Biotechnology of Microbial Enzymes - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128037256, 9780128037461

Biotechnology of Microbial Enzymes

1st Edition

Production, Biocatalysis and Industrial Applications

Authors: Goutam Brahmachari
eBook ISBN: 9780128037461
Paperback ISBN: 9780128037256
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 4th August 2016
Page Count: 632
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out Price includes VAT/GST
Price includes VAT/GST

Institutional Access

Secure Checkout

Personal information is secured with SSL technology.

Free Shipping

Free global shipping
No minimum order.


Biotechnology of Microbial Enzymes: Production, Biocatalysis and Industrial Applications provides a complete survey of the latest innovations on microbial enzymes, highlighting biotechnological advances in their production and purification along with information on successful applications as biocatalysts in several chemical and industrial processes under mild and green conditions.

Applications of microbial enzymes in food, feed, and pharmaceutical industries are given particular emphasis. The application of recombinant DNA technology within industrial fermentation and the production of enzymes over the last 20 years have produced a host of useful chemical and biochemical substances. The power of these technologies results in novel transformations, better enzymes, a wide variety of applications, and the unprecedented development of biocatalysts through the ongoing integration of molecular biology methodology, all of which is covered insightfully and in-depth within the book.

Key Features

  • Features research on microbial enzymes from basic science through application in multiple industry sectors for a comprehensive approach
  • Includes information on metabolic pathway engineering, metagenomic screening, microbial genomes, extremophiles, rational design, directed evolution, and more
  • Provides a holistic approach to the research of microbial enzymes


Graduate students and established researchers in biochemistry, molecular biology, microbiology, cell biology, structural biology, synthetic chemistry, food science, and pharma.

