chapter 14. Research Project Examples
      • Color Used to Determine Age of Bloodstains
      • The Investigation into the Footprint of a Blood Drop
      • CSF and Blood Project
    • Chapter 15. Summation and Review
      • It Always Comes Back to History
      • Who is Affected by Discoveries in Bloodstain Pattern Evidence?
      • Review
      • Conclusion
  • Index


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© Academic Press 2015
3rd December 2014
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
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About the Author

Anita Wonder

Anita Wonder is Founder and Director of the Wonder Institute, a forensic science consulting, training and research association specializing in Bloodstain Pattern Evidence, based in Carmichael, CA. From 1971 to 2005 Ms. Wonder was the Senior Clinical Laboratory Scientist for a large national HMO. She continues to lecture, handle special case studies and testify on the evidence for both prosecution and defense. Anita has testified for both criminal and civil proceedings.

Affiliations and Expertise

Wonder Institute, Carmichael, CA, USA

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