Blast Furnace Ironmaking

Blast Furnace Ironmaking

Analysis, Control, and Optimization

1st Edition - October 22, 2019
This is the Latest Edition
  • Authors: Ian Cameron, Mitren Sukhram, Kyle Lefebvre, William Davenport
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128142288
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128142271

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Blast Furnace Ironmaking: Analysis, Control, and Optimization uses a fundamental first principles approach to prepare a blast furnace mass and energy balance in Excel™. Robust descriptions of the main equipment and systems, process technologies, and best practices used in a modern blast furnace plant are detailed. Optimization tools are provided to help the reader find the best blast furnace fuel mix and related costs, maximize output, or evaluate other operational strategies using the Excel™ model that the reader will develop. The first principles blast furnace Excel™ model allows for more comprehensive process assessments than the 'rules of thumb' currently used by the industry. This book is suitable for undergraduate and postgraduate science and engineering students in the fields of chemical, mechanical, metallurgical and materials engineering. Additionally, steel company engineers, process technologists, and management will find this book useful with its fundamental approach, best practices description, and perspective on the future. 

Key Features

  • Provides sample problems, answers and assignments for each chapter
  • Explores how to optimize the blast furnace operation while maintaining required temperatures and gas flowrates
  • Describes all major blast furnace equipment and best practices
  • Features blast furnace operating data from five continents


Chemical and metallurgical engineering (main market China and other developed countries around the world) senior undergraduates, science and engineering students and postgraduate students. Engineers and scientists in industries that produce and/or use iron and steel. Policymakers in industry and government searching for 'green' iron and steel production techniques. Suppliers to the global steel industry

Table of Contents

  • 1. The iron blast furnace process
    2. Inside the blast furnace
    3. Making steel from molten blast furnace iron
    4. Introduction to the blast furnace mass balance
    5. Introduction to the blast furnace enthalpy balance
    6. Combining mass and enthalpy balance equations
    7. Conceptual division of the blast furnace - bottom segment calculations
    8. Bottom segment with pulverized carbon injection
    9. Bottom segment with oxygen enrichment of blast air
    10. Bottom segment with low purity oxygen enrichment
    11. Bottom segment with CH4(g) injection
    12. Bottom segment with moisture in blast air
    13. Bottom segment with pulverized hydrocarbon injection
    14. Raceway flame temperature
    15. Automating matrix calculations
    16. Raceway flame temperature with pulverized carbon injection
    17. Raceway flame temperature with oxygen enrichment
    18. Raceway flame temperature with CH4(g) injection
    19. Raceway flame temperature with moisture in blast air
    20. Top segment mass balance
    21. Top segment enthalpy balance
    22. Top gas temperature calculation
    23. Top segment calculations with pulverized carbon injection
    24. Top segment calculations with oxygen enrichment 
    25. Top segment mass balance with CH4(g) injection
    26. Top segment enthalpy balance with CH4 injection
    27. Top gas temperature with CH4 injection
    28. Top segment calculations with moisture in blast air
    29. Bottom segment calculations with natural gas injection
    30. Raceway flame temperature with CH4(g) injection
    31. Top segment calculations with natural gas injection
    32. Bottom segment slag calculations – Ore, fluxes, and slag
    33. Bottom segment slag calculations – With excess Al2O3 in ore
    34. Bottom segment slag calculations
    35. Bottom segment calculations - Reduction of SiO2
    36. Bottom segment calculations - Reduction of MnO
    37. Bottom segment calculations with pulverized coal injection
    38. Bottom segment calculations with multiple injectants
    39. Raceway flame temperature with multiple injectants
    40. Top segment calculations with multiple injectants
    41. Top segment calculations with raw material moisture
    42. Top segment with carbonate fluxes
    43. Top charged steel scrap
    44. Top charged direct reduced iron
    45. Bottom segment calculations with H2(g) injection
    46. Top segment calculations with H2(g) injection
    47. CO(g) injection into bottom and top segments
    48. Introduction to blast furnace optimization
    49. Blast furnace optimization case studies
    50. Blast furnace rules of thumb
    51. The blast furnace plant
    52. Blast furnace proper
    53. Blast furnace refractory inspection technologies
    54. Blast furnace ferrous burden preparation
    55. Metallurgical coke – A key to blast furnace operations
    56. Blast furnace fuel injection
    57. Casting the blast furnace
    58. Blast furnace slag
    59. Burden distribution


