Biotechnology of Filamentous Fungi

Biotechnology of Filamentous Fungi

Technology and Products

1st Edition - January 21, 1992

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  • Editor: David B. Finkelstein
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483292212

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Biotechnology of Filamentous Fungi: Technology and Products provides a comprehensive discussion of the molecular biology, genetics, and biochemistry of filamentous fungi. It also deals with general principles of biochemical engineering such as process design and scaleup. The book's main emphasis, however, is on the commercial significance of filamentous fungi. The book highlights the unique aspects of filamentous fungi along with those aspects common to most microorganisms studied in industries that use biotechnology. Filamentous fungi can generate a wide range of industrial products including primary metabolites such as organic acids, secondary metabolites such as β-lactam antibiotics, nonantibiotic drugs, and enzymes for use in food production. Whole organisms such as mushrooms can be used as well as organisms used as insecticides and herbicides. Filamentous fungi also qualify as potential hosts for the secretion of certain heterogeneous proteins such as mammalian proteins. However, not all things related to fungi are beneficial. Mycotoxins products by fungi can be lethal to humans; there is also a need to develop antifungal agents to destroy fungi that can kill animals and plants. These topics are important aspects of the biotechnology of filamentous fungi and are dealt with in this text.

Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgments

    1. Editorial Introduction

    Part I. Principles of Technology

    2. Isolation, Preservation, and Taxonomy

    2.1 Taxonomy

    2.2 Isolation

    2.3 Preservation


    Appendix: Literature References

    3. Strain Improvement and Strain Stability

    3.1 Requirements for Industrial Strain Improvement

    3.2 Genetic Instability in Industrial Microorganisms

    3.3 Sources of Genetic Material

    3.4 Re-Isolation and Purification

    3.5 Generation of Novel Genotypes

    3.6 Expression

    3.7 Screening

    3.8 Yield Improvement by Process and Medium Development

    3.9 Preservation

    3.10 Conclusions


    4. Growth Kinetics and Fermentation Scaleup

    4.1 Fungal Growth

    4.2 Scaleup of Fermentation

    4.3 Economics


    5. Regulation of Secondary Metabolism

    5.1 Delayed Formation of Idiolites

    5.2 Effectors of Idiolite Biosynthesis

    5.3 Other Factors

    5.4 Cessation of Biosynthesis

    5.5 Improvement of Idiolite Production


    6 Transformation

    6.1 Transformation Techniques and Properties of Transformants

    6.2 Vector Integration

    6.3 Autonomously Replicating Vectors

    6.4 Selectable Markers for Use with Wild-Type Organisms

    6.5 Selectable Markers for Use with Mutant Hosts

    6.6 Gene Isolation


    7. Bioconversions

    7.1 The Scope of Fungal Bioconversions

    7.2 Fungi as Chemical Reagents

    7.3 The Products of Fungal Bioconversions

    7.4 The Future of Fungal Bioconversions

    8. Screening for Antifungal Drugs

    8.1 Antifungal Screens

    8.2 Targets

    8.3 Fungal Biology—Source of New Targets

    8.4 Concluding Remarks


    Part II. Products

    9. Molecular Biology and Biochemistry of the β-Lactam Antibiotics

    9.1 Historical Perspectives

    9.2 Pathway for Synthesis of β-Lactams

    9.3 Enzymes of β-Lactam Biosynthesis

    9.4 Molecular Biology of Penicillin and Cephalosporin Producing Fungi

    9.5 Application of Molecular Biology to β-Lactam Production

    9.6 Future Prospects


    10. Therapeutic Metabolites

    10.1 Lovastatin

    10.2 Cyclosporins

    10.3 Ergot Alkaloids

    10.4 Asperlicin

    10.5 Future Products


    11. Organic Acids

    11.1 Citric Acid

    11.2 Itaconic Acid

    11.3 Gluconic Acid

    11.4 Fumaric Acid

    11.5 Miscellaneous Organic Acids


    12. Insecticides and Herbicides

    12.1 Fungi as Biological Control Agents

    12.2 Mycoinsecticides

    12.3 Mycoherbicides

    12.4 Fungal Toxins as Mycopesticides

    12.5 Commercialization

    12.6 Genetic Manipulation


    13. Food Enzymes

    13.1 Proteases

    13.2 Amylases and Glucoamylases

    13.3 Pectic Enzymes

    13.4 Lactases

    13.5 α-Galactosidases

    13.6 Dextranases

    13.7 Cellulases

    13.8 Hemicellulases

    13.9 Lipases

    13.10 Oxidation-Reduction Enzymes

    13.11 Other Enzymes

    13.12 Application of Gene Technology


    14. Structure, Function, and Genetics of Cellulases

    14.1 Production and Characterization of Fungal Cellulases

    14.2 New Substrates for Cellulases

    14.3 Cloning of Fungal Cellulolytic Enzyme Genes

    14.4 Structure Determination of Trichoderma Cellulases

    14.5 Functions of Fungal Cellulases

    14.6 Expression of Cloned Cellulase Genes in Heterologous Host Systems

    14.7 Genetic Engineering of the Cellulase Production Profiles of Trichoderma

    14.8 Conclusions


    15. Edible Mushrooms

    15.1 The Mushroom Industry

    15.2 Natural Life Cycle Barriers to Breeding in A. bisporus

    15.3 Biotechnology—Breaking Mushroom Breeding Barriers

    15.4 Diversity Analysis, Strain Typing, and Genetic Linkage Mapping of A. bisporus

    15.5 Cytoplasmic Inheritance and Breeding in A. bisporus

    15.6 Transformation

    15.7 Developmental Studies

    15.8 Concluding Remarks


    16. Mycotoxins

    16.1 Definitions and Background

    16.2 Biosynthesis

    16.3 Mycotoxins and Molecular Biology

    16.4 Agricultural Ecology

    16.5 Mycotoxin Control

    16.6 Conclusions



Product details

  • No. of pages: 536
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Newnes 1992
  • Published: January 21, 1992
  • Imprint: Newnes
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483292212

About the Editor

David B. Finkelstein

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