Blast Furnace Ironmaking - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128142271

Blast Furnace Ironmaking

1st Edition

Analysis, Control and Optimization

Authors: Ian Cameron Mitren Sukhram Kyle Lefebvre William Davenport
Paperback ISBN: 9780128142271
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st May 2019
Page Count: 870
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Blast Furnace Ironmaking: Analysis, Control and Optimization uses a fundamental first principles approach to prepare a blast furnace mass and energy balance in Excel™. Robust descriptions of the main equipment and systems, process technologies and best practices used in a modern blast furnace plant are detailed. Optimization tools are provided to help the reader find the best blast furnace fuel mix and related costs, maximize output or evaluate other operational strategies using the Excel™ model that the reader will develop.

The first principles blast furnace Excel™ model allows for more comprehensive process assessments than the 'rules of thumb' currently used by the industry. The model clearly shows the beneficial effects of injecting steam, oxygen, coal and natural gas into the blast furnace and their impact on blast air requirements, fuel and coke consumption and productivity. All steps in the molten iron value chain starting from iron ore, and coal and finishing with molten iron ready for processing into steel are described. Instructions are provided for optimizing the blast furnace performance, including energy and carbon footprint minimization that emphasizes the environment, safety and future developments.

This book is suitable for undergraduate and postgraduate science and engineering students in the fields of chemical, metallurgical and materials engineering. Additionally, steel company engineers, process technologists and management will find this book useful with its fundamental approach, best practices description and perspective on the future.

Key Features

  • Delivers an ‘a priori’ technique for calculating blast furnace fuel and oxygen requirements
  • Provides sample problems and assignments at the end of each chapter with answers included
  • Includes information on how to optimize blast furnace operations while maintaining required temperatures and gas flowrates
  • Highlights slag properties in detail
  • Describes all major blast furnace equipment and best practices
  • Features blast furnace operating data from five continents


Chemical and metallurgical engineering (main market China and other developed countries around the world) senior undergraduates, science and engineering students and postgraduate students. Engineers and scientists in industries that produce and/or use iron and steel. Policymakers in industry and government searching for 'green' iron and steel production techniques. Suppliers to the global steel industry

Table of Contents

1. The iron blast furnace process
2. Inside the blast furnace
3. Making steel from molten blast furnace iron
4. Introduction to the blast furnace mass balance
5. Introduction to the blast furnace enthalpy balance
6. Combining mass and enthalpy balance equations
7. Conceptual division of the blast furnace
8. Tuyere injection of pulverized carbon
9. Bottom segment with oxygen enrichment of blast air
10. Bottom segment with low purity oxygen enrichment
11. Methane – CH4(g) injection
12. Bottom segment with moisture in blast air
13. Bottom segment with pulverized hydrocarbon injection
14. Raceway flame temperature
15. Automating matrix calculations
16. Raceway flame temperature with pulverized carbon injection
17. Raceway flame temperature with pure oxygen injection
18. Raceway flame temperature with CH4(g) tuyere injection
19. Raceway flame temperature with moisture in blast air
20. Top segment mass balance
21. Top segment enthalpy balance
22. Top gas temperature calculation
23. Top gas calculations with pulverized carbon injection
24. Top gas calculations with injected pure oxygen
25. Top gas composition with CH4(g) injection
26. Top enthalpy balance with CH4 Injection
27. Top gas temperature with CH4 injection
28. Top segment calculations with moisture in blast air
29. Bottom segment calculations with natural gas injection
30. Raceway flame temperature with real (industrial) natural gas injection
31. Top segment calculations with natural gas injection
32. Bottom segment slag calculations – Ore, fluxes and slag
33. Bottom segment slag calculations – With excess MgO in Ore
34. Bottom segment slag calculations – Coke ash
35. Bottom segment calculations - Reduction of SiO2
36. Bottom segment calculations - Reduction of MnO
37. Bottom segment calculations with pulverized coal injection
38. Bottom segment calculations with multiple injectants
39. Raceway flame temperature with multiple injectants
40. Top segment calculations with multiple injectants
41. Top segment calculations with raw material moisture
42. Top segment with carbonate fluxes
43. Top charged steel scrap
44. Top charged almost reduced iron ore pellets
45. Bottom segment calculations with H2 injection
46. Top segment calculations with H2 injection
47. CO Injection into top and bottom segments
48. Introduction to blast furnace optimization
49. Blast furnace optimization case studies
50. Blast furnace ‘rules of thumb’
51. The blast furnace plant
52. Blast furnace proper
53. Blast furnace refractory inspection technologies
54. Blast furnace ferrous burden preparation


