Blood Cells and Plasma Proteins - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483229355, 9781483261409

Blood Cells and Plasma Proteins

1st Edition

Their State in Nature

Editors: James L. Tullis
eBook ISBN: 9781483261409
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1953
Page Count: 458
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Description

Blood Cells and Plasma Proteins: Their State in Nature focuses on the properties, characteristics, reactions, and transformations of blood cells and plasma proteins.
The selection first takes a look at the historical prologue on the discovery of the formed and fluid parts of human blood and chemical prologue on the characterization and separation of proteins by virtue of their interactions with neutral salts. The text then takes a look at interactions of proteins with each other and with heavy metals and interactions of proteins with alkaline earths, steroids, blood cells, and polysaccharides. The book then ponders on the components of human plasma concerned with coagulation and the biochemical, physiological, and pathological aspects of the coagulation mechanism. Discussions focus on evolution of the clotting mechanism, modern concepts of clotting, state of accelerator substances, and state of calcium. The text also tackles the nature of immune processes, antibodies in human gamma globulin, and physical characteristics of the gamma globulins.
The selection is a valuable reference for readers interested in blood cells and plasma protein.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Preface

Introductory Remarks

Section I. The Formed and the Fluid Parts of Human Bloods Their Discovery, Characterization, and Separation by Virtue of Their Physical Properties and Chemical Interactions

Chapter 1. An Historical Prologue on the Discovery of the Formed and Fluid Parts of Human Blood

Discovery in the Seventeenth Century of the Capillaries, of Erythrocytes, and of Bodily Interactions with the Atmosphere (1656-1667)

Discovery in the Eighteenth Century of the Elementary Composition of the Atmosphere (1756-1774)

Discovery in the Early Nineteenth Century of the Elementary Composition of Living Matter (1806-1842)

Chapter 2. A Chemical Prologue on the Characterization and Separation of Proteins by Virtue of Their Interactions with Neutral Salts

Precipitations of Proteins from Concentrated Salt Solutions ( 1860-1930)

Precipitation of Proteins and Amino Acids with Neutral Salts

Precipitation of Proteins from Ethanol-Water Mixtures at Low Temperatures (1940-19 50)

Chapter 3. Interactions of Proteins with each Other and with Heavy Metals

Interactions of Proteins with Other Proteins

Interactions of Proteins with Strong Electrolytes

Interactions of Proteins with Zinc

Interactions of Proteins with Zinc and Mercury

Chapter 4. Interactions of Proteins with Alkaline Earths, with Steroids, with Blood Cells, and with Specific Polysaccharides

Interactions of Plasma Proteins with Calcium and Barium

Interactions of Plasma Proteins with Magnesium and Manganese

Interactions of Plasma Proteins with Copper and Iron

Interactions of Plasma Proteins with Lead Ions

Interactions of Plasma Proteins with the Leucocytes of the Blood

Interactions of Plasma Proteins with the Erythrocytes of the Blood

Interactions of Plasma Proteins with Carbohydrates

Interactions of Observation and Experimentation

Section II. The Factors Concerned with Blood Coagulation

Chapter 1. The Components of Human Plasma Concerned with Coagulation

The State of Calcium

The Nature of Prothrombin

The State of the Accelerator Substances

The State of Other Components

Chapter 2. Some Biochemical, Physiological and Pathological Aspects of the Coagulation Mechanism

Evolution of the Clotting Mechanism

Modern Concepts of Clotting

Chapter 3. Some Experiences with Blood-Clotting Mechanisms

Surface Factors

Clotting Mechanisms as Studied in Isolated Systems of Purified Reagents

Chapter 4. Fibrinogen and Thrombin: Their Interaction in Formation of the Fibrin Clot

Fibrinogen

Thrombin

Formation of the Fibrin Clot

Chapter 5. The Platelets of Human Blood: Their Morphology, Interactions, and Preservation

General Consideration

Structure and Physical Properties

Interactions

Preservation

Section III. The Components of Human Blood Concerned with Immunity

Chapter 1. The Nature of Immune Processes

Introduction

Responses to Infection

Cellular Components of the Blood Concerned with Immunity

Plasma Proteins Concerned with Immunity

Chapter 2. Antibodies in Human Gamma Globulin

Brief Review of Earlier Work

Evidence for Chemical Similarity or Identity of Natural Antibody and Immune Antibody in Man

