Biotechnology in Invertebrate Pathology and Cell Culture - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124702554, 9780323146944

Biotechnology in Invertebrate Pathology and Cell Culture

1st Edition

Editors: Karl Karamorosch
eBook ISBN: 9780323146944
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 9th December 1987
Page Count: 532
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Description

Biotechnology in Invertebrate Pathology and Cell Culture provides information pertinent to genetically manipulated microbial and viral agents, which will benefit those who are interested in the development and uses of pathogens of invertebrates. This book discusses several topics, including fusion of invertebrate cells, safety of viral insecticides, and potential hazards of biocontrol agents. Organized into five parts encompassing 30 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the selection of effective strains and describes the microbial control in sericultural countries. This text then discusses the differences in crystal composition and toxicity of various subspecies, as well as the sporulation-dependent production of the crystal proteins. Other chapters explore the applications of genetically engineered organisms to biological pest control and discuss the intriguing medical applications through the utilization of invertebrate cell culture and baculoviruses. The final chapter explains the application of biotechnology to insect pathology to increase agricultural productivity. This book is a valuable resource for microbiologists, geneticists, entomologists, parasitologists, virologists, medical researchers, biocontrol researchers, and graduate students.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Preface

I. Genetic Manipulation of Microbial Insecticides

1. Strain Improvement of Insect Pathogens

I. Bacillus thuringiensis Preparations and Sericulture

II. Selection of Effective Bacillus thuringiensis Strains

III. Strain Improvement of Bacillus thuringiensis

IV. Use of an Attenuated Insect Virus for Control of Silkworm Nuclear Polyhedrosis

V. Research Requirements for Development of Microbial Insecticides

References

2. Structure and Regulation of the Crystal Protein Gene of Bacillus thuringiensis

I. Introduction

II. DNA Sequence Analysis

III. Expression of the Crystal Protein in Escherichia coli

References

3. Mechanism of Bacillus thuringiensis Insecticidal δ-Endotoxin Action on Insect Cells In Vitro

I. Introduction

II. Materials and Methods

III. Results

IV. Discussion

References

4. Entomocidal Activity of Crystal Proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis toward Cultured Insect Cells

I. Introduction

II. Cell Culture

III. Toxin Bioassay

IV. Modifiers of Cell Surface Activity

V. Resistance

VI. Conclusions

References

5. Operational Bacterial Insecticides and Their Potential for Future Improvement

Text

References

6. Expression of δ-Endotoxin Gene of Bacillus thuringiensis

I. Introduction

II. Experimental Results

III. Conclusion

References

7. Structural and Antigenic Relationships among Three Insecticidal Crystal Proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki

I. Introduction

II. Materials and Methods

III. Results

IV. Discussion

References

8. Bacillus thuringiensis Isolate with Activity against Coleoptera

I. Introduction

II. Materials and Methods

III. Host Range

IV. Biochemistry

V. Molecular Genetics

VI. Discussion

References

9. Parasporal Body of Mosquitocidal Subspecies of Bacillus thuringiensis

I. Introduction

II. Parasporal Body of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelenis

III. Parasporal Body of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. morrisoni (PG-14)

IV. Parasporal Body of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. darmstadiensis (73-E-l0-2)

V. Closing Remarks

References

10. Current Status of the Microbial Larvicide Bacillus sphaericus

I. Introduction

II. General Characteristics

III. Development of Insecticidal Potency

IV. Field Trials

V. Mode of Action

VI. Systematics Bacillus sphaericus

VII. Biotechnology of Bacillus sphaericus

VIII. Summary and Future Efforts

References

II. Mass Production of Microbial and Viral Insecticides

11. Production of Viral Agents in Invertebrate Cell Cultures

I. Introduction

II. Virus Replication in Cell Culture

III. Summary and Conclusions

References

12. Morphogenesis of Germinating Conidia and Protoplast-Associated Structures in Entomophthoralean Fungi

I. Introduction

II. Conidia in Dormant Stage

III. Germ Tube Extension

IV. Secondary Conidium Budding

V. Capillary Tube Formation

VI. Protoplast Regeneration

VII. Conclusion

References

13. Prospects for Development of Molecular Technology for Fungal Insect Pathogens

I. Introduction

II. Cloned Genes from Filamentous Fungi

III. Transformation Systems for Filamentous Fungi

IV. Fungal Molecular Technology

V. Conclusion

References

III. Gene Manipulation and Cell Culture

14. Expression of Human Interferon a in Silkworms with a Baculovirus Vector

I. Bombyx mori Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus as a Vector

II. Protein Synthesis in the Fat Body of the Silkworm

III. Identification and Cloning of the Polyhedrin Gene of BmNPV

IV. Construction of a Transfer Plasmid Vector

V. Construction of a Recombinant Virus with Insertion of the Interferon Gene

VI. Characteristics of Recombinant Viruses

VII. Purification of the Interferon from the Silkworm

VIII. Conclusion

References

15. Biologically Active Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Expressed in Insect Cells by a Baculovirus Vector