Product details

  • No. of pages: 828
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2019
  • Published: October 22, 2019
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128142288
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128142271

About the Authors

Ian Cameron

Mr. Ian Cameron is the principal metallurgist, Ferrous for the Pyrometallurgy Sector Practice at Hatch Ltd., Ontario, Canada. He services a global clientele, solving technical and business challenges throughout the iron and steel value chain starting from the main raw materials. Ian has more than 35 years of experience including 20+ years as a consulting engineer for Hatch and previously Corus Consulting/Hoogovens Technical Services. He brings extensive experience in process technology, blast furnace operations, technology transfer, commissioning and training to his steel industry clients. This includes forecasting future raw material usage patterns for major mining houses, developing new blast furnace related technologies, designing new steelworks and solving acute operational problems including plant emergencies. Ian holds Bachelor and Master’s Degrees in Metallurgical Engineering from McGill University, Montreal, Canada and is a licensed Professional Engineer in Ontario, Canada.

Affiliations and Expertise

Principal Metallurgist - Ferrous, Hatch Ltd. Sheridan Science and Technology Park, Mississauga, ON, Canada

Mitren Sukhram

Dr. Mitren Sukhram is a senior process engineer in the Pyrometallurgy Sector Practice at Hatch Ltd. He works on all aspects of blast furnace ironmaking including reline planning, techno-economic assessments, campaign life assessment/extension, and operational support for blast furnaces located around the world. More recently, Mitren has focused on developing innovative technologies to improve blast furnace productivity and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Mitren is a graduate from the University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada where he completed Bachelor, Master’s and PhD degrees in Material Science and Engineering. In his PhD studies, Mitren developed a novel sensor that measured velocity patterns in liquid metals. His areas of expertise include thermodynamics, heat, mass, and momentum transfer in pyrometallurgical processes. Mitren is a licensed Professional Engineer in Ontario, Canada.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Process Engineer - Pyrometallurgy, Hatch Ltd., Sheridan Science and Technology Park, Mississauga, ON, Canada

Kyle Lefebvre

Kyle Lefebvre is a process engineer in the Pyrometallurgy practice at Hatch Ltd. His work includes process modelling and logistical simulations in the iron and steel industry. Kyle has worked on new steel works design, and he has assessed of a wide range of processes in the iron and steelmaking value chain. Kyle has visited several blast furnaces in North America to perform furnace inspections and to improve plant operations. Kyle holds a Bachelor and Master’s degrees in Applied Science and Chemical Engineering from McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario. Kyle is a licensed professional engineer in Ontario, Canada.

Affiliations and Expertise

Process Engineer - Pyrometallurgy, Hatch Ltd. Sheridan Science and Technology Park, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada

William Davenport

William Davenport is an Emeritus Professor at the University of Arizona, United States. He has taught and consulted for more than 50 years. He has authored 6 metallurgical text books, most of which have gone into multiple English and foreign language editions. He has been interested in iron and steel since he worked in the industry in the 1960's. Together with Dr. John G. Peacey, Professor Davenport co-authored a previous book, The Iron Blast Furnace, Theory and Practice, Elsevier 1979. Professor Davenport has visited iron and steel plants around the world and in 2017, he visited several major Japanese blast furnace plants.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States

Latest reviews

(Total rating for all reviews)

  • BobProciuk Thu Feb 06 2020

    Blast Furnace Operation

    This volume is a great reference manual for researchers and operators of blast furnaces. Excellent coverage of heat and mass balances as well as operating practices. Highly recommended to those new to the process and those who want to dig deeper into the theory of operation.

  • LjiljanaRadman Mon Jan 13 2020

    Very informative.

    Very informative.