Relation of Chemical Nature of Antigen to Chemical Nature of Antibody

Significance of Variations in Antibody Content of Gamma Globulin Fractions in Bloods Collected from Various Geographical Areas

Possible Use of Gamma Globulin in the Prophylaxis of Poliomyelitis

Chapter 3. Physical Characteristics of the Gamma Globulins

Chapter 4. Cellular Sources of Antibodies

The Reticuloendothelial Theory

The Lymphoid Cellular Theory

The Plasma Cellular Theory

Section IV. Erythrocytes

Chapter 1. The Origin, Properties and Functions of the Human Red Cell

General Properties of Whole Blood and Erythrocytes

Origin and Survival In Vivo

Specific Characteristics of Red Cells

Erythrocyte Function: the Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide

The Behavior of the Erythrocyte Outside the Body

Measurement of Viability

Preservation of Red Cells: the Effect of Citrate, Dextrose, and pH

Chapter 2. The Preservation of Red Cells

General Considerations of Optimal Conditions of Preservation

Chapter 3. The Influence of Certain Cations on the Storage of Human Erythrocytes

Addendum: May 1952

Chapter 4. The Enzymology of the Erythrocyte

Respiratory Activity of the Mammalian Erythrocyte

Hexosemonophosphate Shunt

The Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle

Glycolysis

Glycolytic Behavior of Preserved Erythrocytes at 5°C

Glycolytic Behavior of Preserved Erythrocytes When Returned to 37°C

Behavior of Inorganic Ions in Relation to Glycolysis

General Comments

Section V. Leucocytes

Chapter I. The Origin, Properties, Function, and Preservation of White Blood Cells

The Development of Knowledge about Leucocytes

Origin and Life Cycle

Factors Controlling Production and Release

Cellular Properties

The Role of Leucocytes in Defense

Leucotoxin and Type Specificity

The Separation and Preservation of Leucoyctes

Conclusion

Chapter 2. A Discussion of Certain Aspects of the Cellular and Humoral Defense Mechanism

The Origin and Maturation of the Formed Elements

Functional Efficiency of Granulocytes

The Reticulo-Endothelial System in Cellular and Humoral Defense

Chapter 3. The Histamine Content of White Blood Cells

Estimation of Histamine in Blood

Histamine Content of Whole Blood

The Partition of Histamine in Blood

Origin of Histamine in Blood

Liberation of Histamine from White Blood Cells

Chapter 4. The Cytochromes of Respiring Cells

Experimental Technique

Experimental Results

Summary

Section VI. The Enzymes of Plasma

Chapter I. The Nature and Properties of the Enzymes of Normal Human Plasma

Introduction

The Proteolytic Enzymes

Carbohydrases

Esterases

General Properties

Chapter 2. Plasma Enzymes: A Discussion of Preceding Chapter

Sources of Plasma Enzymes

Measurement of Plasma Enzyme Activity

Proteolytic Enzymes of Plasma

A Comment on the Nature of "Hydrolases"

Section VII. The Lipoproteins of Blood and Other Tissues

Chapter 1. The Lipoproteins of Human Plasma

Isolation of Purified Plasma Lipoproteins

The α- and ß-Lipoproteins of Human Plasma

Ultracentrifugai Studies of Lipoproteins

Stability of ß-Lipoprotein

Immunochemical Studies of ß-Lipoprotein

Lipoprotein and Lipid Metabolism

Structure of Lipoproteins



Chapter 2. Lipoproteins of Horse Plasma and Serum

The Nature of Bonds between Lipids and Proteins

Effect of Hydrosoluble Substances Containing Nonpolar Groups on Lipid-Protein Bonds

Action of Cationic Soaps

Action of Ordinary Soaps

Action of Hydrosoluble Substances Containing Polar Groups

The Aqueous Layer around Lipoproteins

Chapter 3. Linkages between Proteins and Lipids

Water-Soluble Liponucleoproteins

The Proteolipids

Other Types of Lipid-Protein Linkage

Chapter 4. Protein-Lipid Relationships in Plasma

Lipid Composition of Fractions IV + V + VI and I + III

Factors Which Influence the Distribution of Cholesterol

Summary

Chapter 5. The Plasma Glycoproteins and Lipoproteins

Inflammatory Diseases

Diseases with Disturbed Lipid Metabolism

Discussion

Author Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
458
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1953
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483261409

About the Editor

James L. Tullis