Biotechnology in Invertebrate Pathology and Cell Culture

Biotechnology in Invertebrate Pathology and Cell Culture

1st Edition - December 9, 1987

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  • Editor: Karl Karamorosch
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323146944

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Description

Biotechnology in Invertebrate Pathology and Cell Culture provides information pertinent to genetically manipulated microbial and viral agents, which will benefit those who are interested in the development and uses of pathogens of invertebrates. This book discusses several topics, including fusion of invertebrate cells, safety of viral insecticides, and potential hazards of biocontrol agents. Organized into five parts encompassing 30 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the selection of effective strains and describes the microbial control in sericultural countries. This text then discusses the differences in crystal composition and toxicity of various subspecies, as well as the sporulation-dependent production of the crystal proteins. Other chapters explore the applications of genetically engineered organisms to biological pest control and discuss the intriguing medical applications through the utilization of invertebrate cell culture and baculoviruses. The final chapter explains the application of biotechnology to insect pathology to increase agricultural productivity. This book is a valuable resource for microbiologists, geneticists, entomologists, parasitologists, virologists, medical researchers, biocontrol researchers, and graduate students.

Table of Contents


  • Contributors

    Preface

    I. Genetic Manipulation of Microbial Insecticides

    1. Strain Improvement of Insect Pathogens

    I. Bacillus thuringiensis Preparations and Sericulture

    II. Selection of Effective Bacillus thuringiensis Strains

    III. Strain Improvement of Bacillus thuringiensis

    IV. Use of an Attenuated Insect Virus for Control of Silkworm Nuclear Polyhedrosis

    V. Research Requirements for Development of Microbial Insecticides

    References

    2. Structure and Regulation of the Crystal Protein Gene of Bacillus thuringiensis

    I. Introduction

    II. DNA Sequence Analysis

    III. Expression of the Crystal Protein in Escherichia coli

    References

    3. Mechanism of Bacillus thuringiensis Insecticidal δ-Endotoxin Action on Insect Cells In Vitro

    I. Introduction

    II. Materials and Methods

    III. Results

    IV. Discussion

    References

    4. Entomocidal Activity of Crystal Proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis toward Cultured Insect Cells

    I. Introduction

    II. Cell Culture

    III. Toxin Bioassay

    IV. Modifiers of Cell Surface Activity

    V. Resistance

    VI. Conclusions

    References

    5. Operational Bacterial Insecticides and Their Potential for Future Improvement

    Text

    References

    6. Expression of δ-Endotoxin Gene of Bacillus thuringiensis

    I. Introduction

    II. Experimental Results

    III. Conclusion

    References

    7. Structural and Antigenic Relationships among Three Insecticidal Crystal Proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki

    I. Introduction

    II. Materials and Methods

    III. Results

    IV. Discussion

    References

    8. Bacillus thuringiensis Isolate with Activity against Coleoptera

    I. Introduction

    II. Materials and Methods

    III. Host Range

    IV. Biochemistry

    V. Molecular Genetics

    VI. Discussion

    References

    9. Parasporal Body of Mosquitocidal Subspecies of Bacillus thuringiensis

    I. Introduction

    II. Parasporal Body of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelenis

    III. Parasporal Body of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. morrisoni (PG-14)

    IV. Parasporal Body of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. darmstadiensis (73-E-l0-2)

    V. Closing Remarks

    References

    10. Current Status of the Microbial Larvicide Bacillus sphaericus

    I. Introduction

    II. General Characteristics

    III. Development of Insecticidal Potency

    IV. Field Trials

    V. Mode of Action

    VI. Systematics Bacillus sphaericus

    VII. Biotechnology of Bacillus sphaericus

    VIII. Summary and Future Efforts

    References

    II. Mass Production of Microbial and Viral Insecticides

    11. Production of Viral Agents in Invertebrate Cell Cultures

    I. Introduction

    II. Virus Replication in Cell Culture

    III. Summary and Conclusions

    References

    12. Morphogenesis of Germinating Conidia and Protoplast-Associated Structures in Entomophthoralean Fungi

    I. Introduction

    II. Conidia in Dormant Stage

    III. Germ Tube Extension

    IV. Secondary Conidium Budding

    V. Capillary Tube Formation

    VI. Protoplast Regeneration

    VII. Conclusion

    References

    13. Prospects for Development of Molecular Technology for Fungal Insect Pathogens

    I. Introduction

    II. Cloned Genes from Filamentous Fungi

    III. Transformation Systems for Filamentous Fungi

    IV. Fungal Molecular Technology

    V. Conclusion

    References

    III. Gene Manipulation and Cell Culture

    14. Expression of Human Interferon a in Silkworms with a Baculovirus Vector

    I. Bombyx mori Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus as a Vector

    II. Protein Synthesis in the Fat Body of the Silkworm

    III. Identification and Cloning of the Polyhedrin Gene of BmNPV

    IV. Construction of a Transfer Plasmid Vector

    V. Construction of a Recombinant Virus with Insertion of the Interferon Gene

    VI. Characteristics of Recombinant Viruses

    VII. Purification of the Interferon from the Silkworm

    VIII. Conclusion

    References

    15. Biologically Active Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Expressed in Insect Cells by a Baculovirus Vector

