Biosynthesis and biodegradation of wood components

Biosynthesis and biodegradation of wood components

1st Edition - March 22, 1985

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  • Editor: Takayoshi Higuchi
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323143288

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Biosynthesis and Biodegradation of Wood Components is a comprehensive account of the biosynthesis and biodegradation of wood and wood components. Topics covered range from the localization of polysaccharides and lignins in wood cell walls to the metabolism and synthetic function of cambial tissue, along with the function of cell organelles in the biosynthesis of cell wall components. The biosynthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides is also discussed. This book is comprised of 22 chapters and begins with an overview of the structure of wood, with emphasis on three aspects of sections of wood: the cross or transverse section, the tangential section, and the radial section or face. The following chapters deal with the structure and chemistry of the major components of wood cell walls; the metabolism and synthetic function of cambial tissue; the function of organelles involved in biosynthesis; and the biosynthesis both of the major cell wall components of wood (cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignins) and of wood extractives. The microbial degradation of cell wall components and aromatic extractives of wood is also considered, together with the microorganisms involved in lignin biodegradation as well as the physiology and biochemistry of degradation by white-rot fungi. This monograph will be of interest to biochemists as well as students and researchers in biochemistry.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors


    1. Structure of Wood

    I. General

    II. The Cells of Wood

    III. The Wood Cell Wall


    2. Localization of Polysaccharides in Wood Cell Walls

    I. Introduction

    II. Polysaccharides of Different Cell Types

    III. Polysaccharides of Different Cell Wall Layers of Tracheids and Libriform Fibers

    IV. Polysaccharides of Reaction Wood Cell Walls

    V. Concluding Remarks


    3. Localization of Lignins in Wood Cell Walls

    I. Introduction

    II. The Distribution of Lignin in Conifers

    III. The Distribution of Lignin in Hardwoods


    4. Metabolism and Synthetic Function of Cambial Tissue

    I. Introduction

    II. Photosynthesis

    III. Respiration Processes

    IV. Carbohydrate Allocation and Utilization


    5. Cell Organelles and Their Function in Biosynthesis of Cell Wall Components: Control of Cell Wall Assembly during Differentiation

