Biotechnology of Filamentous Fungi - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780750691154, 9781483292212

Biotechnology of Filamentous Fungi

1st Edition

Technology and Products

Editors: David B. Finkelstein
eBook ISBN: 9781483292212
Imprint: Newnes
Published Date: 21st January 1992
Page Count: 536
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Description

Biotechnology of Filamentous Fungi: Technology and Products provides a comprehensive discussion of the molecular biology, genetics, and biochemistry of filamentous fungi. It also deals with general principles of biochemical engineering such as process design and scaleup. The book's main emphasis, however, is on the commercial significance of filamentous fungi. The book highlights the unique aspects of filamentous fungi along with those aspects common to most microorganisms studied in industries that use biotechnology. Filamentous fungi can generate a wide range of industrial products including primary metabolites such as organic acids, secondary metabolites such as β-lactam antibiotics, nonantibiotic drugs, and enzymes for use in food production. Whole organisms such as mushrooms can be used as well as organisms used as insecticides and herbicides. Filamentous fungi also qualify as potential hosts for the secretion of certain heterogeneous proteins such as mammalian proteins. However, not all things related to fungi are beneficial. Mycotoxins products by fungi can be lethal to humans; there is also a need to develop antifungal agents to destroy fungi that can kill animals and plants. These topics are important aspects of the biotechnology of filamentous fungi and are dealt with in this text.

Table of Contents


Acknowledgments

1. Editorial Introduction

Part I. Principles of Technology

2. Isolation, Preservation, and Taxonomy

2.1 Taxonomy

2.2 Isolation

2.3 Preservation

References

Appendix: Literature References

3. Strain Improvement and Strain Stability

3.1 Requirements for Industrial Strain Improvement

3.2 Genetic Instability in Industrial Microorganisms

3.3 Sources of Genetic Material

3.4 Re-Isolation and Purification

3.5 Generation of Novel Genotypes

3.6 Expression

3.7 Screening

3.8 Yield Improvement by Process and Medium Development

3.9 Preservation

3.10 Conclusions

References

4. Growth Kinetics and Fermentation Scaleup

4.1 Fungal Growth

4.2 Scaleup of Fermentation

4.3 Economics

References

5. Regulation of Secondary Metabolism

5.1 Delayed Formation of Idiolites

5.2 Effectors of Idiolite Biosynthesis

5.3 Other Factors

5.4 Cessation of Biosynthesis

5.5 Improvement of Idiolite Production

References

6 Transformation

6.1 Transformation Techniques and Properties of Transformants

6.2 Vector Integration

6.3 Autonomously Replicating Vectors

6.4 Selectable Markers for Use with Wild-Type Organisms

6.5 Selectable Markers for Use with Mutant Hosts

6.6 Gene Isolation

References

7. Bioconversions

7.1 The Scope of Fungal Bioconversions

7.2 Fungi as Chemical Reagents

7.3 The Products of Fungal Bioconversions

7.4 The Future of Fungal Bioconversions

8. Screening for Antifungal Drugs

8.1 Antifungal Screens

8.2 Targets

8.3 Fungal Biology—Source of New Targets

8.4 Concluding Remarks

References

Part II. Products

9. Molecular Biology and Biochemistry of the β-Lactam Antibiotics

9.1 Historical Perspectives

9.2 Pathway for Synthesis of β-Lactams

9.3 Enzymes of β-Lactam Biosynthesis

9.4 Molecular Biology of Penicillin and Cephalosporin Producing Fungi

9.5 Application of Molecular Biology to β-Lactam Production

9.6 Future Prospects

References

10. Therapeutic Metabolites

10.1 Lovastatin

10.2 Cyclosporins

10.3 Ergot Alkaloids

10.4 Asperlicin

10.5 Future Products

References

11. Organic Acids

11.1 Citric Acid

11.2 Itaconic Acid

11.3 Gluconic Acid

11.4 Fumaric Acid

11.5 Miscellaneous Organic Acids

References

12. Insecticides and Herbicides

12.1 Fungi as Biological Control Agents

12.2 Mycoinsecticides

12.3 Mycoherbicides

12.4 Fungal Toxins as Mycopesticides

12.5 Commercialization

12.6 Genetic Manipulation

References

13. Food Enzymes

13.1 Proteases

13.2 Amylases and Glucoamylases

13.3 Pectic Enzymes

13.4 Lactases

13.5 α-Galactosidases

13.6 Dextranases

13.7 Cellulases

13.8 Hemicellulases

13.9 Lipases

13.10 Oxidation-Reduction Enzymes

13.11 Other Enzymes

13.12 Application of Gene Technology

References

14. Structure, Function, and Genetics of Cellulases

14.1 Production and Characterization of Fungal Cellulases

14.2 New Substrates for Cellulases

14.3 Cloning of Fungal Cellulolytic Enzyme Genes

14.4 Structure Determination of Trichoderma Cellulases

14.5 Functions of Fungal Cellulases

14.6 Expression of Cloned Cellulase Genes in Heterologous Host Systems

14.7 Genetic Engineering of the Cellulase Production Profiles of Trichoderma

14.8 Conclusions

References

15. Edible Mushrooms

15.1 The Mushroom Industry

15.2 Natural Life Cycle Barriers to Breeding in A. bisporus

15.3 Biotechnology—Breaking Mushroom Breeding Barriers

15.4 Diversity Analysis, Strain Typing, and Genetic Linkage Mapping of A. bisporus

15.5 Cytoplasmic Inheritance and Breeding in A. bisporus

15.6 Transformation

15.7 Developmental Studies

15.8 Concluding Remarks

References

16. Mycotoxins

16.1 Definitions and Background

16.2 Biosynthesis

16.3 Mycotoxins and Molecular Biology

16.4 Agricultural Ecology

16.5 Mycotoxin Control

16.6 Conclusions

References

Index


Details

No. of pages:
536
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Newnes 1992
Published:
Imprint:
Newnes
eBook ISBN:
9781483292212

About the Editor

David B. Finkelstein