Blood Cells and Plasma Proteins

Blood Cells and Plasma Proteins

Their State in Nature

1st Edition - January 1, 1953

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  • Editor: James L. Tullis
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483261409

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Blood Cells and Plasma Proteins: Their State in Nature focuses on the properties, characteristics, reactions, and transformations of blood cells and plasma proteins. The selection first takes a look at the historical prologue on the discovery of the formed and fluid parts of human blood and chemical prologue on the characterization and separation of proteins by virtue of their interactions with neutral salts. The text then takes a look at interactions of proteins with each other and with heavy metals and interactions of proteins with alkaline earths, steroids, blood cells, and polysaccharides. The book then ponders on the components of human plasma concerned with coagulation and the biochemical, physiological, and pathological aspects of the coagulation mechanism. Discussions focus on evolution of the clotting mechanism, modern concepts of clotting, state of accelerator substances, and state of calcium. The text also tackles the nature of immune processes, antibodies in human gamma globulin, and physical characteristics of the gamma globulins. The selection is a valuable reference for readers interested in blood cells and plasma protein.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors


    Introductory Remarks

    Section I. The Formed and the Fluid Parts of Human Bloods Their Discovery, Characterization, and Separation by Virtue of Their Physical Properties and Chemical Interactions

    Chapter 1. An Historical Prologue on the Discovery of the Formed and Fluid Parts of Human Blood

    Discovery in the Seventeenth Century of the Capillaries, of Erythrocytes, and of Bodily Interactions with the Atmosphere (1656-1667)

    Discovery in the Eighteenth Century of the Elementary Composition of the Atmosphere (1756-1774)

    Discovery in the Early Nineteenth Century of the Elementary Composition of Living Matter (1806-1842)

    Chapter 2. A Chemical Prologue on the Characterization and Separation of Proteins by Virtue of Their Interactions with Neutral Salts

    Precipitations of Proteins from Concentrated Salt Solutions ( 1860-1930)

    Precipitation of Proteins and Amino Acids with Neutral Salts

    Precipitation of Proteins from Ethanol-Water Mixtures at Low Temperatures (1940-19 50)

    Chapter 3. Interactions of Proteins with each Other and with Heavy Metals

    Interactions of Proteins with Other Proteins

    Interactions of Proteins with Strong Electrolytes

    Interactions of Proteins with Zinc

    Interactions of Proteins with Zinc and Mercury

    Chapter 4. Interactions of Proteins with Alkaline Earths, with Steroids, with Blood Cells, and with Specific Polysaccharides

    Interactions of Plasma Proteins with Calcium and Barium

    Interactions of Plasma Proteins with Magnesium and Manganese

    Interactions of Plasma Proteins with Copper and Iron

    Interactions of Plasma Proteins with Lead Ions

    Interactions of Plasma Proteins with the Leucocytes of the Blood

    Interactions of Plasma Proteins with the Erythrocytes of the Blood

    Interactions of Plasma Proteins with Carbohydrates

    Interactions of Observation and Experimentation

    Section II. The Factors Concerned with Blood Coagulation

    Chapter 1. The Components of Human Plasma Concerned with Coagulation

    The State of Calcium

    The Nature of Prothrombin

    The State of the Accelerator Substances

    The State of Other Components

    Chapter 2. Some Biochemical, Physiological and Pathological Aspects of the Coagulation Mechanism

    Evolution of the Clotting Mechanism

    Modern Concepts of Clotting

    Chapter 3. Some Experiences with Blood-Clotting Mechanisms

    Surface Factors

    Clotting Mechanisms as Studied in Isolated Systems of Purified Reagents

    Chapter 4. Fibrinogen and Thrombin: Their Interaction in Formation of the Fibrin Clot



    Formation of the Fibrin Clot

    Chapter 5. The Platelets of Human Blood: Their Morphology, Interactions, and Preservation

    General Consideration

    Structure and Physical Properties



    Section III. The Components of Human Blood Concerned with Immunity

    Chapter 1. The Nature of Immune Processes


    Responses to Infection

    Cellular Components of the Blood Concerned with Immunity

    Plasma Proteins Concerned with Immunity

    Chapter 2. Antibodies in Human Gamma Globulin

    Brief Review of Earlier Work

    Evidence for Chemical Similarity or Identity of Natural Antibody and Immune Antibody in Man

