Biosynthesis and biodegradation of wood components - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123478801, 9780323143288

Biosynthesis and biodegradation of wood components

1st Edition

Editors: Takayoshi Higuchi
eBook ISBN: 9780323143288
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 22nd March 1985
Page Count: 696
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Biosynthesis and Biodegradation of Wood Components is a comprehensive account of the biosynthesis and biodegradation of wood and wood components. Topics covered range from the localization of polysaccharides and lignins in wood cell walls to the metabolism and synthetic function of cambial tissue, along with the function of cell organelles in the biosynthesis of cell wall components. The biosynthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides is also discussed. This book is comprised of 22 chapters and begins with an overview of the structure of wood, with emphasis on three aspects of sections of wood: the cross or transverse section, the tangential section, and the radial section or face. The following chapters deal with the structure and chemistry of the major components of wood cell walls; the metabolism and synthetic function of cambial tissue; the function of organelles involved in biosynthesis; and the biosynthesis both of the major cell wall components of wood (cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignins) and of wood extractives. The microbial degradation of cell wall components and aromatic extractives of wood is also considered, together with the microorganisms involved in lignin biodegradation as well as the physiology and biochemistry of degradation by white-rot fungi. This monograph will be of interest to biochemists as well as students and researchers in biochemistry.

Table of Contents



1. Structure of Wood

I. General

II. The Cells of Wood

III. The Wood Cell Wall


2. Localization of Polysaccharides in Wood Cell Walls

I. Introduction

II. Polysaccharides of Different Cell Types

III. Polysaccharides of Different Cell Wall Layers of Tracheids and Libriform Fibers

IV. Polysaccharides of Reaction Wood Cell Walls

V. Concluding Remarks


3. Localization of Lignins in Wood Cell Walls

I. Introduction

II. The Distribution of Lignin in Conifers

III. The Distribution of Lignin in Hardwoods


4. Metabolism and Synthetic Function of Cambial Tissue

I. Introduction

II. Photosynthesis

III. Respiration Processes

IV. Carbohydrate Allocation and Utilization


5. Cell Organelles and Their Function in Biosynthesis of Cell Wall Components: Control of Cell Wall Assembly during Differentiation