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© Elsevier 2019
Paperback ISBN:

About the Author

Ian Cameron

Mr. Ian Cameron is the Principal Metallurgist for Hatch’s iron and steelmaking team. He services a global clientele, solving technical and business challenges throughout the iron and steel value chain starting from the main raw materials. Ian has 35+ years of experience including 20+ years as a consulting engineer for Hatch and previously Corus Consulting/Hoogovens Technical Services. He brings extensive experience in process technology, blast furnace operations, technology transfer, commissioning and training to his steel industry clients. This includes forecasting future raw material usage patterns for major mining houses, developing new blast furnace related technologies, designing new steelworks and solving acute operational problems including plant emergencies. Ian holds Bachelor and Master’s Degrees in Metallurgical Engineering from McGill University, Montreal, Canada and is a licensed Professional Engineer in Ontario, Canada.

Affiliations and Expertise

Principal Metallurgist - Ferrous, Hatch Ltd. Sheridan Science and Technology Park, Mississauga, ON, Canada

Mitren Sukhram

Dr. Mitren Sukhram is a process engineer in the Pyrometallurgy practice at Hatch. He works on all aspects of blast furnace ironmaking including reline planning, techno-economic assessments, campaign life assessment/extension, and operational support for blast furnaces located around the world. More recently, Mitren has focused on developing innovative technologies to improve blast furnace productivity and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Mitren is a graduate from the University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada where he completed Bachelor, Master’s and PhD degrees in Material Science and Engineering. In his PhD studies, Mitren developed a novel sensor that measured velocity patterns in liquid metals. His areas of expertise include thermodynamics, heat, mass, and momentum transfer in pyrometallurgical processes. Mitren is a licensed Professional Engineer in Ontario, Canada.

Affiliations and Expertise

Process Engineer - Pyrometallurgy, Hatch Ltd., Sheridan Science and Technology Park, Mississauga, ON, Canada

Kyle Lefebvre

Kyle Lefebvre is a process engineer in the Pyrometallurgy practice at Hatch. His work includes process modelling and logistical simulations in the iron and steel industry. Kyle has worked on new steel works design, and he has assessed of a wide range of processes in the iron and steelmaking value chain. Kyle has visited several blast furnaces in North America to perform furnace inspections and to improve plant operations. Kyle holds Bachelor and Master’s degrees in Applied Science and Chemical Engineering from McMaster University, Hamilton, ON. Kyle is a licensed Professional Engineer in Ontario, Canada.

Affiliations and Expertise

Process Engineer - Pyrometallurgy, Hatch Ltd. Sheridan Science and Technology Park, Mississauga, ON, Canada

William Davenport

Professor William Davenport, PhD Metallurgy, University of London, has taught and consulted for 50+ years. He has authored 6 metallurgical text books, most of which have gone into multiple English and foreign language editions. He has been interested in iron and steel since he worked in the industry in the 1960's. Together with Dr. John G. Peacey, Professor Davenport co-authored a previous book, The Iron Blast Furnace, Theory and Practice, Elsevier 1979. Professor Davenport has visited iron and steel plants around the world and in 2017, he visited several major Japanese blast furnace plants.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA

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