Biotextiles as Medical Implants - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781845694395, 9780857095602

Biotextiles as Medical Implants

1st Edition

Editors: M W King B S Gupta R Guidoin
eBook ISBN: 9780857095602
Hardcover ISBN: 9781845694395
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 31st October 2013
Page Count: 704
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Table of Contents

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Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles



Part I: Technologies

Chapter 1: Manufacture, types and properties of biotextiles for medical applications


1.1 Introduction

1.2 Fiber structure

1.3 Formation of synthetic fibers

1.4 Processing of short (staple) and continuous (filament) fibers

1.5 Understanding structure in fibers

1.6 Fibrous materials used in medicine

1.7 Key fiber properties

1.8 Textile assemblies and their characteristics

1.9 Conclusion

1.10 Sources of further information and advice

1.11 Acknowledgments

Chapter 2: Nanofiber structures for medical biotextiles


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Techniques for producing nanofibers

2.3 The electrospinning process

2.4 Using electrospun poly(s-caprolactone) (PCL) fibers as scaffolds for tissue engineering

2.5 Co-axial bicomponent nanofibers and their production

2.6 Case study: collagen/PCL bicomponent nanofiber scaffolds for engineering bone tissues

2.7 In vivo case study: engineering of blood vessels

2.8 Miscellaneous applications of co-axial nanofiber structures

2.9 Conclusion

Chapter 3: Resorbable polymers for medical applications


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Polymer degradation

3.3 Mechanical properties of existing resorbable polymers

3.4 Mechano-active tissue engineering

3.5 Elastomeric properties of fiber-forming copolymers

3.6 Elastomeric resorbable polymers for vascular tissue engineering

3.7 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 4: Shaped biotextiles for medical implants


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Vascular grafts: key developments

4.3 Weaving, knitting and ePTFE technologies for producing tubular structures

4.4 Improving surface properties: velour construction

4.5 Multilimbed grafts

4.6 Heat setting for a more resilient crimped circular configuration

4.7 Grafts with taper and varying diameter

4.8 Tubular structures for other devices: ligaments, hernia and prolapsed repair meshes

4.9 Three-dimensional textile structures

4.10 Performance requirements of implants in the body

4.11 Conclusion

4.12 Acknowledgements

Chapter 5: Surface modification of biotextiles for medical applications


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Nano-coatings

5.3 Preparation of textile surfaces

5.4 Plasma technologies for surface treatment

5.5 Measuring surface properties of textiles: SEM and XPS

5.6 Testing antimicrobial coatings

5.7 Applications of surface treatments in medical textiles

5.8 Future trends

5.9 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 6: Sterilization techniques for biotextiles for medical applications


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Bioburden and principles of sterilization

6.3 Traditional sterilization: advantages and disadvantages

6.4 Emerging and less traditional sterilization methods

6.5 Radiochemical sterilization (RCS)

6.6 Application of RCS technology

6.7 Conclusion and future trends

Chapter 7: Regulation of biotextiles for medical use


7.1 Introduction

7.2 US regulation of biotextiles

7.3 European Union regulation of biotextiles

7.4 Quality standards for biotextiles

7.5 The role of quality standards in the development of biotextiles

7.6 Safety issues with ‘me-too’ products with new intended uses

7.7 Dealing with cutting-edge technology

7.8 Conclusion

Chapter 8: Retrieval studies for medical biotextiles


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Standards and animal models for implant retrieval studies

8.3 Testing retrieved biotextile implants: harvesting, test planning, sample preparation and cleaning

8.4 Testing retrieved biotextile implants: analytical techniques

8.5 Specialized tests for specific retrieval studies

8.6 Precautions for retrieval studies

8.7 Limitations of retrieval studies

8.8 Conclusion and future trends

Part II: Applications

Chapter 9: Drug delivery systems using biotextiles


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Types of drugs

9.3 Types of polymers

9.4 Technologies and fiber structures

9.5 Types of drug delivery systems (DDS)

9.6 Future trends

9.7 Acknowledgements

Chapter 10: Types and properties of surgical sutures


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Classification of suture materials

10.3 Essential properties of suture materials

10.4 Dyes and coatings to improve suture identification and properties

10.6 Appendix: further information on sutures

Chapter 11: Materials for absorbable and nonabsorbable surgical sutures


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Natural materials for absorbable sutures

11.3 Synthetic materials for absorbable sutures

11.4 Materials for nonabsorbable sutures

11.5 Future trends

11.8 Appendix: further information on sutures

Chapter 12: Surgical knot performance in sutures


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Tensile properties of knotted sutures