    Relation of Chemical Nature of Antigen to Chemical Nature of Antibody

    Significance of Variations in Antibody Content of Gamma Globulin Fractions in Bloods Collected from Various Geographical Areas

    Possible Use of Gamma Globulin in the Prophylaxis of Poliomyelitis

    Chapter 3. Physical Characteristics of the Gamma Globulins

    Chapter 4. Cellular Sources of Antibodies

    The Reticuloendothelial Theory

    The Lymphoid Cellular Theory

    The Plasma Cellular Theory

    Section IV. Erythrocytes

    Chapter 1. The Origin, Properties and Functions of the Human Red Cell

    General Properties of Whole Blood and Erythrocytes

    Origin and Survival In Vivo

    Specific Characteristics of Red Cells

    Erythrocyte Function: the Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide

    The Behavior of the Erythrocyte Outside the Body

    Measurement of Viability

    Preservation of Red Cells: the Effect of Citrate, Dextrose, and pH

    Chapter 2. The Preservation of Red Cells

    General Considerations of Optimal Conditions of Preservation

    Chapter 3. The Influence of Certain Cations on the Storage of Human Erythrocytes

    Addendum: May 1952

    Chapter 4. The Enzymology of the Erythrocyte

    Respiratory Activity of the Mammalian Erythrocyte

    Hexosemonophosphate Shunt

    The Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle


    Glycolytic Behavior of Preserved Erythrocytes at 5°C

    Glycolytic Behavior of Preserved Erythrocytes When Returned to 37°C

    Behavior of Inorganic Ions in Relation to Glycolysis

    General Comments

    Section V. Leucocytes

    Chapter I. The Origin, Properties, Function, and Preservation of White Blood Cells

    The Development of Knowledge about Leucocytes

    Origin and Life Cycle

    Factors Controlling Production and Release

    Cellular Properties

    The Role of Leucocytes in Defense

    Leucotoxin and Type Specificity

    The Separation and Preservation of Leucoyctes


    Chapter 2. A Discussion of Certain Aspects of the Cellular and Humoral Defense Mechanism

    The Origin and Maturation of the Formed Elements

    Functional Efficiency of Granulocytes

    The Reticulo-Endothelial System in Cellular and Humoral Defense

    Chapter 3. The Histamine Content of White Blood Cells

    Estimation of Histamine in Blood

    Histamine Content of Whole Blood

    The Partition of Histamine in Blood

    Origin of Histamine in Blood

    Liberation of Histamine from White Blood Cells

    Chapter 4. The Cytochromes of Respiring Cells

    Experimental Technique

    Experimental Results


    Section VI. The Enzymes of Plasma

    Chapter I. The Nature and Properties of the Enzymes of Normal Human Plasma


    The Proteolytic Enzymes



    General Properties

    Chapter 2. Plasma Enzymes: A Discussion of Preceding Chapter

    Sources of Plasma Enzymes

    Measurement of Plasma Enzyme Activity

    Proteolytic Enzymes of Plasma

    A Comment on the Nature of "Hydrolases"

    Section VII. The Lipoproteins of Blood and Other Tissues

    Chapter 1. The Lipoproteins of Human Plasma

    Isolation of Purified Plasma Lipoproteins

    The α- and ß-Lipoproteins of Human Plasma

    Ultracentrifugai Studies of Lipoproteins

    Stability of ß-Lipoprotein

    Immunochemical Studies of ß-Lipoprotein

    Lipoprotein and Lipid Metabolism

    Structure of Lipoproteins

    Chapter 2. Lipoproteins of Horse Plasma and Serum

    The Nature of Bonds between Lipids and Proteins

    Effect of Hydrosoluble Substances Containing Nonpolar Groups on Lipid-Protein Bonds

    Action of Cationic Soaps

    Action of Ordinary Soaps

    Action of Hydrosoluble Substances Containing Polar Groups

    The Aqueous Layer around Lipoproteins

    Chapter 3. Linkages between Proteins and Lipids

    Water-Soluble Liponucleoproteins

    The Proteolipids

    Other Types of Lipid-Protein Linkage

    Chapter 4. Protein-Lipid Relationships in Plasma

    Lipid Composition of Fractions IV + V + VI and I + III

    Factors Which Influence the Distribution of Cholesterol


    Chapter 5. The Plasma Glycoproteins and Lipoproteins

    Inflammatory Diseases

    Diseases with Disturbed Lipid Metabolism


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 458
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1953
  • Published: January 1, 1953
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483261409

About the Editor

James L. Tullis

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