    I. Introduction

    II. Hemagglutinin: Results of Studies

    III. Discussion

    References

    16. Transfection of Drosophila melanogaster Transposable Elements into the Drosophila hydei Cell Line

    I. Introduction

    II. Plasmids

    III. Recipient and Medium

    IV. Transfection and Cotransfection

    V. Analysis of Transfectants

    VI. Summary

    References

    17. FP Mutation of Nuclear Polyhedrosis Viruses: A Novel System for the Study of Transposon-Mediated Mutagenesis

    I. Introduction

    II. Spontaneous Plaque Morphology Mutants of Nuclear Polyhedrosis Viruses

    III. Biological Properties of FP Mutants

    IV. Genetics of FP Mutants

    V. Transposons and Transposon-Mediated Mutagenesis of Baculoviruses

    VI. FP Mutation and Transposon Mutagenesis of Nuclear Polyhedrosis Viruses

    VII. Significance of Transposon-Mediated Mutagenesis of Baculoviruses

    VIII. Baculoviruses as Vectors of Genetic Elements

    IX. Concluding Remarks

    References

    18. Expression of Foreign Genes in Insect Cells

    I. Introduction

    II. Baculoviruses for Commercial Production of Medically or Agriculturally Important Proteins

    III. Improved Baculovirus Pesticides

    References

    19. Genotypic Variants in Wild-Type Populations of Baculoviruses

    I. Introduction

    II. Genotypic Variants of the Single-Enveloped Nuclear Polyhedrosis Viruses

    III. Genotypic Variants of the Multiple-Enveloped Nuclear Polyhedrosis Viruses

    IV. Genotypic Variants of Granulosis Viruses

    V. Genotypic Variants of Nonoccluded Viruses

    VI. Relatedness among Baculoviruses

    VII. Summary and Conclusions

    References

    20. Biotechnological Application of Invertebrate Cell Culture to the Development of Microsporidian Insecticides

    I. Introduction

    II. Cell Culture

    III. Biotechnological Considerations

    IV. Safety Considerations

    References

    21. Grasshopper and Locust Control Using Microsporidian Insecticides

    I. Introduction

    II. Materials and Methods

    III. Results and Discussion

    IV. Conclusion

    References

    22. Establishment of Embryonic Cell Lines from the Brown Ear Tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Their Immunogenicity in Rabbits

    I. Introduction

    II. Methods

    III. Observations

    IV. Summary

    References

    23. Establishment of an Ovarian Cell Line in the Cotton Bollworm Heliothis armigera and In Vitro Replication of Its Cytoplasmic Polyhedrosis Virus

    I. Introduction

    II. Materials and Methods

    III. Results

    IV. Discussion and Conclusions

    References

    IV. Cell Fusion

    24. Fusion of Insect Cells

    I. Introduction

    II. Methods for Cell Fusion and Isolation of Hybrids

    III. Historical Review of Insect Cell Fusion

    IV. Attempts to Establish Cell Fusion Methods for Insect Cells Other than Drosophila

    V. Epilogue

    References

    25. Protoplast Fusion of Insect Pathogenic Fungi

    I. Introduction

    II. Materials and Methods

    III. Results

    IV. Discussion

    V. Summary

    References

    V. Future Perspectives

    26. University-Industry Perspectives

    I. Introduction

    II. Academic Freedom vs. Needs for Confidentiality

    III. Product Liability

    IV. Division of Royalty Income

    V. Title to Biological Materials

    VI. University-Industry Agreements

    VII. Federal Funding

    VIII. Conclusion

    Further Readings

    27. Control of Invertebrate Pests through the Chitin Pathway

    I. Introduction

    II. Substances Inhibiting the Chitin Pathway

    III. Exploiting the Chitinase Gene

    References

    28. Improving the Effectiveness of Insect Pathogens for Pest Control

    I. Photostabilization

    II. Bait Formulations

    III. Expansion of Host Range

    References

    29. Entomogenolls Nematodes and Their Prospects for Genetic Improvement

    I. Introduction

    II. Nematode Families of Biocontrol Importance

    III. Analysis

    IV. Prospects for Genetic Improvement

    V. Conclusion

    References

    30. Genetically Engineered Microbial and Viral Insecticides: Safety Considerations

    Text

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 532
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1987
  • Published: December 9, 1987
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323146944

About the Editor

Karl Karamorosch

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