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1. Useful Microbial Enzymes—An Introduction
    • Abstract
    • 1.1 The Enzymes: A Class of Useful Biochemicals
    • 1.2 Microbial Enzymes for Industry
    • 1.3 Improvement of Enzymes
    • 1.4 Discovery of New Enzymes
    • 1.5 Concluding Remarks
    • Acknowledgements
    • References
  • Chapter 2. Production, Purification, and Application of Microbial Enzymes
    • Abstract
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 Production of Microbial Enzymes
    • 2.3 Strain Improvements
    • 2.4 Downstream Processing/Enzyme Purification
    • 2.5 Product Formulations
    • 2.6 Global Enzyme Market Scenarios
    • 2.7 Industrial Applications of Enzymes
    • 2.8 Concluding Remarks
    • References
  • Chapter 3. Solid State Fermentation for Production of Microbial Cellulases
    • Abstract
    • 3.1 Introduction
    • 3.2 Solid State Fermentation (SSF)
    • 3.3 Lignocellulosic Residues/Wastes as Solid Substrates in SSF
    • 3.4 Pretreatment of Agricultural Residues
    • 3.5 Environmental Factors Affecting Microbial Cellulase Production in SSF
    • 3.6 Strategies to Improve Production of Microbial Cellulase
    • 3.7 Fermenter (Bioreactor) Design for Cellulase Production in SSF
    • 3.8 Biomass Conversion and Application of Microbial Cellulases
    • 3.9 Concluding Remarks
    • Abbreviations
    • References
  • Chapter 4. Hyperthermophilic Subtilisin-Like Proteases From Thermococcus kodakarensis
    • Abstract
    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Two Subtilisin-Like Serine Proteases From Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1
    • 4.3 Tk-Subtilisin
    • 4.4 Tk-SP
    • 4.5 Concluding Remarks
    • Acknowledgments
    • Abbreviations
    • References
  • Chapter 5. Enzymes from Basidiomycetes—Peculiar and Efficient Tools for Biotechnology
    • Abstract
    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Brown and White Rot Fungi
    • 5.3 Isolation and Laboratory Maintenance of Wood Rot Basidiomycetes
    • 5.4 Basidiomycetes as Producers of Enzymes Involved in Degradation of Lignocellulose Biomass
    • 5.5 Production of Ligninolytic Enzymes by Basidiomycetes: Screening and Production in Laboratory Scale
    • 5.6 General Characteristics of the Main Ligninolytic Enzymes with Potential Biotechnological Applications
    • 5.7 Industrial and Biotechnological Applications of Ligninolytic Enzymes from Basidiomycetes
    • 5.8 Concluding Remarks
    • Acknowledgments
    • References
  • Chapter 6. Microbial Production and Molecular Engineering of Industrial Enzymes: Challenges and Strategies
    • Abstract
    • 6.1 Introduction
    • 6.2 Strategies for Achieving High-Level Expression of Industrial Enzymes in Microorganisms
    • 6.3 Molecular Engineering Strategies
    • 6.4 Concluding Remarks
    • References
  • Chapter 7. Metagenomics and the Search for Industrial Enzymes
    • Abstract
    • 7.1 Introduction
    • 7.2 The Dilemma Between Known, Engineered, or Novel Enzymes
    • 7.3 Metagenomics and Its Application to Enzyme Research
    • 7.4 Success Stories of Naïve and Direct Sequencing Screens for New Enzymes
    • 7.5 Success Stories for Introducing Environmental Enzymes into the Market
    • 7.6 Enzyme Search: Limitations of Metagenomics and Solutions
    • 7.7 Concluding Remarks
    • Acknowledgments
    • References
  • Chapter 8. The Pocket Manual of Directed Evolution: Tips and Tricks
    • Abstract
    • 8.1 Introduction
    • 8.2 Methods to Generate DNA Diversity
    • 8.3 Computational Tools
    • 8.4 Functional Expression Systems
    • 8.5 Mutant Library Exploration
    • 8.6 Forthcoming Trends in Directed Evolution
    • 8.7 Concluding Remarks
    • Acknowledgments
    • Abbreviations
    • References
  • Chapter 9. Insights into the Structure and Molecular Mechanisms of β-Lactam Synthesizing Enzymes in Fungi
    • Abstract
    • 9.1 Introduction
    • 9.2 ACV Synthetase
    • 9.3 Isopenicillin N Synthase
    • 9.4 Acyl-CoA Ligases: A Wealth of Acyl-CoA Ligases Activate Penicillin Side Chain Precursors
    • 9.5 Isopenicillin N Acyltransferase
    • 9.6 Concluding Remarks
    • Abbreviations
    • References
  • Chapter 10. The Cellulosome: A Supramolecular Assembly of Microbial Biomass-Degrading Enzymes
    • Abstract
    • 10.1 Introduction
    • 10.2 Structure of the Clostridium thermocellum Cellulosome
    • 10.3 Regulation of Cellulosomal Gene Expression
    • 10.4 Molecular Assembly of the Cellulosome
    • 10.5 Concluding Remarks
    • Acknowledgments
    • References
  • Chapter 11. Microbial Enzymes of Use in Industry
    • Abstract
    • 11.1 Introduction
    • 11.2 Classification and Chemical Nature of Microbial Enzymes
    • 11.3 Production of Microbial Enzymes
    • 11.4 Applications of Microbial Enzymes
    • 11.5 Future of Microbial Enzymes
    • 11.6 Concluding Remarks
    • References
  • Chapter 12. Significance of Microbial Glucokinases
    • Abstract
    • 12.1 Introduction
    • 12.2 Synthesis, Biochemical Properties, and Regulation
    • 12.3 Structure
    • 12.4 Catalytic Mechanism
    • 12.5 Production
    • 12.6 Potential Applications in Industrial Processes
    • 12.7 Concluding Remarks
    • Acknowledgments
    • References
  • Chapter 13. Lipase-Catalyzed Organic Transformations: A Recent Update
    • Abstract
    • 13.1 Introduction
    • 13.2 Chemoenzymatic Applications of Lipases in Organic Transformations: A Recent Update
    • 13.3 Concluding Remarks
    • Acknowledgement
    • References
  • Chapter 14. Enzymatic Biocatalysis in Chemical Transformations: A Promising and Emerging Field in Green Chemistry Practice
    • Abstract
    • 14.1 Introduction
    • 14.2 Bioprospection of Novel Microbial Biocatalysts
    • 14.3 Industrial Biotechnological Processes and Their Green Chemistry Relevance
    • 14.4 Green Chemistry and Recent New Reactions and Developments in Enzymatic Catalysis
    • 14.5 Green Solvents for Biotransformation
    • 14.6 Concluding Remarks
    • Acknowledgements
    • References
  • Chapter 15. Microbial Enzymes for Glycoside Synthesis: Development of Sucrose Phosphorylase as a Test Case
    • Abstract
    • 15.1 Introduction
    • 15.2 A Pipeline for Enzyme Development
    • 15.3 Concluding Remarks
    • Acknowledgments
    • References
  • Chapter 16. Industrial Applications of Multistep Enzyme Reactions
    • Abstract
    • 16.1 Introduction
    • 16.2 Multistep Reactions with a Small Number of Enzymes
    • 16.3 Multistep Reactions with Larger Number of Enzymes
    • 16.4 Concluding Remarks
    • Acknowledgments
    • References
  • Chapter 17. Biocatalysis for Industrial Production of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs)
    • Abstract
    • 17.1 Introduction
    • 17.2 Source, Quality, and Specifications of Biocatalysts Employed for the Synthesis of APIS
    • 17.3 Examples of Biocatalysts Applied to the Synthesis of APIS
    • 17.4 Concluding Remarks
    • References
  • Chapter 18. Agro-Industrial Residues and Microbial Enzymes: An Overview on the Eco-Friendly Bioconversion into High Value-Added Products
    • Abstract
    • 18.1 Introduction
    • 18.2 Agro-Industrial Residues and the Generation of High Value-Added Products
    • 18.3 Energy from Agro-Industrial Residues
    • 18.4 Biotechnological Processes Applied in the Use of Vegetable Biomass
    • 18.5 Conversion of Biomass in Industrially Significant Products
    • 18.6 Important Compounds Obtained Directly from Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Biomass
    • 18.7 Lipase Applied in Biodiesel Generation
    • 18.8 Proteases Applied in Protein Residues and By-Products
    • 18.9 Genetic Engineering in Improving Enzyme Quality
    • 18.10 Concluding Remarks
    • References
  • Chapter 19. Microbial Enzymes for the Food Industry
    • Abstract
    • 19.1 Introduction
    • 19.2 Microbial Enzymes in Food Industry
    • 19.3 Concluding Remarks
    • References
  • Chapter 20. Productive Chain of Biofuels and Industrial Biocatalysis: Two Important Opportunities for Brazilian Sustainable Development
    • Abstract
    • 20.1 Introduction
    • 20.2 Biocatalysis and Biomass Processing for Fuels and Chemicals Production
    • 20.3 Technical and Economic Prospects of Using Lipases in Biodiesel Production
    • 20.4 Biogas/Biomethane Production
    • 20.5 Concluding Remarks
    • References
  • Index


