Selected Chapters. Perspectives of Blood Substitutes (E. Tsuchida). The Role of Blood Substitutes in Emerging Healthcare Systems (R.M. Winslow). Red Cell Substitutes: Evolution of Approaches for Demonstrating Efficacy (J.C. Fratantoni). Recent Progress in the Development of Recombinant Human Hemoglobin (rHb1.1) as an Oxygen Therapeutic (J.W. Freytag et al.). Update on Perfluorocarbon-Based Oxygen Delivery Systems (J.G. Riess, P.E. Keipert). Round Table Discussion: "The Target and Assessment of Clinical Tests" (M. Takaori). Experimental and Mathematical Simulation of Oxygen Transport by Hemoglobin-based Blood Substitute (T.C. Page et al.). Polymeric Biodegradable Hemoglobin Nanocapsule as a New Red Blood Cell Substitute (T.M.S. Chang). Microvascular Responses to Hemodilution with Hb-Vesicles: Importance of Resistance Arteries and Mechanisms of Vasoconstriction (H. Sakai et al.). In vivo Oxygenation of Deoxy-HemolinkTM Following Exchange Transfusion of 50% or 90% the Blood Volume in Rats (J. Ning et al.). The Heme Oxgenase System in Liver Microcirculation: A Key Mechanism for Hemoglobin Degradation (M. Suematsu et al.). Zero-link Polymerization: a New Class of Polymeric Hemoglobins (A. Razynska, E. Bucci). Properties of Poly(ethylene glycol)-conjugated Red Blood Cells (T.C. Fisher et al.). Fluorocarbon Emulsions as Blood Substitutes (K.C. Lowe). Recent Developments and Future Perspectives for Preserved Platelets and Platelet Substitutes (B.M. Alving, C, Krishnamurti). Impact on the Appearance of Blood Substitutes Replacing Blood in Transfusion Medicine (S. Sekiguchi).