    I. Introduction

    II. Formation and Location of Precursors

    III. Polymerization Systems and Location of Polymers


    6. Biosynthesis of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides

    I. Introduction

    II. Formation of Sugar Nucleotides

    III. Interconversions of Sugar Nucleotides

    IV. The Role of Lipid-Linked Saccharides in the Biosynthesis of Complex Carbohydrates

    V. Biosynthesis of Cellulose

    VI. Biosynthesis of Noncellulosic β-Glucans

    VII. Synthesis of Hemicellulosic Polysaccharides

    VIII. Synthesis of Pectic Substances


    7. Biosynthesis of Lignin

    I. Introduction

    II. Dehydrogenative Polymerization of Monolignols to Lignin Macromolecules

    III. Role of Peroxidase in the Dehydrogenative Polymerization of Monolignols to Lignin

    IV. Structural Differences in Dehydrogenation Polymers

    V. Formation of Syringyl Lignin in Angiosperm Woods

    VI. Differences between Gymnosperms and Angiosperms in Lignin Biosynthesis

    VII. Regulation of Lignin Biosynthesis


    8. Biosynthesis of Cutin, Suberin, and Associated Waxes

    I. Introduction

    II. Location of Cutin, Suberin, and Waxes

    III. Structure and Function of Cutin, Suberin, and Waxes

    IV. Biosynthesis of Cutin

    V. Biosynthesis of Suberin

    VI. Biosynthesis of Waxes

    VII. Conclusion


    9· Occurrence of Extractives in Wood Tissue

    I. Introduction

    II. Distribution of Extractives

    III. Variation in Extractives

    IV. Extractives Formation

    V. General Features of the Formation of Extractives and of Heartwood


    10. Biosynthesis and Metabolism of Phenolic Acids and Monolignols

    I. Introduction

    II. Biosynthesis of Cinnamic Acids: The Phenylalanine-Cinnamic Acid Pathway

    III. Cinnamoyl Coenzyme a Thioesters

    IV. Natural Products Derived from Cinnamic Acids

    V. Benzoic Acids

    VI. Phenylacetic Acids

    VII. Concluding Remarks


    11. Occurrence and Biosynthesis of Quinones in Woody Plants

    I. Reviews and Books on Quinones

    II. Occurrence of Quinones in Wood and Heartwood

    III. Biosynthesis of Quinones in Woody Plants and Cell Suspension Cultures


    12. Biosynthesis of Flavonoids

    I. Introduction

    II. General Overview of Flavonoid Biosynthesis

    III. General Phenylpropanoid Metabolism

    IV. Individual Pathways of Flavonoid Biosynthesis



    13. Biosynthesis of Tannins

    I. Introduction

    II. Phytochemistry and Distribution

    III. Structure of Tannins

    IV. Biosynthesis of Tannins

    V. Relationship to the Biosynthesis and Biodegradation of Wood


    14. Biosynthesis of Stilbenes

    I. Introduction

    II. The Principal Biosynthetic Sequence as Revealed by Feeding Experiments

    III. Naturally Occurring Stilbenes Grouped According to Biosynthetic Aspects

    IV. Modification of the Stilbene Skeleton

    V. Stilbene Synthase and Its Properties

    VI. Induction of Stilbene Synthesis

    VII. Concluding Remarks


    15. Biosynthesis of Terpenoid Wood Extractives

    I. Introduction

    II. Historical Perspective

    III. Role of Terpenes in Plant Defense

    IV. Origin of Terpene Precursors

    V. Hemiterpenes

    VI. Biosynthesis of Monoterpenes

    VII. Biosynthesis of Sesquiterpenes

    VIII. Biosynthesis of Diterpenes

    IX. Biosynthesis of Triterpenes

    X. Polyterpenes

    XI. Terpene Catabolism

    XII. Perspective


    16. Degradation of Wood by Microorganisms

    I. Introduction

    II. Micromorphological Aspects of Wood Decay

    III. Ultrastructural Aspects of the Degradation of Wood Components

    IV. Diffusion of Wood-Degrading Enzymes

    V. Degradation of Wood by Bacteria

    VI. Conclusion


    17. Biodegradation of Cellulose

    I. Introduction

    II. Enzyme Mechanisms Involved in Cellulose Degradation by Fungi

    III. Regulation of Enzymes of the Cellulase Complex

    IV. Mutant Fungal Strains Hyperproducing Cellulases

    V. Enzyme Mechanisms Involved in Cellulose Degradation by Bacteria


    18. Biodegradation of Hemicelluloses

    I. Introduction

    II. Enzymes Degrading the Hemicelluloses

    III. Occurrence of Hemicellulases

    IV. Mode of Action of the Hemicellulases

    V. Biodegradative Pathways of the Hemicelluloses


    19. Chemistry of Lignin Biodegradation

    I. Introduction

    II. Characterization of Polymeric Fungus-Degraded Lignin

    III. Identification of Low Molecular Weight Lignin Biodegradation Products

    IV. Reaction Pathways Involved in Lignin Biodegradation by White-Rot Fungi

    V. Concluding Remarks


    20. Degradative Pathways of Lignin Model Compounds

    I. Introduction

    II. Degradation of Phenolic Dilignols

    III. Degradation of Nonphenolic Dilignols

    IV. Degradation of Monomeric Aromatic Compounds

    V. Concluding Remarks


    21. Lignin Biodegradation: The Microorganisms Involved, and the Physiology and Biochemistry of Degradation by White-Rot Fungi

    I. Introduction

    II. The Microbiology of Lignin Degradation

    III. Physiology of Lignin Degradation by White-Rot Fungi

    IV. Biochemistry of Lignin Degradation by White-Rot Fungi

    V. Concluding Comments


    22. Biodegradation of Aromatic Extractives of Wood

    I. Introduction

    II. Metabolism and Degradation of Aromatic Compounds

    in Microorganisms

    III. Metabolism and Degradation of Aromatic Compounds in Animals

    IV. Metabolism and Degradation of Aromatic Compounds in Plants

    V. Conclusions



Product details

  • No. of pages: 696
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1985
  • Published: March 22, 1985
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323143288

About the Editor

Takayoshi Higuchi

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