12.3 Knot strength

12.4 Performance in dynamic tests

12.5 Knot security

12.6 Friction in sutures and friction-based hypothesis of knot security

12.7 The use of lasers to improve knot security

12.8 The use of tissue adhesive to improve knot security

12.9 Conclusion

12.10 Acknowledgements

Chapter 13: Barbed suture technology


13.1 Introduction

13.2 The development of barbed sutures

13.3 Materials for barbed sutures

13.4 Barbed suture design and manufacture

13.5 Testing and characterization

13.6 Properties of barbed sutures

13.7 Surgical techniques using barbed sutures

13.8 Applications of barbed sutures

13.10 Acknowledgement

Chapter 14: Small-diameter arterial grafts using biotextiles


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Understanding compliance

14.3 Tests for compliance

14.4 Testing compliance in practice: a case study

14.5 Engineering small-diameter vascular grafts by weaving

14.6 Using elastomeric threads to construct small-diameter vascular grafts

14.7 Summary

14.8 Acknowledgements

Chapter 15: Vascular prostheses for open surgery


15.1 Introduction

15.2 Arterial pathologies

15.3 The development of modern vascular surgery

15.4 Vascular grafts of biological origin

15.5 Vascular prostheses from synthetic polymers and biopolymers

15.6 Improving current vascular prostheses

15.7 Conclusion

Chapter 16: Biotextiles as percutaneous heart valves


16.1 Introduction

16.2 Heart valve replacement: critical issues

16.3 Textile valves: manufacturing requirements

16.4 Textile valves: in vitro performance

16.5 Textile valves: long-term performance

16.6 Textile valves: in vivo performance

16.7 Conclusions and future trends

Chapter 17: Biotextiles as vena cava filters


17.1 Introduction

17.2 Current filters for embolic protection in the IVC

17.3 An ´ideal´ IVC filter design

Chapter 18: Biotextiles for atrial septal defect repair


18.1 Introduction

18.2 Anatomy and physiology of a normal functioning heart

18.3 Epidemiology, pathology, incidence and patient population of ASDs

18.4 Historical methods of ASD repair

18.5 Current noninvasive treatments, therapies and devices used to repair ASDs

18.6 Advantages and disadvantages of the current technology

18.7 Future trends

18.8 Conclusion

Chapter 19: Hemostatic wound dressings


19.1 Introduction

19.2 The importance of hemostatic textiles

19.3 Understanding the clotting of blood

19.4 Influence of foreign surfaces on blood clotting

19.5 Existing hemostatic materials

19.6 Future trends

Chapter 20: Anterior cruciate ligament prostheses using biotextiles


20.1 Introduction

20.2 Anatomy and structure of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)

20.3 Biomechanics of the ACL

20.4 Clinical problems associated with the ACL

20.5 Diagnosis and treatment of ACL ruptures

20.6 Autograft for ACL reconstruction

20.7 Allograft for ACL reconstruction

20.8 Graft healing in ACL reconstructive surgery

20.9 The use of synthetic materials and prostheses in ACL reconstructive surgery

20.10 Complications with synthetic ligaments

20.11 Augmentation devices

20.12 Tissue engineering and scaffolds

20.13 Xenografts

20.14 Conclusion

Chapter 21: Endovascular prostheses for aortic aneurysms: a new era for vascular surgery


21.1 Introduction

21.2 History and advantages of stent grafts

21.3 Stent graft design and performance

21.4 Prefenestrated devices for juxtarenal aneurysms

21.5 Novel approaches to the treatment of juxtarenal and suprarenal aneurysms

21.6 Conclusion



Textiles play a vital role in the manufacture of various medical devices, including the replacement of diseased, injured or non-functioning organs within the body. Biotextiles as medical implants provides an invaluable single source of information on the main types of textile materials and products used for medical implants. The first part of the book focuses on polymers, fibers and textile technologies, and these chapters discuss the manufacture, sterilization, properties and types of biotextiles used for medical applications, including nanofibers, resorbable polymers and shaped biotextiles. The chapters in part two provide a comprehensive discussion of a range of different clinical applications of biotextiles, including surgical sutures, arterial prostheses, stent grafts, percutaneous heart valves and drug delivery systems.

This book provides a concise review of the technologies, properties and types of biotextiles used as medical devices. In addition, it addresses the biological dimension of how to design devices for different clinical applications, providing an invaluable reference for biomedical engineers of medical textiles, quality control and risk assessment specialists, as well as managers of regulatory affairs. The subject matter will also be of interest to professionals within the healthcare system including surgeons, nurses, therapists, sourcing and purchasing agents, researchers and students in different disciplines.

Key Features

  • Provides an invaluable single source of information on the main types of textile materials and products used for medical implants
  • Addresses the technologies used and discusses the manufacture, properties and types of biotextiles
  • Examines applications of biotextiles as medical implants, including drug delivery systems and stent grafts and percutaneous heart valves


Manufacturers, designers, and producers of textile implant materials; Professionals within the healthcare industry


No. of pages:
© Woodhead Publishing 2013
Woodhead Publishing
eBook ISBN:
Hardcover ISBN:


"Regenerative Medicine: Biotextiles as Medical Implants. M W King, B S Gupta, and R Guidoin, Eds. Woodhead Publishing. Philadelphia, PA. 2013. 738 pages. $330.00.--Journal of Controlled Release 183, 2014
"A new book from Woodhead Publishing in association with the Textile Institute provides an invaluable source of information on the main types of textile materials and products used for medical implants.", February 2014
"Some from medicine and some from textiles, scientists present a textbook for an undergraduate textiles course on textile devices that can be implanted for medical purposes. Covering first technologies then applications, they explore such topics as resorbable polymers for medical applications, surface modification, sterilization techniques, retrieval studies for medical biotextiles, types and properties of surgical sutures, barbed suture technology,…", February 2014

About the Editors

M W King Editor

Martin W. King is Professor of Biotextiles and Textile Technology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, USA, and Chaired Professor of Medical Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai, China

B S Gupta Editor

Dr Bhupender S. Gupta is Professor of Textile Engineering, Chemistry and Science at North Carolina State University, USA. Professor Gupta is internationally renowned for his research in textile science.

Affiliations and Expertise

North Carolina State University, USA

R Guidoin Editor

Robert Guidoin is Professor of Surgery (Biomaterials) working in the CHU Research Centre oriented towards Regenerative Medicine, Laval University, Quebec City, Canada.

Affiliations and Expertise

Laval University Quebec, Canada