Blast Furnace Ironmaking - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128142271

Blast Furnace Ironmaking

1st Edition

Analysis, Control and Optimization

Authors: Ian Cameron Mitren Sukhram Kyle Lefebvre William Davenport
Paperback ISBN: 9780128142271
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st May 2019
Page Count: 870
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Blast Furnace Ironmaking: Analysis, Control and Optimization replaces the 'rules of thumb' currently used by the industry. It shows the beneficial effects of injecting oxygen into the furnace while avoiding the hazards of overheating, the beneficial effects of electrically super-heated blast furnace air blast, and how to obtain the exact hearth and top temperatures that the furnace needs for optimum performance. Users will find an outline on the production of molten iron from ore using the blast furnace process, along with instructions for optimizing the process, including energy and carbon footprint minimization that emphasizes the environment, safety and future developments.

This book is suitable for undergraduate and postgraduate science and engineering students and those working in chemical and metallurgical engineering. Additionally, steel company management will find this book useful with its look towards the future.

Key Features

  • Delivers an a priori technique for calculating blast furnace fuel and oxygen requirements
  • Provides sample problems and problem assignments at the end of each chapter with answers included
  • Includes information on how to optimize blast furnace operations while maintaining required temperatures and gas flowrates
  • Features blast furnace operating data from five continents


Chemical and metallurgical engineering (main market China and other developed countries around the world) senior undergraduates science and engineering students and post-graduate students. Engineers and scientists in industries that produce and/or use iron and steel. Policy makers in industry and government and because it points the way to 'green' production of iron and steel. Suppliers to the global steel industry

Table of Contents

  1. Blast Furnace Ironmaking
    2. Inside the Furnace
    3. From Molten Iron to Steel
    4. Introduction to the Blast Furnace Mass Balance
    5. Introduction to the Blast Furnace Enthalpy Balance
    6. Combining Mass and Enthalpy Balance Equations
    7. Conceptual Division of the Furnace – Bottom Segment
    8. Bottom Segment with Pulverized Carbon Injection
    9. Bottom Segment with Oxygen Enrichment of Blast Air
    10. Bottom Segment with Low Purity Oxygen Enrichment
    11. Bottom Segment with CH4 Injection
    12. Bottom Segment with H2O Injection
    13. Raceway Flame Temperature
    14. Automating Matrix Calculations
    15. Raceway Flame Temperature with Pulverized Carbon Injection
    16. Raceway Flame Temperature with Oxygen Enrichment
    17. Raceway Flame Temperature with CH4 Injection
    18. Raceway Flame Temperature with H2O Injection
    19. Top Segment Mass Balance
    20. Top Segment Enthalpy Balance
    21. Top Gas Temperature Calculation
    22. Top Segment Calculations with Pulverized Carbon Injection
    23. Top Segment Calculations with Oxygen Enrichment
    24. Top Segment Mass Balance with CH4 Injection
    25. Top Segment Enthalpy Balance with CH4 Injection
    26. Top Gas Temperature with CH4 Injection
    27. Top Segment Calculations with H2O Injection
    28. Bottom Segment Calculations with Natural Gas Injection
    29. Raceway Flame Temperature with Natural Gas Injection
    30. Top Segment Calculations with Natural Gas Injection
    31. Bottom Segment Slag Calculations - Ore and Fluxes
    32. Bottom Segment Slag Calculations - Coke Ash
    33. Bottom Segment Calculations - Reduction of SiO2
    34. Bottom Segment Calculations - Reduction of MnO
    35. Bottom Segment Calculations with Pulverized Coal Injection
    36. Bottom Segment Calculations with Multiple Injectants
    37. Raceway Flame Temperature with Multiple Injectants
    38. Top Segment Calculations with Multiple Injectants
    39. Top Segment Calculations with Raw Material Moisture
    40. Top Segment Calculations with Carbonate Fluxes
    41. Introduction to Top Charged Non-Oxide Fe Materials
    42. Top Charged Direct Reduced Iron
    43. Bottom Segment Calculations with H2 Injection
    44. Top Segment Calculations with H2 Injection
    45. Bottom Segment Calculations with CO Injection
    46. Bottom Segment Calculations with CO2 Injection
    47. Optimization - Intro
    48. Optimization - Cost, Production, CO2
    49. Blast Furnace Rules of Thumb
    50. Blast Furnace Plant Equipment
    51. Furnace Proper
    52. Blast Furnace Refractory Inspection Technologies
    53. Blast Furnace Ferrous Burden
    54. Metallurgical Coke
    55. Blast Furnace Fuel Injection
    56. Casting the Blast Furnace
    57. Blast Furnace Slag
    58. Burden distribution