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2017
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
Paperback ISBN:

About the Author

Goutam Brahmachari

Professor Dr. Goutam Brahmachari was born at Barala in the district of Murshidabad (West Bengal), India, on April 14, 1969. He received his high school degree in scientific studies in 1986 at Barala R. D. Sen High School under the West Bengal Council of Higher secondary Education (WBCHSE). Then he moved to Visva-Bharati (a central university founded by Rabindranath Tagore at Santiniketan, West Bengal, India) to study chemistry at the undergraduate level. After graduating from this university in 1990, Prof. Brahmachari completed his masters in 1992 with specialization in organic chemistry and thereafter received his PhD degree in 1997 in chemistry from the same university. He was appointed as assistant professor of organic chemistry in the Department of Chemistry, Visva-Bharati University, in 1998, and became associate professor in 2008. In 2011, he became full professor of organic chemistry in the same faculty. At present, he is responsible for teaching courses in organic chemistry, natural products chemistry, and physical methods in organic chemistry. Several students have received their PhD degree under the supervision of Prof. Brahmachari during this period, and a couple of research fellows are presently working with him both in the fields of natural products and synthetic organic chemistry. He serves as a member of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS) and Indian Science Congress Association (ISCA), Kolkata, and as an Editor-in-Chief, Signpost Open Access Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry. He also serves as an editorial advisory board member for several journals and is the Who’s Who in the World-2015 Listee. He is a recipient of the 3rd Academic Brilliance Award-2015 (Award for Excellence in Research).

Prof. Brahmachari’s research interests include (i) synthetic organic chemistry with special emphasis on green chemistry; (ii) isolation, structural determination, and/or detailed NMR study of new natural products from medicinal plants; (iii) semi-synthetic studies with natural products; and (iv) evaluation of biological activities and pharmacological potential of natural and synthetic compounds. With more than 16 years of teaching experience, he has produced so far nearly 120 scientific publications including original research papers, review articles, and invited book chapters in edited books in the field of natural products and organic synthesis from internationally reputed presses. Prof. Brahmachari has authored/edited a number of text and major reference books that include Organic Name Reactions: A Unified Approach (Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi; co-published by Alpha Science International, Oxford, 2006), Chemistry of Natural Products: Recent Trends & Developments (Research Signpost, 2006), Organic Chemistry Through Solved Problems (Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi; co-published by Alpha Science International, Oxford, 2007), Natural Products: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Pharmacology (Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi; co-published by Alpha Science International, Oxford, 2009), Handbook of Pharmaceutical Natural Products—2 volume-set (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2010), Bioactive Natural Products: Opportunities & Challenges in Medicinal Chemistry (World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., Singapore, 2011), Chemistry and Pharmacology of Naturally Occurring Bioactive Compounds (CRC Press, Taylor & Francis group, USA, 2013), Natural Bioactive Molecules: Impacts & Prospects (Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi; co-published by Alpha Science International, Oxford, 2014), Green Synthetic Approaches for Biologically Relevant Heterocycles (Elsevier Inc., USA, 2014), and Bioactive Natural Products—Chemistry & Biology (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2015).

He is regularly consulted as a referee by leading international journals including Elsevier, Royal Society of Chemistry, American Chemical Society, Wiley, Taylor & Francis, Springer, Bentham Science, Indian Chemical Society, Pakistan Chemical Society, Korean Chemical Society, Brazilian Chemical Society, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, and so on, and also various financial commissions.

Prof. Brahmachari enjoys Songs of Rabindranath Tagore and finds interests in Literature as well!

Affiliations and Expertise

Full Professor of Organic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Visva-Bharati (a Central University), Santiniketan, West Bengal, India

Ratings and Reviews