I. Introduction

II. Hemagglutinin: Results of Studies

III. Discussion

References

16. Transfection of Drosophila melanogaster Transposable Elements into the Drosophila hydei Cell Line

I. Introduction

II. Plasmids

III. Recipient and Medium

IV. Transfection and Cotransfection

V. Analysis of Transfectants

VI. Summary

References

17. FP Mutation of Nuclear Polyhedrosis Viruses: A Novel System for the Study of Transposon-Mediated Mutagenesis

I. Introduction

II. Spontaneous Plaque Morphology Mutants of Nuclear Polyhedrosis Viruses

III. Biological Properties of FP Mutants

IV. Genetics of FP Mutants

V. Transposons and Transposon-Mediated Mutagenesis of Baculoviruses

VI. FP Mutation and Transposon Mutagenesis of Nuclear Polyhedrosis Viruses

VII. Significance of Transposon-Mediated Mutagenesis of Baculoviruses

VIII. Baculoviruses as Vectors of Genetic Elements

IX. Concluding Remarks

References

18. Expression of Foreign Genes in Insect Cells

I. Introduction

II. Baculoviruses for Commercial Production of Medically or Agriculturally Important Proteins

III. Improved Baculovirus Pesticides

References

19. Genotypic Variants in Wild-Type Populations of Baculoviruses

I. Introduction

II. Genotypic Variants of the Single-Enveloped Nuclear Polyhedrosis Viruses

III. Genotypic Variants of the Multiple-Enveloped Nuclear Polyhedrosis Viruses

IV. Genotypic Variants of Granulosis Viruses

V. Genotypic Variants of Nonoccluded Viruses

VI. Relatedness among Baculoviruses

VII. Summary and Conclusions

References

20. Biotechnological Application of Invertebrate Cell Culture to the Development of Microsporidian Insecticides

I. Introduction

II. Cell Culture

III. Biotechnological Considerations

IV. Safety Considerations

References

21. Grasshopper and Locust Control Using Microsporidian Insecticides

I. Introduction

II. Materials and Methods

III. Results and Discussion

IV. Conclusion

References

22. Establishment of Embryonic Cell Lines from the Brown Ear Tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Their Immunogenicity in Rabbits

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Observations

IV. Summary

References

23. Establishment of an Ovarian Cell Line in the Cotton Bollworm Heliothis armigera and In Vitro Replication of Its Cytoplasmic Polyhedrosis Virus

I. Introduction

II. Materials and Methods

III. Results

IV. Discussion and Conclusions

References

IV. Cell Fusion

24. Fusion of Insect Cells

I. Introduction

II. Methods for Cell Fusion and Isolation of Hybrids

III. Historical Review of Insect Cell Fusion

IV. Attempts to Establish Cell Fusion Methods for Insect Cells Other than Drosophila

V. Epilogue

References

25. Protoplast Fusion of Insect Pathogenic Fungi

I. Introduction

II. Materials and Methods

III. Results

IV. Discussion

V. Summary

References

V. Future Perspectives

26. University-Industry Perspectives

I. Introduction

II. Academic Freedom vs. Needs for Confidentiality

III. Product Liability

IV. Division of Royalty Income

V. Title to Biological Materials

VI. University-Industry Agreements

VII. Federal Funding

VIII. Conclusion

Further Readings

27. Control of Invertebrate Pests through the Chitin Pathway

I. Introduction

II. Substances Inhibiting the Chitin Pathway

III. Exploiting the Chitinase Gene

References

28. Improving the Effectiveness of Insect Pathogens for Pest Control

I. Photostabilization

II. Bait Formulations

III. Expansion of Host Range

References

29. Entomogenolls Nematodes and Their Prospects for Genetic Improvement

I. Introduction

II. Nematode Families of Biocontrol Importance

III. Analysis

IV. Prospects for Genetic Improvement

V. Conclusion

References

30. Genetically Engineered Microbial and Viral Insecticides: Safety Considerations

Text

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
532
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1987
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323146944

About the Editor

Karl Karamorosch