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© Elsevier 2019
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About the Author

Ian Cameron

Mr. Ian Cameron leads Hatch’s global ironmaking technology team which develops client-focused solutions for the production of iron and steel starting from the principal raw materials. Ian has 35+ years of experience and has work internationally for the last 20 years as a consulting engineer for Hatch and previously Corus Consulting/Hoogovens Technical Services. Ian has extensive experience in process technology, plant operations, technology transfer, commissioning and training in both the iron & steel and nickel industries. His experience includes coke plant, pellet plant and blast furnace design and operations, assessing steel works energy balances, and the implementation/impact of future iron and cokemaking technologies. In addition to his blast furnace experience, Ian has operated submerged arc electric furnaces for nickel and calcium carbide production. Ian has evaluated future raw material usage patterns for the major global mining companies, developed blast furnace operational strategies, solved acute operational problems such as recovering from plant emergencies, contributed to major insurance claims and implemented leading technical and business practices. Ian holds Bachelor and Master Degrees in Metallurgical Engineering from Montreal’s McGill University and is a Professional Engineer in Ontario.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Director, Iron and Steel, Hatch Ltd. Sheridan Science and Technology Park, Mississauga, ON, Canada

Mitren Sukhram

Mitren Sukhram is a process engineer in the iron and steel business unit at Hatch where his area of work is the blast furnace. Mitren has worked on blast furnace reline projects, techno-economic assessments of blast furnace facilities, blast furnace campaign life estimation projects, and operational support for blast furnaces located around the world. More recently Mitren has begun work on technologies to improve the blast furnace productivity and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Mitren graduated from the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Toronto completing a Bachelor of Applied Science, Master of Applied Science, and PhD degrees. His PhD thesis focused on developing a velocity sensor for high temperature liquid metals. His areas of expertise include those of thermodynamics, heat, mass, and momentum transfer in high temperature metallurgical processes. Mitren enjoys developing and tuning process models for high temperature metallurgical processing operations.

Affiliations and Expertise

Process Engineer, Hatch Ltd., Sheridan Science and Technology Park, Mississauga, ON, Canada

Kyle Lefebvre

Kyle Lefebvre is a process engineer at Hatch with a focus on process modelling and simulation, specifically in the iron and steel industry. He has experience in the design and simulation of a wide range of processes in the iron and steelmaking flowsheet. Kyle has visited several blast furnaces in North America to perform inspections and assist in improving operations and production. Kyle has a Master’s of Applied Science from McMaster University where his work focused on the design, simulation, and optimization of a system to improve the energy efficiency, and reduce the greenhouse gas emissions, of an office building

Affiliations and Expertise

Process Engineer, Hatch Ltd.,Sheridan Science and Technology Park, Mississauga, ON, Canada

William Davenport

Professor William Davenport, PhD Metallurgy (U. of London) has taught and consulted for 50+ years. He has authored 6 metallurgical books, most of which have gone into multiple English and foreign language editions. He has been interested in iron and steel since he worked in the industry in the 1960's. He did his PhD work on reactions in molten metals and co-authored a previous book The Iron Blast Furnace, Theory and Practice, Elsevier 1979. He has visited iron and steel plants around the world and will be visiting Japanese iron works in November this year

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA

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