I. Introduction

II. Formation and Location of Precursors

III. Polymerization Systems and Location of Polymers


6. Biosynthesis of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides

I. Introduction

II. Formation of Sugar Nucleotides

III. Interconversions of Sugar Nucleotides

IV. The Role of Lipid-Linked Saccharides in the Biosynthesis of Complex Carbohydrates

V. Biosynthesis of Cellulose

VI. Biosynthesis of Noncellulosic β-Glucans

VII. Synthesis of Hemicellulosic Polysaccharides

VIII. Synthesis of Pectic Substances


7. Biosynthesis of Lignin

I. Introduction

II. Dehydrogenative Polymerization of Monolignols to Lignin Macromolecules

III. Role of Peroxidase in the Dehydrogenative Polymerization of Monolignols to Lignin

IV. Structural Differences in Dehydrogenation Polymers

V. Formation of Syringyl Lignin in Angiosperm Woods

VI. Differences between Gymnosperms and Angiosperms in Lignin Biosynthesis

VII. Regulation of Lignin Biosynthesis


8. Biosynthesis of Cutin, Suberin, and Associated Waxes

I. Introduction

II. Location of Cutin, Suberin, and Waxes

III. Structure and Function of Cutin, Suberin, and Waxes

IV. Biosynthesis of Cutin

V. Biosynthesis of Suberin

VI. Biosynthesis of Waxes

VII. Conclusion


9· Occurrence of Extractives in Wood Tissue

I. Introduction

II. Distribution of Extractives

III. Variation in Extractives

IV. Extractives Formation

V. General Features of the Formation of Extractives and of Heartwood


10. Biosynthesis and Metabolism of Phenolic Acids and Monolignols

I. Introduction

II. Biosynthesis of Cinnamic Acids: The Phenylalanine-Cinnamic Acid Pathway

III. Cinnamoyl Coenzyme a Thioesters

IV. Natural Products Derived from Cinnamic Acids

V. Benzoic Acids

VI. Phenylacetic Acids

VII. Concluding Remarks


11. Occurrence and Biosynthesis of Quinones in Woody Plants

I. Reviews and Books on Quinones

II. Occurrence of Quinones in Wood and Heartwood

III. Biosynthesis of Quinones in Woody Plants and Cell Suspension Cultures


12. Biosynthesis of Flavonoids

I. Introduction

II. General Overview of Flavonoid Biosynthesis

III. General Phenylpropanoid Metabolism

IV. Individual Pathways of Flavonoid Biosynthesis



13. Biosynthesis of Tannins

I. Introduction

II. Phytochemistry and Distribution

III. Structure of Tannins

IV. Biosynthesis of Tannins

V. Relationship to the Biosynthesis and Biodegradation of Wood


14. Biosynthesis of Stilbenes

I. Introduction

II. The Principal Biosynthetic Sequence as Revealed by Feeding Experiments

III. Naturally Occurring Stilbenes Grouped According to Biosynthetic Aspects

IV. Modification of the Stilbene Skeleton

V. Stilbene Synthase and Its Properties

VI. Induction of Stilbene Synthesis

VII. Concluding Remarks


15. Biosynthesis of Terpenoid Wood Extractives

I. Introduction

II. Historical Perspective

III. Role of Terpenes in Plant Defense

IV. Origin of Terpene Precursors

V. Hemiterpenes

VI. Biosynthesis of Monoterpenes

VII. Biosynthesis of Sesquiterpenes

VIII. Biosynthesis of Diterpenes

IX. Biosynthesis of Triterpenes

X. Polyterpenes

XI. Terpene Catabolism

XII. Perspective


16. Degradation of Wood by Microorganisms

I. Introduction

II. Micromorphological Aspects of Wood Decay

III. Ultrastructural Aspects of the Degradation of Wood Components

IV. Diffusion of Wood-Degrading Enzymes

V. Degradation of Wood by Bacteria

VI. Conclusion


17. Biodegradation of Cellulose

I. Introduction

II. Enzyme Mechanisms Involved in Cellulose Degradation by Fungi

III. Regulation of Enzymes of the Cellulase Complex

IV. Mutant Fungal Strains Hyperproducing Cellulases

V. Enzyme Mechanisms Involved in Cellulose Degradation by Bacteria


18. Biodegradation of Hemicelluloses

I. Introduction

II. Enzymes Degrading the Hemicelluloses

III. Occurrence of Hemicellulases

IV. Mode of Action of the Hemicellulases

V. Biodegradative Pathways of the Hemicelluloses


19. Chemistry of Lignin Biodegradation

I. Introduction

II. Characterization of Polymeric Fungus-Degraded Lignin

III. Identification of Low Molecular Weight Lignin Biodegradation Products

IV. Reaction Pathways Involved in Lignin Biodegradation by White-Rot Fungi

V. Concluding Remarks


20. Degradative Pathways of Lignin Model Compounds

I. Introduction

II. Degradation of Phenolic Dilignols

III. Degradation of Nonphenolic Dilignols

IV. Degradation of Monomeric Aromatic Compounds

V. Concluding Remarks


21. Lignin Biodegradation: The Microorganisms Involved, and the Physiology and Biochemistry of Degradation by White-Rot Fungi

I. Introduction

II. The Microbiology of Lignin Degradation

III. Physiology of Lignin Degradation by White-Rot Fungi

IV. Biochemistry of Lignin Degradation by White-Rot Fungi

V. Concluding Comments


22. Biodegradation of Aromatic Extractives of Wood

I. Introduction

II. Metabolism and Degradation of Aromatic Compounds

in Microorganisms

III. Metabolism and Degradation of Aromatic Compounds in Animals

IV. Metabolism and Degradation of Aromatic Compounds in Plants

V. Conclusions




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© Academic Press 1985
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Takayoshi Higuchi

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